IMC Chuong 1 Tong Quan IMC

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Belch 2004 : advertising and promotion

2Chng 1: Tng quan v truyn thng marketing tch hp

21. S thay i v bn cht v vai tr ca truyn thng marketing

21.1. Gii thiu chung v Truyn thng marketing

31.2. Nhng thay i trong truyn thng marketing hin i

31.2.1. Vai tr ca truyn thng marketing: chuyn t chin thut sang chin lc

41.2.2. M rng phi thc truyn thng marketing

51.2.3. Truyn thng hng v th hiu ca khch hng

51.2.4. Truyn thng Internet

62. Truyn thng marketing tch hp

62.1. Marketing tch hp

72.2. Truyn thng marketing tch hp: lun thuyt mi ca marketing hin i

102.3. Cc c im ca IMC

122.3.5. Xy dng c s d liu marketing

132.3.8. Chuyn hng sang Marketing quan h

132.3.9. Phi hp chin lc marketing vi chin lc truyn thng

133. Cc nguyn nhn dn n vic hnh thnh v pht trin IMC

163.1. Cng ngh v Internet

163.2. Ton cu ha

173.3. tm quan trng ca hnh nh thng hiu

18u nhc im ca IMC

194. Cc cng c truyn thng ca IMC

194.1. Truyn thng qua cc phng tin thng tin i chng

194.1.1. Qung co

214.1.2. Khuyn mi hay Xc tin bn hng

224.1.3. Quan h cng ng

224.2. Truyn thng qua knh c nhn

224.2.1. Tip th trc tip

234.2.2. Bn hng

234.3. Truyn thng tng tc

234.3.1. Truyn thng qua Internet, truyn thng tng tc

244.3.2. Hng dn khch hng qua in thoi cha dch

255. Qun tr truyn thng c ng

266. Tin trnh lp k hoch IMC

286.1. nh gi k hoch marketing

296.2. nh gi tnh hung trin khai chng trnh truyn thng c ng

296.2.1. Phn tch ni b

306.2.2. Phn tch bn ngoi

306.3. Phn tch qu trnh truyn thng

316.4. Xc nh ngn sch

316.5. Hoch nh chng trnh IMC

326.6. iu khin, nh gi v kim sot

33Tng kt chng 1

Chng 1: Tng quan v truyn thng marketing tch hp(INTEGRATED MARKETING COMMUNICATION)1. S thay i v bn cht v vai tr ca truyn thng marketing 1.1. Gii thiu chung v Truyn thng marketing

Ngi tiu dng ca th k 21 lun i hi ra cc sn phm tt hn, gi hp dn hn v d tip cn hn. V vy, doanh nghip cn phi truyn thng marketing khng ch vi khch hng hin ti m vi c khch hng tim nng, thm ch vi c cng ng chung. a s cc doanh nghip ch dng li cu hi chng ta c nn truyn thng hay khng? m khng tp trung tr li y cho cu hi chng ta s ni g, lm nh th no, cho ai v truyn thng bao nhiu ln?. Thc tin kinh doanh cho thy truyn thng marketing cng ngy cng kh v cc doanh nghip ang chy ua v trang trong lnh vc truyn thng bng hng lot cc chin dch di bom tn vo khch hng. Theo TNS Media (2009), nu vo nm 1965. t c mt t l 90% nhn bit v thng hiu, doanh nghip ch cn qung co lin tc 3 ln trong 3 ngy th n nm 2008, doanh nghip cn phi qung co t nht l 137 ln trong cng mc thi gian. Chi ph truyn thng cng gia tng (trung bnh chi ph qung co cho mt ngi dn M l 125 usd/ nm TNS Media) nhng hiu qu li gim mnh. tip cn c vi th trng mc tiu v xy dng ti sn thng hiu, cc nh marketing v ang sng to nhiu phi thc truyn thng a dng v hiu qu hn.Truyn thng marketing c Delozier (1976) nh ngha l cuc i thoi lin tc gia ngi mua v ngi bn ti mt a im trn th trng. Theo Staudt v Taylor (1971), hiu qu hot ng marketing ph thuc rt nhiu vo hiu qu ca truyn thng v bt k mt doanh nghip mun hot ng hiu qu u phi nh vo nhiu ngun thng tin khc nhau t th trng hin ti. Thng tin v sn phm, gi c, a im bn hay lin quan n khch hng hay thm ch v i th cnh tranh . u s nh hng n nhn thc ca ngi tiu dng. Nh vy, cc yu t ca phi thc marketing s hiu qu hn khi c truyn thng qua cc knh thng tin thch hp. Kotler v Armstrong (1991) chia ra hai loi knh thng tin:

