INTERNET COMMUNITIES: CỘNG ÐỒNG INTERNET:

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    INTERNET COMMUNITIES: LINKING THE WORLD

    An Electronic Journal of the U.S. Department of State

    November 2000 Volume 5, Number 3

    CNG NG INTERNET: LIN KT TON CU

    Tp ch in t ca B Ngoi giao M

    Cc Vn Ton cu, 11/2000

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    MC LC

    CHNH QUYN IN T: KHNG TNG, KHNG NG H,

    KHNG CA

    LM TIN TRONG THI I S

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    CHNH QUYN IN T: KHNG TNG, KHNG NG H, KHNG CA

    William Peters & Charlene Porter Cc c quan thuc chnh ph d ln hay nh u ang chuyn dch vo mt thi i k thut s bng vic a ngy cng nhiu dch v qua Internet. Chnh ph "ca dn, do dn v v dn" l mt l tng ca nc M t th k 19. Trong th k 21, cng ngh thng tin ban cho cng dn nhng cng c mi t c mc ch . Chnh ph Hoa K cung cp nhng cch thc mi cho cc cng dn c th du ngon trong mng li vn phng ti mt trang Web c tn FirstGov (http://firstgov.gov/). Ngy 20/9/2000, khi tuyn b khai trng trang Web ny vi mt a ch trn Internet trc ton quc, (Cu) Tng thng Bill Clinton m t mt dch v m cho php cng dn truy cp c cc thng tin v dch v ca chnh ph 24 gi/ngy, 7 ngy/tun, v 365 ngy/nm. Ch mt cng thng tin trc tuyn ni kt ngi M vi mt trong cc tp hp trang Web ln nht th gii - 27 triu trang thng tin ca 20.000 cc trang Web ca Chnh ph ti M. Thng ip sau ca Tng thng nghnh cho nhng ai vo thm trang FirstGov: http://www.firstgov.gov "FirstGov cho php ngi s dng truy nhp vo mt kho thng tin phong ph - t Th vin Quc hi n vic theo di hot ng ca NASA. N cng cho php ngi s dng c th thc hin nhng cng vic quan trng trn mng, nh vic sinh vin np n xin vay tin, vic tm hiu cc li ch ca bo him x hi, so snh la chn cc dch v y t, v thm ch qun l cc hot ng ti tr v hp ng ca chnh ph. Bc nhy vt lch s ny trong vic cung cp cc dch v ca chnh ph qua mt ca s gip cho ngi M trn khp t nc v trn ton th gii tm kim c cc thng tin v ngun lc h cn ch vi mt ci nhy chut - mt cch nhanh chng v d dng." Dch v trn khng gian iu khin hc chnh l ci m ngi M mun. l kt qu ca mt nghin cu mi y mang tn Hart-Teeter, thc hin bi Hi ng Chnh quyn Xut sc, mt t chc lng ng phi li nhun vi s mnh ci thin hot ng ca khu vc cng cng. u t tin ca chnh ph vo lnh vc chnh quyn in t c 68% s ngi c hi cho l mt u tin. Con s ny tng ln 77% sau khi cc nhn vin iu tra a ra cc v d v cc dch v trc tuyn ca chnh ph. Trong nhng ngi truy nhp cc trang Web ca chnh ph, c 10 ngi tr li c 7 ngi khen ngi cht lng ca nhng g h thy, v 60% ni h rt d tm thy nhng thng tin mnh cn.

