hereglegchiin sudalgaa

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<p>www.zaluu.com www.zaluu.com</p> <p> : , .</p> <p> : o . o o - .</p> <p> : : </p> <p> : </p> <p> .</p> <p>0</p> <p>www.zaluu.com www.zaluu.com</p> <p> 1.1 v vv vv v . - , v v . 1990- 15% 200 . , . vv . v v v . 400 2008 500 . . (International Date Corporation, IDC) 50 v v. v . vv v. vv . v v vv . Yv , , (space) v. WWW v (World Wide Web) v v . HTTP </p> <p>1</p> <p>www.zaluu.com www.zaluu.com. vv v . . , (. v) vvv (client) . Client vv Browser (Internet Explorer, Mozilla, Opera, Netscape Navigator etc..). . v domain name (URL = Unifrom Resource Locator) - . : www.caak.mn Yv .vv ICANN (Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers) . vv v vv , vv, vv. v v ? IP address (Internet Protocol Address) vv 0.0.0.0 255.255.255.255 v v v . 4 294 967 296 v v. v , v v . IP- vv URL . . http://www.yahoo.com/ . vv? www.yahoo.com vvv. v Browser vv . HTML (Hyper Text Markup Language- ) 2</p> <p>www.zaluu.com www.zaluu.com. HTML (notepad, notepad++, wordpad, emeditor etc...) vv . : Hello World! .html . .htm, .html 2 v. OS- v v .html . vv W3C World Wide Web Consortsium ( v ) . HTML, CSS, XML , vv, vv vv , vv (Browser) . v 4 .1. http:// - HyperTextTransferProtocol 2. www. WorldWideWeb ( ) 3. 3. yourname </p> <p>4. .com, .edu, .org, .mn, .ru, .kr - v , . .15 , . . 5 . IBM . , , . </p> <p>3</p> <p>www.zaluu.com www.zaluu.com , - . . , , . , , . , . , , . . 30 1 , 500 . . 1998 10 . 25% 2,5 , 54% 5,4 , 21% 2,1 . 7,1% . 13,85 28% , 48% , 24% . 1999 20 . , </p> <p>4</p> <p>www.zaluu.com www.zaluu.com , . , . 29 . 4% . 50:50 . . 17% , . . 1998 1 54 42- , - 8 . 800 700 . 10000 3- , 5- . , . . web , , </p> <p>5</p> <p>www.zaluu.com www.zaluu.com1.2. . . . . Inter net . . 1969 . 4- . . . , . 1992 . , . . Domain , Network access Point, backbone . .</p> <p>6</p> <p>www.zaluu.com www.zaluu.com </p> <p> . . Dial-up . ISP (Internet Service Provider - ) . Micom, Realcom, MCSCom, Sky Network ISP- . . Local Area Network LAN . LAN- ISP- . ISP- . ISP . . dedicated backbone- . Dedicated backbone . . Backbone- .. Point of Presence (POP) . . backbone- POP- . Dial-up- POP . . . 7</p> <p>www.zaluu.com www.zaluu.combackbone . . . . Network Access Points (NAP) . . . ISP . , POP-. POP . POP- . . ISP . , . . . . . . 2 . 2 NAP- . NAP- - . NAP- .8</p> <p>www.zaluu.com www.zaluu.com ISP- NAP- . . . NAP- . backbone . . Router . - Router . Router - . - - . router 2 .</p> <p> . , . . .</p> <p> .</p> <p> router . router . . . router- 9</p> <p>www.zaluu.com www.zaluu.com . . router- . router . Backbone </p> <p>National Science Foundation (NSF) backbone- . NSFNET 170 T1 . 1.544 Mbps . 1.544 IBM, MCI Merit NSF- 45 Mbps T3 . Backbone . . . OC (optical carrier- ) . OC-3, OC-12, OC-48 . OC-3 155 Mbps OC-48 2,488 Mbps (2.488 Gbps) . . . NAP- . , . .</p> <p>10</p> <p>www.zaluu.com www.zaluu.com : IP </p> <p> . . IP . IP Internet Protocol . . . . . . IP . 