Knh c th(knh trc tip): hai hay nhiu ngi thng tin trc tip vi ngi khc thng qua mt a ch hay s phn hi c nhn (bn hng trc tip, marketing trc tip) Knh phi c th (knh gin tip): bao gm cc phng tin truyn thng, khng gian v s kin truyn thng. Truyn thng marketing bao gm cc bin php m doanh nghip s dng thng tin, thuyt phc v nhc nh ngi tiu dng - mt cch trc tip hay gin tip - v sn phm v nhn hiu thng mi. Theo mt ngha no , truyn thng marketing gi vai tr pht ngn vin ca thng hiu v l mt phng tin to s trao i v xy dng quan h vi khch hng.

Theo m hnh truyn thng c bn AIDA ca Lewis (1898), truyn thng marketing tp trung theo ui ba loi mc tiu chnh sau y:

- Mc tiu gia tng nhn thc (l tr): truyn thng tp trung vo uy tn ca doanh nghip, cc thng tin chnh v doanh nghip, cc t chc v n v tham gia (cc nh qung co);

- Mc tiu gia tng yu thch (xc cm): truyn thng tp trung vo hnh nh ca doanh nghip-Mc tiu khuyn khch hnh ng (hnh vi): y l cc mc tiu nh vo hnh vi tiu dng. V d lm sao li ko khch hng n siu th, lm sao khuyn khch khch hng mua hng, vv. Cc mc tiu ny lin quan trc tip n kinh nghim tri qua ca khch hng.Vai tr ca truyn thng marketing l gii thiu cc sn phm ca doanh nghip vi khch hng nhm t c cc mc tiu marketing ra. Trc y, xc tin thng mi (cn gi l khuyn mi) c coi l cu ni truyn thng gia doanh nghip v khch hng. Ngoi ra truyn thng marketing cn bao gm nhiu yu t khc nh qung co, bn hng hay quan h cng ng, marketing trc tip hay Interrnet.

