GridLab-D and OpenDSS Comparison

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comparison of open dss vs gridlab D

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<ul><li><p>REVIEWOFOPENSOURCECODEPOWERGRIDSIMULATIONTOOLSFORLONGTERMPARAMETRICSIMULATIONS</p></li><li><p>TechnicalReport2011137(RPTEC)411MODSIM </p></li><li><p> TechnicalReport2011137(RPTEC)411MODSIM </p><p>REVIEWOFOPENSOURCECODEPOWERGRIDSIMULATIONTOOLSFORLONGTERMPARAMETRICSIMULATIONS</p><p>Preparedby:</p><p>MarcAndrMoffetFrdricSirois,Ph.D.</p><p>colepolytechniquedeMontral</p><p>and</p><p>DavidBeauvais</p><p>CanmetENERGY,NaturalResourcesCanada</p><p>Date</p><p>July11th,2011</p></li><li><p> CITATION</p><p>MarcAndr Moffet, Frdric Sirois and David Beauvais; Review of OpenSource Code Power GridSimulationTools forLongTermParameticSimulation,CanmetENERGY technicalreport2011137, July,2011. </p><p>DISCLAMER</p><p>This report isdistributed for informationalpurposesanddoesnotnecessarily reflect theviewsof theGovernmentofCanadanorconstituteandendorsementofanycommercialproductorperson.NeitherCanadanoritsministers,officers,employeesoragentsmakesanywarrantyinrespecttothisreportorassumesanyliabilityarisingoutofthisreport.</p><p>ACKNOWLEDGEMENT</p><p>Financialsupport for thisprojectwasprovidedbyNaturalResourcesCanada through theProgramonEnergyResearchandDevelopment(PERD).</p><p>TechnicalReport2011137(RPTEC)411MODSIM i </p></li><li><p> TABLEOFCONTENT ListofTables ................................................................................................................................................ iii ListofFigures ............................................................................................................................................... iii 1 Introduction............................................................................................................................................ 1 2 DescriptionofSimulationTools ............................................................................................................. 3 </p><p>2.1 OpenDSS ......................................................................................................................................................4 2.1.1 DescriptionoftheSoftwareApplication .......................................................................................4 2.1.2 Typesofsimulations......................................................................................................................4 </p><p>2.2 GridLABD ....................................................................................................................................................5 2.2.1 DescriptionoftheSoftware ..........................................................................................................5 2.2.2 TypesofSimulations......................................................................................................................7 </p><p>2.3 APREM .........................................................................................................................................................7 2.3.1 SoftwareDescription.....................................................................................................................7 2.3.2 Typesofsimulations......................................................................................................................8 </p><p>2.4 SoftwareComparison ..................................................................................................................................8 3 FirstCaseStudy:CalculationofDistributionLineLosseswithAdditionofDistributedGeneration.... 11 </p><p>3.1 Methodology .............................................................................................................................................11 3.2 ParameterDescription...............................................................................................................................11 </p><p>3.2.1 DistributedgenerationData........................................................................................................11 3.2.2 LoadData.....................................................................................................................................12 3.2.3 ElectricalDistributionLineModel ...............................................................................................13 </p><p>3.3 SimulationImplementation .......................................................................................................................14 3.4 SimulationCaseAnalysis............................................................................................................................15 3.5 ComparativeSoftwareAnalysis .................................................................................................................16 </p><p>3.5.1 Results .........................................................................................................................................16 3.5.2 Discussion....................................................................................................................................17 </p><p>4 ThirdCaseStudy:CalculationofAnnualEnergyConservationFollowingConservationVoltageControl.................................................................................................................................................. 