Idoc.vn Hinh Thai Hoc Tieng Anh

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    AI HOC QUOC GIA TP HO CH MINHTRNG AI HOC KHOA HOC XA HOI VA NHAN VAN

    Giao trnh

    To Minh Thanh

    NHA XUAT BAN AI HOC QUOC GIA TP HO CH MINH 2003

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    LI NOI AU

    Giao trnhHnh thai hoc tieng Anhc hnh thanh da tren t lieua c giang day trong thi gian qua cho sinh vien chuyen ng cua Khoa Ngvan Anh, Trng ai hoc Khoa hoc Xa hoi va Nhan van - ai hoc Quoc gia

    Thanh pho Ho Ch Minh. Giao trnh nay c bien soan nham trang b chosinh vien cach tiep can mang tnh thc hanh mon hoc ay tnh ly thuyet nay.Giao trnhHnh thai hoc tieng Anh trnh bay mot cach co he thong mot sokhai niem c ban ve hnh thai hoc va nhieu kieu phan tch t vng tieng Anh.Ben canh o, giao trnh nay cung chu y en ca ket cau noi tai lan y ngha bieuat cua chung. Noi mot cach khac, tai lieu nay co lien quan ti:

    Hnh v, tha hnh v, t vngva cac tieu loai cua chung trong tiengAnh hien ai;

    Cac quy trnhhnh thanhva cac quy tacphan tcht vng tieng Anh.

    Trong qua trnh bien soan giao trnh nay chung toi a tham khao vatrch dan nhieu t lieu a c cong bo, ac biet la cua Arnold (1986), Jackson(1980) va Stageberg (1965). Co the noi, muc tieu duy nhat cua chung toi khibien soan giao trnh nay la nham cung cap cho sinh vien mot lng thong tincan thiet ve lnh vc thu v va that s co ch li nay di sc ep cua mot thilng het sc khiem ton van thng danh cho monHnh thai hoc tieng Anh.

    Chung toi xin c the hien long biet n chan thanh oi vi Tien sNguyen Tien Hung ve nhng ong gop va phe bnh phan bien tch cc cua ongdanh cho giao trnh nay.

    ay la lan au tien giao trnh nay c xuat ban, han khong tranh khoisai sot. Chung toi mong nhan c nhieu y kien ong gop cua ban oc e giaotrnh ngay cang hoan thien hn. Y kien ong gop xin gi ve: Hoi ong Khoahoc va ao tao Khoa Ng van Anh, Trng ai hoc Khoa hoc Xa hoi va Nhanvan ai hoc Quoc gia Thanh pho Ho Ch Minh, 10-12 inh Tien Hoang, Q.1,ien thoai: 8243328.

    Thanh pho Ho Ch Minh, ngay 30 thang 7 nam 2003.To Minh Thanh

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    CONTENTS

    Preface ................................................................................................................................3Table of notational symbols ...........................................................................................7

    Unit one: MORPHEMES....................................................................................................9

    1. Definition Characteristics............................................................................................92. How to distinguish Morphemes from Phonemes, Syllables and Words? .....................9

    3. Classification of Morphemes .........................................................................................11

    3.1. Free morphemes vs. Bound morphemes.................................................................11

    3.2. Bases (also called Roots) vs. Affixes .......................................................................124. Variations of Morphemes Allomorphs .....................................................................14

    4.1. Definition .................................................................................................................14

    4.2. Selection of Allomorphs:..........................................................................................14

    4.3. Types of Allomorphs ................................................................................................15

    EXERCISES........................................................................................................................16

    EXTRA READING .............................................................................................................36

    Unit two:DERIVATIONANDINFLECTION ..............................................................411. Derivation.......................................................................................................................41

    1.1. Definition..................................................................................................................41

    1.2. Types of Derivational Affixes..................................................................................41

    1.3. Morphological rules..................................................................................................41

    2. Inflection .......................................................................................................................45

    2.1. Definition..................................................................................................................452.2. Various Kinds of Inflection......................................................................................45

    3. How to distinguish Derivation from Inflection............................................................46

    3.1. Derivation.................................................................................................................46

    3.2. Inflection...................................................................................................................47

    EXERCISES........................................................................................................................47

    Unit three:IMMEDIATE CONSTITUENTS IN MORPHOLOGY.............................651. Definition........................................................................................................................65

    2. Some Recommendations on IC division........................................................................663. Diagram ..........................................................................................................................66

    EXERCISES........................................................................................................................67

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    Unit four: WORDS.............................................................................................................891. Definition........................................................................................................................89

    2. Characteristics ...............................................................................................................89

    2.1. Indivisibility ..........................................................................................................89

    2.2. Internal stability and Positional mobility...........................................................90

    3. Classification ..................................................................................................................91

    3.1. Classification of words according to their structure: ..........................................91

    3.2. Classification of words according to their word-formationprocesses: coinage, borrowing, compounding, blending, clipping,acronymy, conversion, affixation and back-formation. .....................................94

    EXERCISES......................................................................................................................109

    EXTRA READING ...........................................................................................................121

    Answer keys ...................................................................................................................123Bibliography ..................................................................................................................140

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    NOTATIONAL SYMBOLS

    Most of the symbols used in this text follow conventions, but since conventionsvary, the following list indicates the meanings assigned to them here.

    n= noun

    [U] = uncountable[C] = countablepl = pluralsing= singularadj = adjectiveadv = adverbprep = prepositionv= verbphr v= phrasal verb

    sth = somethingsb = somebodymono-trans = mono-transitive verbcomplex trans = complex transitive verbetc = et ceterameaning and other similar things or and so onfig = figurativeesp = especiallyusu = usuallyfml= formalinfml = informal

    derog = derogatory, insultingattrib= attributivepred= predicativeBrit= Britishabbr = abbreviatedI = intransitive verbIpr = intransitive verb + prepositional phraseIp = intransitive verb + adverbial particleLa = linking verb + adjective (phrase)

    Tn = transitive verb + noun (phrase)Tn.pr = transitive verb + noun (phrase) + prepositional phraseTn.p = transitive verb + noun (phrase) + adverbial particleCn.t = complex transitive verb + noun (phrase) + to-infinitivephrase

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    UNIT ONE

    MORPHEMES

    1. DEFINITION CHARACTERISTICS

    What is a morpheme?

    A morpheme is the smallest meaningful unit in a language.[Richards, Platt & Weber, 1987: 183]

    A morpheme is a short segment of language that meets three criteria:It is a word or part of a word that has meaning.

    It cannot be divided into smaller meaningful parts without violation of

    its meaning or without meaningless remainders.

    It recurs in different verbal environments with a relatively stable meaning.

    [Stageberg, 1965: 85]

    Ex.1:The English word unkindconsists of two morphemes: the basekind

    the lexical meaning of which is frien