GOVERNMENT OF INDIAMINISTRY OF RAILWAYS
INDIAN RAILWAYSPERMANENT WAY
Second Reprint 2004
INTERNET VERSION - Embodying all advance correction slips upto number 100 dated 21-06-2006
For Official Use Only
F O R E W O R D(to First Edition)
The Indian Railways Way and Works Manual incorporating uniform procedure
and practices to be followed on Indian Railways was first published in 1954. With
the introduction of modernization of track structure, Mechanical maintenance of track
and introduction of high speed trains in seventies and thereafter, the provisions in
the manual relating to track needed updating. This has now been done by bringing
out a separate Indian Railways Permanent Way Manual. It is hoped that the
procedures and practices envisaged in the manual will help the Permanent Way
men in maintaining the track to better standards, ensuring safety, economy and
eff ic iency.
New Delhi, T. N. RAMACHANDRANDated 17th July 1984 Member/Engineering, Railway Board
PREFACE(to First Edition)
The Indian Railways Way and Works Manual was last published in l967. Since then there have beenconsiderable changes in the Track Standards, Maintenance practices and Track Monitoring. The TrackStandards Committee had, vide Item 678 of the 49th Report, recommended the appointment of an Officer onSpecial Duty by the Railway Board for revising the Way and Works Manual. The Committee also recommendedthat the revised manual should be split into three separate parts, for Permanent Way, Bridges and Works.
Pursuant to the above recommendations of the T.S.C., the following three officers worked in successionas Officers on Special Duty and compiled this part of the manual dealing with Permanent Way :
Shri Y.G.Patwardhan .. Mayl978 - August 1979.
Shri P. O. Thomas .. August 1979 - January 1981.
Shri K. S. Swaminathan .. March 1982 onwards.
The Draft Chapters, as compiled, were then scrutinised by a Select Committee consisting of thefollowing Officers :-
SarvashriY.G.Patwardhan .. Principal, IRIATT, Pune.
N.Gopalan .. Director Standards, Civil, RDSO
Y. P. Anand .. Director, Track, Railway Board.
J.S.Mundrey .. Chief Track Engineer, N. Railway.
N.S.Raghavan .. Chief Track Engineer, S. Railway.
Y. V.Aswathnarayana ..Chief Track Engineer, E. Railway. N.P.Ghose }
Shri K. S. Swaminathan, Officer on Special Duty and CPDE/South Central Railway acted as Memberand Convenor of the Committee.
While revising the Manual, the provisions in the Indian Railway General Rules 1976, Indian RailwaysCode for the Engineering Department, 1982 Edition and the accepted recommendations of the Committee setup for Review of Track Standards for Broad Gauge and Metre Gauge have been taken into account.
The Manual of Instructions on LWR/CWR 1979, the Manual of Instructions on Directed TrackMaintenance, and instruction manual on Measured Shovel Packing have been incorporated as Annexures tothis Manual. The provisions of SWR Manual have been incorporated in the relevant chapters of the Manual asmajor portion of the track in the Indian Railways is on SWR track.
In a volume of this type, it is not possible to provide for every contingency that may arise during thecourse of the working, though every effort has been made to make the instructions comprehensive. The ChiefEngineers of Zonal Railways may therefore supplement, where necessary, the practices and procedurescontained herein with such further instructions/orders, as would suit local circumstances on their Railway.Such instructions must not of course contravene any of the provision in this manual, the codes of the variousdepartments of the Railways, General Rules, or any of the statutory regulations in force.
The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from RailwayAdministrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition may be brought to the notice of the Board.
New Delhi, TIRATH PRAKASHDated 17th July 1984 Director, Civil Engineering Railway Board
FOREWORD TO FIRST REPRINT TO IRPWM (1986)
A separate Indian Railways Permanent Way Manual incorporating procedure and practices to be
followed on Indian Railways after modernisation of the track commenced in the seventies was first
published in 1986. It has been decided to reprint the existing IRPWM updating the same by incorporating
all the Advance Correction Slips issued so far (i.e. Advance Correction Slip Nos. 1 to 27). It is hoped that
this updated manual will help the Permanent Way Men in maintaining the track to prescribed standards.
New Delhi, (V. K. Agnihotri)June 1999 Member Engineering
PREFACE TO FIRST REPRINT TO IRPWM (1986)
A Separate Indian Railways Permanent Way Manual was published in 1986 pursuant to the
recommendations of the 49th Track Standards Committee. With the passage of time, certain changes in
Track Standards, maintenance practices, track monitoring, etc. have occurred and Advance Correction Slips
have been issued from time to time. It was decided by the Railway Board to reprint the IRPWM incorporating
all the Advance Correction Slips No. 1 to 27. Further, as a separate LWR Manual (1996) has already been
published, Annexure-M2 of the IRPWM (1986) has been deleted.
Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestions from the Railway
New Delhi, (N. C. Bindlish)June 1999 Additional Member Civil Engineering Railway Board
FOREWORD TO SECOND REPRINT TO IRPWM (1986)
Indian Railways Permanent Way Manual was published in the year
1986, as per the recommendations of the 49th Track Standards
Committee. Thereafter, it was reprinted in the year 1999, incorporating
Advance Correction Slip Nos. 1 to 27.
The present manual was issued in English only. It is now being
issued in diglot form ( Hindi as well as English ) for the first time. This
reprint incorporates Advance Correction Slips upto No. 93.
A Compact Diskett, containing the full content in PDF form has also
been attached to the back cover. This will facilitate the viewing of the
manual on a Personal Computer as well as for taking print, if
It is hoped, that this updated manual will help the Permanent Way
men, in maintaining the track upto the prescribed standards.
New Delhi (S.P.S. Jain)May, 2004 Member Engineering
DUTIES OF PERMANENT WAY OFFICIALS/MEN
PART A 1 - 3
Duties of Assistant Engineer/Assistant Divisional Engineer
General 101. Essential duties of Assistant Engineer 102. Knowledge of rules and regulations 103. Co-ordination with officials of other departments 104. Inspection by higher officials 105. Inspection by AssistantEngineer 106. Inspection of Permanent Way 107. Execution of Works 108. Measurement of Ballast 109.Action in case of emergencies 110. Accompanying Track Recording/Oscillograph Cars 111. Control overExpenditure 112. Training of probationers 113. Witnessing payments to staff 114. Inspection of office andstores of Inspectors 115. Staff matters 116. Relinquishment of charge 117.
PART B 4 - 9
Duties of Permanent Way Inspectors / Section Engineer (P Way)Duties of Permanent Way Inspectors (in overall charge)
General responsibility 118. Knowledge of rules and regulations 119. Co-ordination with works, bridgeand staff of other departments 120. Keeping of materials 121. Accompanying on inspections of higher officials122 Testing of running qualities of track 123. Routine inspection of track 124. Revised Schedule of Inspectionof track 124A. Safety of track 125. Check on Patrolling 126. Execution of works affecting Track 127. Actionin case of emergency 128. Inspection and maintenance of LWR/CWR Track 129. Measurement of Ballast130. Station Yards 131. Witnessing payment to staff 132. Other Establishment matters 133. Correspondenceand records 134, Relinquishment of charge 135.
Duties of Permanent Way Inspectors (not in overall charge)
General responsibilities 136. Knowledge of rules and regulations 137. Co- ordination with Works,Bridge and Staff of other departments 138. Routine Inspection of Track 139. Revised Schedule of Inspection oftrack 139A. Annual maintenance works 140. Check on patrolling 141. Execution of works affecting Track 142.Action in case of emergency 143. Maintenance of LWR/CWR Track 144. Witnessing payments to staff 145.
PART C 10 - 10
Duties of Permanent Way Mistries
General responsibilities 146. Knowledge of rules and signals 147. Permanent Way Mistry in-charge ofgangs 148.
PART D 11 -14
Duties of Mates, Keymen and GangmenGeneral
Knowledge of rules and signals 149. Safety of the line 150. Equipment at site of work 151. Musters andGang Charts/Diary books 152. Observance of sleeper packing during passage of train 153 Precautions whenview is obstructed. 154. Tidiness of section 155. Safe custody of tools 156. Action when line is unsafe or in theevent of accident 157. Patrolling during abnormal rainfall 158. Commencing work affecting safety of trains159. Weekly inspection of gang length by mate 160. Preventing trespass and theft of Permanent way fittings161. Relief arrangement in emergencies 162. Assistance to Posts and Telegraph staff 163. Assistance inprotection of trains 164. Assistance in placing fog signals 165. Responsibilities of the Mate in LWR track 166.
Duties of KeymanSelection and training of Keyman 167. Keymans daily inspection 168(1). Roster duty hours of Keyman 168(2).
Equipment of Keyman 169. Duties of Keyman 170. Keymans book 171.
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CHAPTER IITHE MAINTENANCE OF PERMANENT WAY
PART A 15 - 29
Responsibility of Engineering officials 201. Classification of lines 202. Systems of track maintenance203. Annual programme of track maintence 204. Maintenance planning 205. Record of gang work 206. Attentionto Inspection Notes 207. Record of work of artisans and other workmen employed 208. Special reports on thecondition of Permanent way 209. Permanent Way Inspectors section register 210. Permanent way plans anddiagrams 211. Records of materials under trial 212. Strength of gangs 213. Musters 214. Custody of gangtools 215. Section Limit Board 216. Kilometre and gradient posts 217. Telegraph pole number 218. Verificationof land boundaries 219. Trolly refuges 220. Standard dimensions 221. Felling of trees obstructing view 222.Side drains, catch water drains and water-ways 223.