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    Vi 50 bang, 3100 chnh quyn cp qun, v hn 12000 thnh ph v th x trn khp nc M, cc quyt nh v cch thc a chnh quyn ln mng ang c tip cn bng nhiu cch khc nhau. Theo cc quan chc ang thc hin "cc th in t" ti cc cp bang v a phng, d cch thc tip cn nh th no th chnh quyn in t phi c s ng h ca cc nh lnh o chnh tr, cc quan chc chnh ph, v c cng chng. Chnh quyn mt s ni ang chuyn dch nhanh hn cc ni khc, nhng c hai chnh quyn cnh th Washington, DC l 2 v d xc ng cho thy cng ngh thng tin c th ci thin mi quan h gia chnh quyn v nhn dn nh th no. Trang Web ca qun Fairfax, bang Virginia (http://www.co.fairfax.va.us/fairfax.htm/) c khi u nm 1995 nh mt d n th im. y l mt qun c mc thu nhp v gio dc cao hn mc trung bnh ton quc, thng k ny tng ng vi mc s dng vi tnh cao hn. Ngy nay, mi thng c trung bnh mt triu lt ngi truy nhp trang ny. Trong mt cuc phng vn, Trng Ban Thng tin qun Fairfax David Mol-chany ni: "Chng ti khng bit c ai s s dng trang ny v h s s dng n nh th no, hoc liu n c thnh cng khng... (By gi) cng dn s dng n n mc kinh ngc". Mt nhn t na trong vic cng chng chp nhn sn phm Web ny l v qun ny, vi 1 triu dn, l ni tp trung nhiu cng ty cng ngh thng tin nht c nc. Kt qu l, khi cc quan chc qun Fairfax bt u tuyn truyn cho "mt chnh quyn khng tng, khng ca, v khng ng h,"> h ang ni vi mt tp hp dn s m c th d chp nhn tng ny hn nhiu ni cn mang tnh nng nghip hn hoc km giu c hn trn nc M. Pha bc ca Fairfax, bang Maryland vi hn 5 triu dn cng vo mt v th cho thy c th d chp nhn chnh quyn in t hn. Ngi dn Maryland c mc thu nhp v gio dc cao hn bnh qun c nc, v phn ln dn s sng ti cc khu th xung quanh Washington, DC, v Baltimore, bang Maryland. Chnh quyn bang c tr s ti th ph Annapolis bt u thc hin cc chc nng ca mnh qua mng t nm 1995. Trng Ban Thng tin ca Maryland Alisoun Moore nhn mnh mc m cng ngh thng tin mi nht tng cng c hi cho cc cng dn tham gia vo chnh quyn. "Ti Maryland by gi chng ti truyn qua mng truyn thanh tt c cc phin hp lp php. Bn c th lin lc vi tng thnh vin ca ngh vin bang v vi tng quan chc chnh quyn... Vy mi cng dn u c th tip cn vi chnh quyn". Molchany cng ni, kh nng tip cn ca cng dn l mt thnh t quan trng trong cuc chuyn dch vo khng gian iu khin hc ti a bn ca ng trong 5 nm qua. Th in t ban cho cng dn mt kh nng tip cn cha tng c vi Ban gim st, l

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    c quan iu hnh cao nht ti qun c php ra cc quyt nh v vic thu gom rc, s dng t ai, v vic cung cp cc dch v v cng an, cu ho v cp cu. Molchany ni Fairfax p dng mt h thng thng tin lin lc vi cng dn qua th in t. "Khi cc gim st vin nhn c cc email hay th t, h thc t c th theo di tin trnh ca vn , v vy h thy h c tr li c cc cng dn". Tnh cp bch v kh nng tip cn cho cng dn v vic ni kt qua bc tng s ngn cch gia ngi c v ngi khng c my tnh cng m rng n nhng loi cng ngh c s dng bi cc chnh quyn ny. thc c rng khng phi mi gia nh sm c my tnh, c qun Fairfax v bang Maryland p dng cng ngh phc p t ng bng li nhm lm cho vic i thoi vi cng dn c tt hn. Cng ngh phc p bng li t ng lm cho cng dn c kh nng tip cn vi nhiu dch v v cc thng tin ghi sn v cc chng trnh ca chnh quyn qua vic s dng in thoi n phm. ng Moore ni, xo b bc tng s cng l mt mc ch khc cho cc dch v ca chnh quyn in t Maryland. "N quan trng n mc chng ti th phm sai lm v phng din ci m cn hn qu khp kn v hn ch". Trang Web ca qun Fairfax cung cp mt danh mc trc tuyn v cc dch v sn c: vui chi, dch v con ngi, an ninh cng cng, chnh quyn, v cc to n. Tm kim trong cc ph trang, nh trang v vui chi, ngi ta c th tm c ton b v cc cng vin, cc khu gii tr, tm hiu cc c hi tiu khin hoc thm ch t ch cho gi dng tr ti mt sn golf. Tuy hin nay phn ln nhng g trn mng ch l thng tin, Molchany ni trang Web ny s sm a vo cc dch v tng tc, cho php ngi truy cp c th thng qua mng tr thu hoc ng k theo hc mt lp th dc. Trang Web ca Th in t Maryland (http://www.mec.state.md.us/) cung cp cc thng tin v cc cng ni kt n cc loi dch v ca bang, ngoi ra cn c cc ch dn d hiu i loi nh "lm th no thc hin cc vic Maryland." Ngi truy cp c th tm c thng tin v mt a im i ngh Maryland, vic lm trong chnh quyn, hay tnh trng ca mt d lut ti ngh vin bang. Trang ny cng cho php tip cn d dng n cc trang Web bn ngoi b my quan liu ca bang, nh cc trng i hc, cao ng, cc doanh nghip, v cc chnh quyn a phng. Bn trn s thng tin lin lc v cc dch v v cc hot ng, ng Moore coi "Th in t" ca Maryland nh mt s m rng cam kt ca chnh quyn xy dng nhng cng ng tt hn v ci thin cht lng cuc sng v mc sng cho cng dn. "Mi th, t t do chnh tr n mi trng v th cht, trng hc, v cng vin, v.v. Chnh quyn phi s dng cng ngh ng h v thc y vic pht trin v s dng nhng

