HRD FRAMEWORKGroup IIIPersonnel Management -IIXavier Institute of Social Service, Ranchi
GROUP MEMBERSVishal VatsRavi Roshan DungdungAditi GuptaAchint ChabbraNavya JainDebabrata SahaNeelam Deepika DungdungSaransh ShreshthaPriyanka SrivastavaRanjan MurmuRitesh Ram Rai MurmuAshwini ChoubeyParimal Parag
TOPICS COVEREDHRD FRAMEWORKA Framework for the HRD ProcessHRD efforts should use the following four phases (or stages):Needs AssessmentDesignImplementationEvaluation (A DImE)The HRD Process: A DImE
Definition Of Need: Before delving deep into need assessment, it is ofparamount importance to know, what is the meaning ofneed.
Need- The concept of need refers to a discrepancy orgap between what an organization expects tohappen and what actually occurs.Various Types of NeedsPerformance
DiagnosticFactors that can prevent problems from occurring
Analytic Identify new or better ways to do things
ComplianceMandated by law or regulation
A process by which an organizations HRD needs are identified and articulated.It identifies:an organizations goals and its effectiveness in reaching these goals.Gaps between current skills and the skills needed to perform the job successfully.Gaps between employees skills and the skills required for effective current job performance.The conditions under which the HRD activity will occur.
There is nothing so useless as doing efficiently that which should not be done at all.-Peter F. DruckerBenefitsThrough needs assessment, we try to answer questions like:
1. Need for the needs assessment,2. Accomplishment of type of learning,3. Expected changes in the behavior and performance,4. Probability of achieving the results,5. Cost benefit analysis of HRD solutions.6. Root causes of performance gaps
Levels of Need Assessment
1. Organizational analysisWhere is training needed and under what conditions?
2. Task analysisWhat must be done to perform the job effectively?
3. Individual analysis.Who should be trained and how?
Organizational AnalysisIt looks at the effectiveness of the organization and determines where training is needed and under what conditions it will be conducted.
Why Ties HRD programs to corporate or organizational goalsStrengthens the link between profit and HRD actionsStrengthens corporate support for HRDMakes HRD more of a revenue generatorNot a profit waster
Source of Organizational AnalysisMission statementHRM inventorySkills inventoryQuality of Working Life indicatorsEfficiency indexesSystem changesExit interviews
Task AnalysisIt provides data about a job or a group of jobs and the knowledge, skills, attitudes and abilities needed to achieve optimum performance.How to Collect Information For a Task AnalysisKSA analysisPerformance standardsObserve the job/sample the work. Perform the job. Job inventory questionnaire. Review literature about the job.Ask questions about the job.Analysis of operating problems.
INDIVIDUAL ANALYSISIt analyzes how well the individual employee is doing the job and determines which employees need training and of what kind.Based on many sources of dataSummary AnalysisDetermine overall success of the individualDiagnostic AnalysisDiscover reasons for performance
SOURCES FOR INDIVIDUAL ANALYSIS Performance evaluation. Performance problems. Observation. Work samples. Interviews. Questionnaires. Attitude surveys. Checklists or training progress charts.
FOUR STEPS TO CONDUCTING A NEEDS ASSESSMENT:
STEP 1. PERFORM A "GAP" ANALYSIS.The first step is to check the actual performance of our organizations and our people against existing standards, or to set new standards.
There are two parts to this: Current situationDesired or necessary situationThe difference the "gap" between the current and the necessary will identify our needs, purposes, and objectives.
FOUR STEPS TO CONDUCTING A NEEDS ASSESSMENTSTEP 2. IDENTIFY PRIORITIES AND IMPORTANCEIt must be seen whether the identified needs are real, if they are worth addressing, and specify their importance and urgency in view of organizational needs and requirements (1). For example (2): Cost-effectiveness Legal mandatesIf some of our needs are of relatively low importance, we would do better to devote our energies to addressing other human performance problems with greater impact and greater value.
FOUR STEPS TO CONDUCTING A NEEDS ASSESSMENTStep 3. IDENTIFY CAUSES OF PERFORMANCE PROBLEMS AND/OR OPPORTUNITIES.
We must know what our performance requirements are, if appropriate solutions are to be applied. We should ask two questions for every identified need: (3)
Are our people doing their jobs effectively? Do they know how to do their jobs? This will require detailed investigation and analysis of our people, their jobs, and our organizations -- both for the current situation and in preparation for the future.