PART B 30 - 55
Regular Track Maintenance
Through packingConventional maintenance by beater packing 224. Maintenance by Measured shovelpacking (deleted) 225. Track maintenance by machines 226. Systematic overhauling 227. 3-tier system oftrack maintenance 228. Picking up slacks 229. Observance of sleepers under passage traffic 230. Sample ofstandard section off track 231. Checking work of gangs by PWI 232. Lifting of track 233. Lowering of track 234.Distance pieces to platform lines 235. Fouling marks 236. Inspection and maintenance of Points and Crossings237.
PART C 56 - 65
Works incidental to regular track maintenance
Deep screening of ballast 238. Side and catch water drains and water-ways 239. Drainage in stationyards 240. Lubrication of rail joints 241. Counteraction and adjustment of creep 242. Buckling of track 243.
PART D 66 - 73
Sleepers and Fastenings
Laying of sleepers 244. Wooden sleepers 245. Cast iron sleepers 246. Steel trough sleepers 247.
PART E 74 -83
Rails and Fastenings
Standard sections of rails 248. Causes of rail deterioration 249. Rail maintenance to reduce raildeterioration 250. Maintenance of rail joints 251. Inspection of rails in service 252. Action to be taken in thecase of rail fractures/weld failures 253. Stacking of rails 254. Handling of rails 255. Rail closures 256. Railfailures 257 Careful usage of fish-plates 258. Combination fish-plates 259. Fish plate failures 260.
PART F 84 - 91
Ballast and Ballast Depots
Type of ballast in use 261. Size of ballast 262. Ballast profiles/Sections/Depths of cushion 263.Assessment of ballast requirements 264. Collection and training out of ballast 265. Depot collection ofballast 266. Along side collections 267. Handing over charge by AEN 268. Unloading ballast along the line269. Surplus ballast along the line 270. Ballasting new formation 271.
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PART G 92 - 97
Track structure on Bridges
Rail and rail joints on Bridges 272. Bridge timbers 273. Use of rail free fastenings in girder bridges274. Provision of guard rails on bridges 275. Provision of walkways 276. Inspection and maintenance oftrack on approaches of bridges 277. Inspection and maintenance of Track on bridge proper 278.
PART H 98 - 99
Maintenance of Track in track circuited areas
Precautions to be taken while working. 279. Insulated joints 280. Glued insulated joints 281.
PART J 100 - 104
Maintenance in Electrified areas
General instructions 282. Special instructions 283. Maintaining continuity of track 284. Catch sidings285. Additional precautions in A. C. Traction area 286. Fire in Electrified areas 287. Permanent Way Tools 288.Treatment of persons suffering from Electric shock 289. Accident to power lines of outside bodies 290.
PART K 105 - 110
Treatment of Formation
Classification of formation 291. Nature of formation problems 292. Site investigations 293. Soilinvestigations and testing 294. Remedial measures suggested 295.
CHAPTER III 111 - 129PERMANENT WAY RENEWALS
Classification of renewals 301. Factors governing Permanent Way renewal 302. Planning of Renewals303. Track renewal programme 304. Track standards for renewals 305. Planning for posting of staff and otherfacilities 306. Traffic facilities for renewals 307. Speed restrictions 308. Project Report for track renewal works309 A. Preliminary Works 309 B. Unloading of rails, sleepers and fastenings 310. Methods of carrying outrenewal 311. Relaying with Mechanical equipment 312. Complete relaying Method (Manual) 313. Piecemealmethod of Relaying (Manual) 314. Essential points to be observed during linking 315. Track laying standards316. Renewal of points and crossings 317. Sleepers in yards and running lines 318. Rails in station yards 319.Classification and use of released materials 320. Marking of Permanent Way material 321. Identification ofdifferent qualities of rails in field 322. Works to be attended after completion of relaying 323.
CHAPTER IVCURVED TRACK AND REALIGNMENT OF CURVES
PART A 130 - 139
Determination of radius 401. The reference rail 402. Gauge on curves 403 Definitions 404. Safe Speedon curves 405. Superelevation, cant deficiency and cant excess 406. Length of transition curve and settingout transitions 407. Running out superelevation 408. Indicators/Boards provided in curves 409. Speed overturn-out curves 410. Permissible speed over curved main line at turn-outs 411. No change of superelevationover turn-outs 412. Curves of contrary flexure 413. Curves of similar flexure 414. Curves with cross overs415. Curves with diamond crossings 416. Extra...