Truyn thng marketing tt s gia tng hiu qu chm sc khch hng. H s c thng bo hoc hng dn ti sao hay bng cch no mt sn phm c lm ra, do ai lm ra, u v khi no. Nh vy, khch hng hiu thm v sn phm v c th s quan tm hn n vic dng th hay tiu dng sn phm. Truyn thng marketing cho php cng ty to mi lin kt gia thng hiu ca h vi cc yu t khc nh khch hng, a im, s kin, thng hiu, kinh nghim, cm nhn v suy ngh. Nh vy, truyn thng marketing gp phn vo vic xy dng ti sn thng hiu thng qua vic to dng hnh nh trong tr nh ngi tiu dng.Truyn thng marketing c th lin kt mt thng hiu vi mt ngi c th, mt a im xc nh hay mt tri nghim no . Truyn thng marketing cho php nh lm th trng vt qua c gii hn vt l ca sn phm hoc thuc tnh c th k thut ca dch v lm ch sn phm v to cc gi tr gia tng. Nh vy, truyn thng marketing gp phn gia tng sn lng bn hng v lng trung thnh bn lu ca khch hng. Tm quan trng ca truyn thng marketing c bit gia tng trong nhng nm gn y vi cc nguyn nhn ch yu sau y: - Ngy cng nhiu sn phm v dch v c nhn nhn nh chi mt canh bc v vo giai on bo ho ca vng i sn phm. to ra im khc bit gia cc thng hiu thng qua cht lng sn phm l iu rt kh. Truyn thng marketing bit vt ln yu t cht lng ni ti v cung cp thm thng tin to ra s khc bit cho sn phm, cho php thng hiu pht trin v gip khch hng hiu hn v li th cnh tranh ca thng hiu (Lane 2001).- Truyn thng marketing ng vai tr ch o trong vic chp nhn loi sn phm mi. bng vic cung cp thng tin kp thi v sn phm mi cho ngi tiu dng- Cc m hnh marketing truyn thng u lng tng trong vic tm hiu hnh vi ngy cng phc tp ca ngi tiu dng. Mi quan h nhn qu n gin khng cn thch hp nh hng ngi tiu dng hay th trng. Truyn thng marketing gip doanh nghip t chc tt hn quan h vi khch hng khng ch da trn cc thng ip trao i m cn da trn vic chn la phng tin truyn thng v c hi theo st th hiu khch hng.Tm li, truyn thng marketing ng vai tr hng u cho s pht trin ca doanh nghip v cho php xc nh cc mc tiu v a ra cc bin php thc hin. Truyn thng marketing khng ch n thun l mt qu trnh chin thut m l mt qu trnh chin lc. Thng hiu lu li trong tr nh ca khch hng khng ch thng qua kinh nghim s dng sn phm dch v, m cn nh vo hiu qu truyn thng lu di.1.2. Nhng thay i trong truyn thng marketing hin i1.2.1. Vai tr ca truyn thng marketing: chuyn t chin thut sang chin lcTrc y, truyn thng marketing khng phi lc no cng c nhn nhn l mt yu t chin lc trong doanh nghip. Mt trong nhng l do m truyn thng marketing ch c coi l yu t chin thut bt ngun t vic phn ln cng vic truyn thng c giao cho cc phng dch v marketing bn ngoi trin khai v thc hin (v d nh hoch nh, t vn tng sng to hay xc tin bn hng). Vic ny khin cho ngi ta nghi ng liu truyn thng c phi l nng lc ht nhn ca doanh nghip hay khng. Ngoi ra, phn ln tng cho qung co v khuyn mi ch dng li tm ngn v trung hn do c cu t chc v nhn vin thc hin thng xuyn thay i.Butterfield (1997) cho rng cn phi xem li cc m hnh marketing phn cp (hierarchical model) thng xp truyn thng bn cnh cc yu t khc ca marketing phi hp. M hnh ny thng bt u t cc chin lc doanh nghip, c c th ho bng mt s cc chin lc chc nng (bao gm c marketing). Theo , truyn thng marketing l mt b phn ca chin lc marketing. Vn theo Butterfield, do gi tr thng hiu ngy cng quan trng trong vic to ra li th cnh tranh, marketing tr thnh mt phng thc xy dng chin lc truyn thng. Nhn vo hnh di y, chng ta thy l trong m hnh mi, truyn thng bt u t cc chin lc cng ty v marketing tr thnh mt phn ca c ch thc hin chin lc truyn thng.

Hnh 1: Ti xc lp chin lc nh v ca truyn thng marketing (Butterfield, 1997)

iu ny khng c ngha l mi hot ng truyn thng marketing t ng c nng ln tm chin lc. Vn tn ti s khc bit gia truyn thng chin thut - h tr cc tng marketing c bit v truyn thng marketing chin lc - c doanh nghip hoch nh thng tin v tt c cc hot ng. M hnh trn h tr quan im truyn thng l khc bit vi cc hnh thc khc ca marketing phi hp . Truyn thng hiu qu s tr thnh cha kho vng to s khc bit.