20FOUR STEPS TO CONDUCTING A NEEDS ASSESSMENTStep 4. IDENTIFY POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS AND GROWTH OPPORTUNITIES.
"If it ain't broke, don't fix it." But if our people ARE NOT doing their jobs effectively: TRAINING may be the solution, if there is a knowledge problem. Organizational Development activities may provide solutions when the problem is not based on a lack of knowledge and is primarily associated with systematic change. These interventions might include strategic planning, organization restructuring, performance management and/or effective team building.
CAVEATFiguring out what is really neededNot always an easy taskNeeds lots of inputTakes a lot of workDo it now or do lots more laterFirst step in both the ISD and HRD process models
Phase Two: Designing the Training or HRD Intervention Key activities include:Setting objectivesSelecting the trainer or vendorDeveloping lesson plansSelecting methods and techniquesPreparing materialsScheduling training
Phase Two: Design
Werner & DeSimone (2006)25ObjectivesPerformanceConditionsCriteriasPERFORMANCE: Increase upper body strength Assemble a chair Catch a football pass Graduate from collegeWerner & DeSimone (2006)26ConditionsConditions under which performance is done e.g., using standard conditioning equipment using a screwdriver and hammer at a full run under man-to-man coverage without cheating or outside helpWerner & DeSimone (2006)27CriteriaThe level of acceptable performance e.g., by 25 percent within one year within one hour without mistakes at least 80% of the time without penalties within 5 years and with a B averageWerner & DeSimone (2006)28Make or Buy DecisionsYou cannot be an expert on everythingYou cant afford to maintain a full-time staff for once-a-year trainingYou cant afford the time or money to build all of your own training programsImplication: Much training is purchased, rather than self-producedWerner & DeSimone (2006)29Factors to Consider Before Purchasing an HRD ProgramLevel of expertise available/requiredTimelinessNumber of traineesSubject matterCostSize of HRD organizationX Factor (other conditions)Werner & DeSimone (2006)30Other Factors to ConsiderVendor credentials Vendor backgroundVendor experiencePhilosophical match (between vendor and organization)Delivery methodEIGHT POINT STRATEGY FOR HRD PROGRAMSJerry Gillet and Seteven Eggland (2002) identified for managers of HRD an eight-point strategy for designing cost-effective, reputable HRD programs that can survive economic crises and internal/external changes affecting the organization. Establish a written HRD philosophy.Establish HRD policy.Obtain support of top management.Integrate HRD into the long-range organizational plan.Conduct extensive needs assessments.Encourage collaboration.Establish criteria for participation in HRD programs.Be introspective but focus on results.The Learning Pyramid
By Permission: Yin (2004)33Training Delivery MethodsThree basic categories:On-the-Job TrainingOff- the- Job TrainingClassroom TrainingSelf-Paced TrainingNote: Computer-based training can be in a classroom, or individual/self-paced.34On-the-Job Training (OJT)Job instruction training (JIT) Prepare the worker , Present the task, Practice the task, Follow up.Job rotation Train on different task/ positions, often used to train entry level managers, To provide back up in production position.Coaching Between worker and supervisor. Can provide specific performance improvement and correction.Mentoring senior employee paired with a junior employee (protg), Helps to learn the ropes, Prepares protg for future advancement
35OFF-the-Job Training This occurs when employees are taken away from their place of work to be trained. Common methods of off-the-job training include:
Day releaseDistance learning / evening classesBlock release coursesSandwich coursesSponsored courses in higher education
Classroom Training ApproachesFive basic types:Lecture - Oral presentation of material ,Some visual aids can be added, Remains a very popular training method, Interesting lectures can work well, Good to supplement with other materials.Discussion - Two-way communication,Use questions to control lesson, Direct: produce narrow responses, Reflective: mirror what was said, Open-Ended: challenge learners to increase understanding
37Classroom Training ApproachesExperimental Methods - Case studies, Business game simulations, Role Playing, Behavior Modeling, Outdoor trainingSelf-Paced or Computer-Based Training
Audiovisual MediaBrings visual senses (seeing) into play, along with audio senses (hearing)Types:STATIC MEDIA- Printed materials, Lecture notes, Work aids, Handouts
DYNAMIC MEDIA- Audio cassettes, CDs, Film, Videotape, Video disc
TELECOMMUNICATIONS- Instructional TV, Teleconferencing,