192.168.150.255 . . IP . 0-255 . . 192168150255 . 2- . 192.168.150.255 11000000.10101000.10010110.11111111 . 2- 8 . 32 . IP 32 . 2- 0, 1- . 2- 8 256 . 255 . 2- 32 4'294'967'296 . . 4.3 IP . 11</p> <p>www.zaluu.com www.zaluu.com. : 0.0.0.0 255.255.255.255 broadcast- . . IP . IP . IP , . Net Host 2 . Net . . Node . Host . : Domain . IP .. IP . 216.27.27.27 . . IP . . . Network Information Center IP . . 1983 Wisconsin- Domain Name Server (DNS) . IP IP . . google.com, yahoo.com, computertimes.mn .</p> <p>12</p> <p>www.zaluu.com www.zaluu.com Uniform Resource Locators - domain . URL . http://www.computertimes.mn . URL . domain . - info@computertimes.mn. Domain IP . Domain .COM, .ORG, .NET, .EDU, .GOV . . .COM . </p> <p>Google Microsoft Yahoo Dictionary</p> <p> . . . , . . . , , FTP . . www.computertimes.mn . . . IP . Dial-up- IP . IP ISP .</p> <p>13</p> <p>www.zaluu.com www.zaluu.com1.3 . ? MISPA . ? 2004 . (backbone) . . . . . . ISP 80 Mbps- . . 9 ISP 78Mbps . . (download) 44Mbps, (upload) 34Mbps . Magicnet 2MB . . . ICTA . , . . MISPA . .</p> <p>14</p> <p>www.zaluu.com www.zaluu.com 2004 . . 247Mbps . : STM-1, 46E1 247Mbps . 2004 ISP VSAT 1Mbps 3-5 . . . MISPA . 1Mbps- 1250 . . 1Mbps- 400 . 10 . . . , ISP . ISP "0" . , , .2004-2005 247Mbps . STM-1 155Mbps . 247+155 = 402Mbps . 2004 5 . ICTA MISPA- . . 64Kbps- 59 . 20 .15</p> <p>www.zaluu.com www.zaluu.com 3 . DWDM . STM . DWDM . 2Gbps4Gbps . . . 402 Mbps . 2Gbps-4Gbps ISP Mbps 4Gbps . . ISP . . ISP- . .</p> <p>16</p> <p>www.zaluu.com www.zaluu.com1.4 ISP (Internet Service Provider) . ISP - . . . . bandwidth ( ) . . . 100Mbps, 10Mbps . 2 - . . .</p> <p>17</p> <p>www.zaluu.com www.zaluu.com . real time RTSP, MMS multimedia Real player, Windows media player multimedia , . . ISP - 512kbps . 128kbps . 512kbps - 128kbps = 384kbps bandwidth - . real time . .. , . . . 512kbps bandwidth - 128kbps . bandwidth - . . , .</p> <p>18</p> <p>www.zaluu.com www.zaluu.com1.5 . . . , . 1. . . 2. . Bossblock 10 . 100% . . . 3. , . . . . . 4. , . . .</p> <p>19</p> <p>www.zaluu.com www.zaluu.com</p> <p>5. . . 6. , . . . , , . 7. , , , , , . . , . . , . . . , , , . . , . 8. , . 9. . , , , , . , . 10. " " , .</p> <p>20</p> <p>www.zaluu.com www.zaluu.com1.6. , , , 24 , 365 , , . , : </p> <p> .</p> <p> ; ; , , , ;</p> <p> ; , . ; , ; - .</p> <p> :</p> <p> ;</p> <p>21</p> <p>www.zaluu.com www.zaluu.comE-reminder : </p> <p> ; ; ; .</p> <p>, </p> <p>https://www.e-xacbank.com SSL . 2 . . (www.vasco.com)- .