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    ngun lc ny". Trong cng vic xy dng cc trang Web ca chnh quyn, Molchany v Moore gi y tr thnh cc mn n lc ci bin cc nh lnh o khc h tin vo nhng g Internet c th lm c v vo cc c hi n c th em n cho cng dn. Molchany hin l thnh vin i c nhim v cc c hi s hot ng trn khp bang Virginia gip cc cng ng nhng ni km pht trin thnh lp cc "cng ng in t." ng ni: "Chng ti ang th cc mu thit k v phn mm khc nhau m chng ti c th phn pht cho cc cng ng my vi tnh c quy m khc nhau", v ni: "y l nhng g cc bn c th lm lin kt cng dn ca cc bn, ko h ln mng". Moore nu ln vn mang tnh ton cu v kh nng ca Internet lm gim i quyn lc ca cc nh c ti v chuyn quyn, cho php dng chy thng tin ln hn vo cc x hi b cch ly. Moore ni: "Internet nh mt mng li in, mt mng li thng tin, mt xa l thng tin m bn c th n bt k ni u trn th gii () ly thng tin... Internet lm cho ngi ta c th ly kin thc v s dng kin thc, v iu c bn l khng th cho nhn dn m tt c". ----------- William Peters l Bin tp vin t "Cc vn ton cu". Charlene Porter vit v cc vn thng tin lin lc cho Phng cc chng trnh thng tin quc t ca B Ngoi giao Hoa K. Ton vn bng ting Anh c trn Internet ti: http://usinfo.state.gov/journals/itgic/1100/ijge/gj02.htm

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    LM TIN TRONG THI I S Brad Kalbfeld, Ph Gim c, Th k To son Associated Press, Ban Pht thanh Truyn hnh Thi i s to ra mt phng tin hon ton mi cho cc nh bo. Cng nh nhng g h lm trong nhng ngy sm nht ca pht thanh v truyn hnh, cc nh bo khm ph phng tin mi ny, hc cch thu thp v th hin cc s vic trong khng gian iu khin hc. Cch y 1,5 th k, vic a tin quc t rt n gin: i mt chuyn tu tr v t hi ngoi, phng vn hnh khch, ri chy ht tc v to son v c gng bi kp c ng. Thng tin lin lc gia cc nc yu cu s hin din trc tip. Bn thn mt phng vin phi nghe tin v phi tr v to son np bi. K t , bo ch thay i ng k, khi cng ngh, bt u bng in tn v in thoi, khin ngi ta c th bit v cc s kin m khng cn phi ch thn . Tt nhin, Internet cho php n thm nhiu ni m khng cn c mt trc tip, v d n l mt thun li i vi nh bo v c ngi c/xem, n cng mang mt s ri ro. Internet ni lin v s cc my tnh trn th gii, khin mt hc sinh tiu hc Akron, Ohio, c th c c cc tp tin trn mt trang ch ca mt trng i hc Berne, Thu S, hoc mt nh bo Tokyo c th xem c bn thng co mi nht trn mt trang ch ca chnh ph Washington. iu ny lm cho Internet tr thnh mt dng c v song trong vic tm kim v ng tin. Vi mt vi pht tm kim trn Mng thng tin ton cu, mt phng vin ngy nay c th kim c thng tin m nu cch y mt thp k c th phi mt hng gi gi in ng di t . Thm na, mng Web cn cho php c th phng vn mt ngi m khng cn phi tin hnh tr chuyn thc s. Nu mt ngun tin khng th lin lc bng in thoi, lc no cng c th lin lc vi h qua email. Tt nhin, vic phng vn bng vn bn khng phi l mi nm 1897, hng Associat-ed Press nhn c mt bn in tn ni ting ca Mark Twain ni rng: "Cc bi vit v ci cht ca ti b cng iu thm t" nhng trn th gii by gi, cu hi v tr li c th c trao i tnh bng pht, khng phi mt hng gi a tn tay bc in tn, hay hng ngy trao i qua th t. Tt c s tin li ny u c nhng mt tri. Lm sao mt phng vin bit rng