1.2.2. M rng phi thc truyn thng marketingSchultz v Kitchen (2000) khuyn ngh nn s dng nhiu khi nim nh gi v trin khai chin lc truyn thng marketing hiu qu trong mt mi trng cnh tranh phc tp hin nay. Nh chng ta u thy, cn phi tin hnh chin lc truyn thng marketing thng qua vic kt hp nhiu chuyn ngnh v phng tin truyn thng, cng nh kinh nghim v thng hiu ca khch hng mt cch ph hp. c th truyn thng hng v khch hng, doanh nghip cn phi nh gi xem thng ip thng hiu c tip nhn nh th no. S di y ch ra cc cch m khch hng nhn thc v thng hiu ca bn(Hnh 2)

Hnh 2: Khch hng tip nhn thng ip truyn thng marketing nh th no? (Ngun: Schultz v Kitchen, 2000)

Theo hnh 2, c 8 ngun chnh ca truyn thng marketing: gi th, cc dch v chm sc khch hng, bao b mu m, gi c, cc a im phn phi, qung co, khuyn mi v trng by ti im bn. Tc l cng tng cch m khch hng c th nghe thy, nhn thy hay tri nghim v thng hiu. V vy, doanh nghip cn phi cn nhc v chn la chun xc cc phng thc c th tip cn khch hng mt cch hiu qu v c li cho thng hiu mnh. 1.2.3. Truyn thng hng v th hiu ca khch hng

Vic coi trng th hiu khch hng gip cho truyn thng ca doanh nghip hiu qu hn . a phn cc doanh nghip tht bi trong vic theo st s thay i s thch khch hng trn th trng v s dng cc phng tin truyn thng tip cn khng ph hp u phi tr gi rt t. Nm 1980, chu M chng kin bng n truyn hnh cp trong khi nh qung co, b buc theo cch phn b ngn sch truyn thng, vn tip tc theo ui cc h thng truyn thng cng knh. Kt qu l chi ph cho qung co truyn hnh tng ln trong khi khch hng li gim i. Cc doanh nghip no nhanh chng tip cn th trng cp th ginh c cc li th cnh tranh cao. Cch pht trin su rng chin lc truyn thng l phi suy ngh v thi gian v hon cnh tip nhn thng ip trn quan im ca khch hng. Khi no thng ip s l thch hp nht vi khch hng? V d, khch hng tim nng ca bn ang mun mua mt chic xe t mi v h rt tin tng i l bn xe gn nh. Tuy nhin, nu bn gi in cho khch hng khi h ang bn lm vic th h sn sng ngoi tai nhng g bn ni, tri li mt l th ngn gn, r rng km theo mt catalogue hp dn li c th thu ht s ch v quan tm ca h hn.1.2.4. Truyn thng Internet

Handy (1993) cho rng truyn thng s ha - bt k hnh thc truyn thng no i hi vic chuyn ti tnh hiu in t gia cc my tnh(CMC) - s l cha kha cho tng lai doanh nghip v truyn thng s ho r hn v ngy cng thch ng ph hp hn vi nhu cu ca doanh nghip. Mt trong nhng i din ni bt ca truyn thng s ha l truyn thng qua Internet hay cn gi l truyn thng trc tuyn. Phng thc truyn thng ny cho php truyn thng a chiu v tng tc, lm thay i trit phng thc thng tin gia doanh nghip vi khch hng v nh cung cp t trc n nay (truyn thng mt chiu, khng tng tc). Truyn thng qua Internet thu ht c s ch ca cc nh th trng bi nhiu l do: - Th nht, ngi tiu dng v doanh nghip s tin hnh kinh doanh nhanh hn trn Internet. c on khong 30 triu ngi s dng Internet, vi tc tng trng l 50%/ thng v s lng cc sites tng gp i sau 53 ngy. Thng mi in t t khong 45.8 t nm 2000. - Th hai, th trng ang dch chuyn t hnh thc thng mi tp trung, khp kn (one-to-one) sang kinh doanh trn mng theo kiu phn quyn theo vng, truyn thng i chng (many - to - many. V d, gn nh tt c cc ngnh dch v ch o hin nay u c website cho ngi tiu dng tham kho v tm kim thng tin.- Th ba, web site cung cp mt knh truyn thng hiu qu dnh cho qung co, tip th v phn phi mt s sn phm v dch v thng tin trong khi chi ph tip th trc tuyn ch bng 1/4 cc knh truyn thng khc.2. Truyn thng marketing tch hp 2.1. Marketing tch hpIMC bt ngun t marketing tch hp (IM). Duncan, mt trong nhng tc gi u tin nghin cu v IMC a ra mt nh ngha v IM nh sau: IM l qu trnh lin qun tr thng hiu da trn marketing quan h hiu qu, IM tp trung vo truyn thng tng hp v ng b cho khch hng c nhn v t chc nhm duy tr s nht qun trong chin lc truyn thng thng hiu, to iu kin pht trin cc knh giao tip vi khch hng v gip doanh nghip nng cao gi tr ca thng hiu. Vic tch hp ton b cc hot ng marketing nhm to ra qu trnh xy dng quan h hiu qu, khng tn km v IM i hi c s xc nhn v cam kt mc cao nht trong cu trc doanh nghip v s lin kt phi hp ton din, trong truyn thng gi vai tr lng nghe kin ca khch hng v c ng cng nh chuyn giao cc thng ip n tng nhm lin quan. Nhiu ngi ngh rng IM ch n gin l vic tch hp cc yu t n l ca truyn thng marketing truyn thng, tuy nhin, Percy (1997) ch ra nhng im khc nhau c bn sau y:

Bng 1.1: Phn bit Marketing truyn thng v Marketing tch hp (Percy, 1997)

Marketing truyn thng hng n:Marketing tch hp hng n:

Trao i Pht trin quan h

Khch hng C ng

Phi hp cc cng c truyn thng marketing S nht qun ca chin lc trong vic chuyn giao cc thng ip lin quan n thng hiu n khch hng v c ng

Truyn thng i chng & mt chiu Truyn thng tng tc (a chiu, i thoi)

ng c marketing Nhim v marketing

K hoch iu chnh trong nm K hoch mi trn c s r sot c hi truyn thng marketing thc t

T chc theo chc nng n l T chc phi hp theo chc nng

Chuyn mn ho Nng lc ct li

Marketing i chng Marketing da trn c s d liu (c th ha khch hng)

Truyn thng ca hng Qun tr truyn thng ca hng

Ngoi ra, Duncan v Moriaty (1997) tm ra cc c im ca IM nh sau:

- K hoch truyn thng bt u t s 0: y l trng tm ca qu trnh hoch nh chin lc marketing tch hp. tng ny ch ra rng vic s dng cc phng tin truyn thng phi c da trn vic nh gi nhu cu khch hng v th trng trong thi im hin ti ch khng phi da trn cc s liu th trng tch ly c t trong qu kh.- Chin lc truyn thng: c c s tng tc h tr cho cc hot ng marketing tch hp, mt cng ty phi: (1) tm ra im cn bng ca th trng chung (a balance of the mass), truyn thng tng tc v c kh nng tip cn tin hnh c thng ip c nhn v i chng; (2) xy dng c s d liu theo st phn ng ca khch hng (ch khng phi l trao i) v p ng theo ng nhng mong mun, nhu cu v mi quan tm ca h; (3) s dng c s d liu v to iu kin trao i vi khch hng;(4) bo m rng cc thng tin lu tr v doanh nghip s to ra nhng thay i trong hnh vi doanh nghip. Khi nim menu media danh sch truyn thng cho thy do vic phn chia cc phng tin truyn thng, khch hng c th tip cn truyn thng nhiu hn trc khi h chn la. Trong IM, truyn thng bao gm tt c cc phng tin dng chuyn ti thng ip cho c khch hng v c ng.

- Nhim v ca marketing: c hai mc c bn ca nhim v marketing. (1) Mc u tin l nhim v to ra gi tr cho c ng v to li nhun. Vic ny i hi xy dng mt vn ho doanh nghip v k lut bo m thc hin nhim v phi r rng. (2) mc th hai, nhim v marketing mang tnh thc hin nhiu hn v p dng cho cc cng ty mun m rng cc hot ng x hi (v d, cc hot ng nhn o). iu ny i hi s thay i trong cch m h t chc cc chng trnh marketing hng theo mc ch x hi. Hammer v C...