</p> <p>22</p> <p>www.zaluu.com www.zaluu.com</p> <p>1.7. ? ? commercial . , . switch - router, firewall . Layer 3 switch, router, firewall IP . QoS (Quality of Service) . QoS - . QoS - bandwidth . Bandwidth IP bandwidth - . Bandwidth QoS - . QoS IP bandwidth HTTP VoIP . IP - bandwidth VoIP HTTP . QoS VoIP - . TCP UDP . HTTP 80, FTP 21 . QoS bandwidth </p> <p>23</p> <p>www.zaluu.com www.zaluu.com IP . . HTTP . . HTTP . . QoS - Smoothwall, WebSense, ClarkConnect . . . Dansguardian, Squidguard HTTP , . QoS - firewall xBSD IP Firewall + Dummynet, Packet Filter + AltQ . . , . .24</p> <p>www.zaluu.com www.zaluu.com1.8 , </p> <p> ? . , . . ? " ." . . . . . , , , 1. Open Systems Interconnection Basic Reference Model (OSI 7 layer model) OSI model (OSI - 7 ) 2. TCP/IP model (TCP/IP ) 2 , , </p> <p>25</p> <p>www.zaluu.com www.zaluu.com . 2 . . 2 2 . TCP/IP OSI . OSI 7 TCP/IP . OSI . . 2 . OSI 7 . Physical Layer ( ) . 2 - . , , , , . hub, repeater, frame relay . . </p> <p>26</p> <p>www.zaluu.com www.zaluu.com Data Link Layer ( ) 2 - . dia Access Control (MAC) 6 . . . Start-&gt;Run cmd Physical address . MAC switch, bridge . . Network Layer (C ) , . IP IP . IP . IP IP address . IP version 4 32 10 4 3 - . Router, Layer 3 switch . , . IP, IPX, Appletalk, ICMP, RIP, OSPF, BGP, IGRP, EIGRP .27</p> <p>www.zaluu.com www.zaluu.com ransport Layer ( ) 7 - . , end-to-end . TCP, UDP, NETBEUI, SPX . 2 . : Connection-oriented ( ) ( ) . . . . Connectionless ( ) . UDP . 2 . Session Layer ( ) 2 end-to-end , . . RPC, SQL, NETBIOS Application Programming Interface (API) .</p> <p>28</p> <p>www.zaluu.com www.zaluu.com : , . 1. ?0%</p> <p> 53% 100%</p> <p>: 100% . .Inter net .. . , , .</p> <p>29</p> <p>www.zaluu.com www.zaluu.com2. ?</p> <p>8.80%</p> <p>5%</p> <p>8.60% 22.60% </p> <p>53.40% </p> <p>: . . . . .</p> <p>30</p> <p>www.zaluu.com www.zaluu.com</p> <p>3. ?</p> <p>22.20%</p> <p>25%</p> <p>31.20% 41.60% </p> <p>: , . , , . . . ? ? . . . , .31</p> <p>www.zaluu.com www.zaluu.com4. ?</p> <p>20.40%</p> <p>31.20% </p> <p>21.20%</p> <p> 27.80% </p> <p>: . . . 2 . Wireless- , . . 31.2% ,27.8% , 21.2% ,20.4% . 4 . . </p> <p>32</p> <p>www.zaluu.com www.zaluu.com5. ?</p> <p>16.60% 44.40% 24.20% 14.80% </p> <p>: . , . , . , . Yahoo messenger, facebook . .</p> <p>33</p> <p>www.zaluu.com www.zaluu.com6. , .</p> <p>8.80%</p> <p>5% 8.60% 22.60% </p> <p>53.40%</p> <p>: 8.7% ,22.6% , 53.4% , 8.8 % ,5% . . , .</p> <p>34</p> <p>www.zaluu.com www.zaluu.com7. ? </p> <p>8.40% 16% 38.60%</p> <p>37%</p> <p>: ,, , . . . , , , . Mbps- . Mbps- . Mbps . . . .</p> <p>35</p> <p>www.zaluu.com www.zaluu.com8. ?</p> <p>10.60% 27.40% 41.40% </p> <p>20.60%</p> <p>: </p> <p> . . , . Mbps- . . . . , .</p> <p>36</p> <p>www.zaluu.com www.zaluu.com </p> <p>13.20%</p> <p>34.80% 1-3 4-6 7- </p> <p>52%</p> <p>: 52% 4-6,35% 1-3 13% 7- . 4-6 . 10.40% 13.20% 71.20% 5.20% 18-26 27-35 36-44</p> <p>45- </p> <p>:.</p> <p> . , , . PC- . 18-26 </p> <p>37</p> <p>www.zaluu.com www.zaluu.com 71%- . 27-35 13%, 36-44 11%, 45-c 5%- . 8.60% 45.80% 35.80% 9.80% </p> <p>: 46%, 36%, 8%, 10%- . . . . . 5 . : .</p> <p>38</p> <p>www.zaluu.com www.zaluu.com 4.40% 7.40% 14.80% 12% 61.40% </p> <p>: 500 62%, 12%, 7%, 15%, 4%- . . . </p> <p>14.80% 13.40% 39.40% 108000-250000 260000-330...</p>