19 4.1 IntroductiontotheCaseStudy..................................................................................................................19 4.2 DescriptionoftheParameters...................................................................................................................19 4.3 Results........................................................................................................................................................21 4.4 Discussion ..................................................................................................................................................21 </p><p>Conclusion................................................................................................................................................... 23 References .................................................................................................................................................. 25 Appendix1ExampleofCodeswithOpendss........................................................................................... 27 Appendix2ExampleofcodeswithGridlabD......................................................................................... 33 Appendix3ExampleofCodeswithAprem.............................................................................................. 39 </p><p>TechnicalReport2011137(RPTEC)411MODSIM ii </p></li><li><p> LISTOFTABLESTable2.1:SummaryofSoftwareFeatures ....................................................................................................................9</p><p>Table3.1:Comparisonofresultsbasedonthedifferentmodels ...............................................................................16</p><p>Table3.2:Calculationtimebysoftwareapplication ...................................................................................................17</p><p>Table4.1:Calculationtimebysoftwareapplicationforanannualsimulationona30busesand63loadcircuit .....21</p><p>LISTOFFIGURESFigure3.1:V66windturbinepowercurve ..................................................................................................................12</p><p>Figure3.2:Loadforadistributionlineforaweekinsummerandwinter ..................................................................13</p><p>Figure3.3:Simplifiedmodelofthedistributionline(4)withdecentralizedwindtypegenerationattheendoftheline ...................................................................................................................................................14</p><p>Figure3.4:Weeklylinelosseswith(red)andwithout(blue)distributedgenerationcalculatedwiththeline4model...................................................................................................................................................15</p><p>Figure4.1:DiagramofthedistributionnetworkasrepresentedbytheOpenDSSvisualizationtool.........................20</p><p>TechnicalReport2011137(RPTEC)411MODSIM iii </p></li><li><p> TechnicalReport2011137(RPTEC)411MODSIM 1 </p><p>1 INTRODUCTIONNewgridsimulationtoolsarerequiredfortheprogressivedevelopmentofaSmartGridabletomanagedistributed generation, charging of electric cars or of many special protection systems [1] [2] [3].Properlymodellingandsimulatingthegrid isamongsomeofthechallengesposedbytheprogressivedeploymentofalargenumberofdistributedresources,includinginfrastructurerelatedtoflexibleloadsandstorage.Whatisbasicallyneededisgreatergranularityofinformation,aswellasbetterperforminganalysistoolsthatarecapableofprocessingalargerquantityofinformationovertime.</p><p>Theadventofsmartgridshas ledtonewgridfunctionsthatbringwiththemtheirownchallengesforthe planner. Integrating the decentralized generation of renewable energy may reverse loadflowdirectionandsendpowertothetransmissionnetwork.Ahighpenetrationofthisresourceonaweakgridmayresultinvoltagesurgesattheendofthedistributionline,andtherebyrequireareviewofthevoltageregulationandgridprotection.Withtheelectrificationoftransportation,chargingelectriccarsmayoverloadgridcomponentsupstreamfromelectricvehiclechargingstations.Finally,managingpeakdemandbringsaboutchangestotheloadprofile,therebyaffectinggridplanningcriteriaandpractices.In themidterm, thesmartgridaims to takegreateradvantageof thesedistributed resources. In theeventofagridoutagethegoal isthat,withdistributedgenerationandadditionalsupportforstorage,demandmanagementandautomatedreconfiguration, itwillbepossibleto islandthe load, inordertocreateanautonomousmicrogridandtherebymaintainacommunityspowersupply.</p><p>Inordertoaddressthesenumeroustechnicalchallenges,electricaldistributionnetworkengineerswillneed to addnew techniques to their repertoire.Theymustbe able todo annual type simulations(time series simulation), as well as longterm transitory simulations (in minutes) to evaluate, forexample,theeffectofadropinsolargenerationduetoapassingcloudongridvoltage,ortooptimizemanagementofdemandandpowerstorageresources.Itisinthisperspectivethatwewillpresentthreerecentlydevelopedelectricaldistributionnetwork simulation tools:GridLABD,OpenDSSandAPREM.Thesesoftwareapplicationsarefirstandforemostaimedatgridplanners,notoperators.Theyareopensourcecodeandavailablefreeofcharge:online,inthecaseofOpenDSSandGridLABD,oronrequest,inthecaseofAPREM.</p><p>Adescriptionof these software applications and their functions isprovided in this report. Two casestudies are simulated with the software applications, and they serve as a basis for comparisonconcerningtheirrespectiveperformances.</p></li><li><p>TechnicalReport2011137(RPTEC)411MODSIM 2 </p></li><li><p> 2 DESCRIPTIONOFSIMULATIONTOOLSNotool inthepowergridsimulationfieldcanrespondtoallneedssimultaneously.Thedifferenttoolsdeveloped todate canbe reasonablydivided into threemajor groups. First,wehave transient statesimulationtools(timebasedsimulations,withoutlimitationastothedurationofthesimulations),suchasEMTPRV,EMTDC,SimPowerSystems,etc.Thesearealsosometimescalledofflinesimulations.Thistypeoftoolmaybeused,amongotherthings,toevaluateimpactsonthepowergridofallthingsthatcause a transient state: lightening, turning a circuit breaker on/off, shortcircuit, etc. Models aregenerallyvalidoverlargefrequencyranges,fromdirectcurrenttoMHz.</p><p>Second,wehave realtime softwareapplications (timebased synchronized in real timewithexternalinputs/outputsand,ingeneral,externalphysicalequipment/systems)suchasRTDS,OpalRT,Hypersim,etc. These simulators, also intended to study transient states, are usedmainly to check how newequipmenttobeconnectedto thegrid,suchasprotectorrelays,behaves.Giventhedemandsofrealtime simulation, large calculators (multiprocessors) are required. Nevertheless, certain concessionsmustbemadewithrespecttotheaccuracyofthemodelsand/orsizeofthesimulations.</p><p>Third, certain grid analysis software applications in the frequencybased state allow for loadflowcalculations,suchasPSAF,ETAPorPSS/E.Thesesoftwareapplicationsareusedtofindthesteadystatesolutionofasimpleorcomplexelectriccircuit.Theuserenters theelectricalparametersof the lines,transformersandnominalvoltageofthenodes,generatorproductionandloadamountatagiventime.Thesoftwarethendeterminesthevoltagesandanglesatallbusesand,asaresult,theamplitudeanddirectionofthepowerexchangesbetweeneachbus,therebymakingitpossibletocheckforoverloadedlinesorgenerators,andverifythatthegridcandulysustaintheloadandgenerationconditions.Wealsofind, related to frequency, other calculation functions or software applications for calculating shortcircuitcurrents,harmonics,protectionsystemadjustment,etc.</p><p>Whenplanningelectricaldistributionnetworks,acommon simulationpractice is toconsideronly theworstcase,i.e.,peakloadontheline.Wethereforeneedtodeterminetheactiveandreactivevoltagesandpowersoneachsteadystatenodeinordertobeabletodeterminewhetherthegridwilleventuallyneed tobeupgraded. Inorder toconduct thesestudies, the followingmustbeknown:peakdemandforecast(summerorwinter,dependingontheclimateandclients), layoutoftheelectricaldistributionnetwork and the different electrical parameters of the network equipment (conductor gauges,conductor length,electricalparametersof transformers,etc.).Softwareapplications,suchasCymdist,thatcantakethistypeofinformationandcalculateloadflowarecommonlyused[4].</p><p>Three toolswereused in this report todo this typeof simulation,namely:OpenDSS,GridLABDandAPREM.Thefirsttwoarenotonlyfreeandopensourcecode,buttheyarealsodevelopedbyresearchcentres in the electrical power field.OpenDSS is developed by the ElectricPower Research Institute</p><p>TechnicalReport2011137(RPTEC)411MODSIM 3 </p></li><li><p> (EPRI)andGridLABDbythePacificNorthwestNationalLaboratory(PNNL)undertheUSDepartmentofEnergy(DOE).TheAPREMsoftwareisdevelopedbythecolePolytechniquedeMontral.</p><p>2.1 OpenDSS2.1.1 DescriptionoftheSoftwareApplicationOpenDSS [56] (Distribution System Simulator) is anopensource code software applicationoriginallydevelopedbyElectrotekConceptsin1997.Oneofthereasonsbehindthedevelopmentofthistoolwasthe calculation of harmonics and interharmonics on the electrical distribution network. Differentmoduleswherelateradded,suchasMonteCarloanalysisandannualsimulations.In2004,thesoftwarewaspurchasedbyEPRIinordertohaveatooltosimulatetheadvancedautomationandmodernizationofthepowergrids.ItwaswiththisinmindthatEPRIdecidedtomakethesourcecodeavailablefreeofchargeonlineontheSourceForge.netsite.Awikiisalsoavailableonlinetoassistinunderstandingandusingthesoftware.</p><p>OpenDSSworksbycommand linewith itsownconsole. It isalsodesigned tobeusedwithMatlaborExcel.Itcanbedownloadedforfreeonlineanddoesnotrequireinstallation.ItisprogrammedinDelphi(objectoriented Pascal) language.Based on how itwas designed, it can be integrated into differentsoftwareapplication throughaCOM interface.Companies can thereforeuse the calculation toolandeasily integrate it into their software. The software does frequencybased rather than timebasedanalysis. It is therefore not a transient state analysis tool.OpenDSS is also not traditional loadflowsoftware in the sense that it does not use any nonlinear system resolution algorithm such as theNewtonRaphson algorithm. In fact, the software solves the circu...</p></li></ul>