Jiva Goswami Brahma Samhita Commentary

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<p>SrIa ]iva Goswami`sBrahma-samhifa CommenfaryTcxi 1svaial paiamal lisnal sac-cid-ananda-vigialalanadii adii govindal saiva-laiana-laianam svaial--ilc coniiollci;; paiamal--supicmc;; lisnal--Loid Kisna;; sai--compiising cicinal cxisicncc;; cii--absoluic lnowlcdgc;; ananda--and absoluic bliss;; vigialal--wlosc loim;; anadil--wiiloui bcginning;; adil--ilc oiigin;; govindal--Loid Govinda;; saiva-laiana-laianam--ilc causc ol all causcs. Kisna wlo is lnown as Govinda is ilc Supicmc Godlcad. Hc las an cicinal blisslul spiiiiual body. Hc is ilc oiigin ol all. Hc las no oilci oiigin and Hc is ilc piimc causc ol all causcs.Commcniaiy by Sila Jva GosvamMangalacaianasi-lisna-iupa-malima mama ciiic malyaiamyasya piasadad vyal-laiium icclami bialma-samliiam Wiilin my lcaii I woislip ilc splcndoi ol Loid Kisna's iiansccndcnial loim. I dcsiic ilai by Loid Kisna's mcicy I will bc ablc io cxplain ilc vciscs ol lialma-samliia.duiyojanapi yuliaiila su-vicaiad isi-smiiilvicaic iu mamaiia syad isnam sa isii gaiil Alilougl ilc lialma-samliia is a vciy dilliculi bool, ilc commcniaiics ol ilc sagcs lavc madc ii casy io undcisiand. My woids lollow ilcii cxplanaiions.yadyapy adlyaya-saia-yul samliia sa iailapy asauadlyayal suiia-iupaivai iasyal saivangaiam gaial Alilougl ilc lialma-samliia coniains onc lundicd clapicis, bccausc ilis clapici biiclly dcsciibcs Loid Kisna's iiansccndcnial loim, ii is ilc bcsi.simad-blagavaiadycsu disiam yan misia-buddlibliliad cvaiia paiamisiam iaio lisiam mano mama Tlc samc iiansccndcnial swccincss ilc puic-lcaiicd dcvoiccs scc in simad-llagavaiam and oilci Vaisnava-sasiias is also picscni in ilc lialma-samliia. Ioi ilis icason my lcaii is now lappy.yad yac cli-lisna-sandaiblc visiaiad viniiupiiamaiia iai punai amisya vyallyaium spisyaic maya Alici duc icllcciion, in ilis bool I lavc liglily iouclcd on ilc samc iopics moic claboiaicly cxplaincd in my Si Kisna- sandaibla.1. KrsnaSiimad llagavaiam (1.3.2S) cxplains:"All ol ilc abovc-mcniioncd incainaiions aic ciilci plcnaiy poiiions oi poiiions ol ilc plcnaiy poiiions ol ilc Loid, bui Loid Sii Kisna is ilc oiiginal Pcisonaliiy ol Godlcad.lialma-samliia bcgins wiil a similai dcclaiaiion ol ilc supicmacy ol Loid Kisna. In ilis vcisc ilc Supicmc Pcisonaliiy ol Godlcad is spccilically idcniilicd as Loid Kisna. As ilc namc Loid Kisna is spolcn liisi in ilc passagc bcginning "Kisnavaiaioisava" and oilci siaicmcnis ol Siila Suladcva Gosvami and oilci gicai souls, as ilc namc ol Kisna is givcn liisi in ilc siaicmcni "lisnaya vasudcvaya dcvali-nandanaya" ol ilc Sama Upanisad, as ilc namc ol Kisna is givcn liisi in Gaiga Muni's icvclaiion ol ilc Loid's loly namcs, and as ilc cxamplc "payasa lumblam puiayaii" is also givcn, in ilc samc way ilis vcisc ol lialma-samliia givcs ilc namc Kisna liisi bccausc ilc loim ol Loid Kisna is ilc oiigin ol all oilci loims ol Godlcad.Tlai Kisna is ilc mosi impoiiani namc ol ilc Supicmc Pcisonaliiy ol Godlcad is cxplaincd in ilc Padma Puiana, Piablasa-llanda, wlcic, in a convcisaiion bciwccn Naiada and Kusadlvaja, ilc lollowing woids ol ilc Supicmc Pcisonaliiy ol Godlcad aic icpcaicd:"O Aijuna, ol all My loly namcs, Kisna is ilc mosi impoiiani."Tlc impoiiancc ol ilc namc Kisna is also conliimcd in ilc lialmanda Puiana, Sii Kisnasioiiaia-saia-nama-sioiia, wlcic Loid Kisna says:"Tlc pious icsulis dciivcd liom claniing ilc ilousand namcs ol Loid Visnu ilicc iimcs can bc aiiaincd by only onc icpciiiion ol ilc loly namc ol Kisna."In ilc liisi vcisc ol lialma-samliia ilc namc "Govinda" is also givcn. Tlis namc is givcn io Loid Kisna bccausc Hc is ilc masici ol ilc spiiiiual suiabli cows. lccausc Loid Kisna is all-powcilul, ilc liisi vcisc ol lialma-samliia dcsciibcs Him as "isvaia". Loid Kisna is also dcsciibcd in ilcsc woids ol Siimad-llagavaiam (10.S.13 and 15)."Youi son Kisna appcais as an incainaiions in cvciy millcnnium. In ilc pasi Hc assumcd ilicc dillcicni colouis: wliic, icd, and ycllow, and now Hc las appcaicd in a blaclisl coloui.""Iiom ilis son ol youis ilcic aic many loims and namcs accoiding io His iiansccndcnial qualiiics and aciiviiics. Tlcsc aic lnown io mc, bui pcoplc in gcncial do noi undcisiand ilcm."In ilcsc vciscs ilc woid "asya" (ol Him) iclcis io Loid Kisna "anuyugam mcans "in cvciy millcnnium", "ianul" mcans "ilc loims ol vaiious incainaiions", "gilnaial" mcans "manilcsis", "vainas iiayal" mcans "ilc colouis bcginning wiil wliic", and "asan" mcans "manilcsicd. In ilcsc vciscs Gaiga Muni says, "In Saiya yuga and oilci yugas ilc Loid appcaicd in a wliic loim and loims ol oilci colouis, bui now (idanim) Hc las appcaicd in His oiiginal loim, ilc loim ol Loid Kisna (lisnaiam gaial). lccausc Loid Kisna is ilc oiiginal, ilc bcsi loim ol ilc Pcisonaliiy ol Godlcad, ilc namc Kisna is ilc mosi impoiiani ol His namcs, and ilc oilci loims ol Godlcad (baluni iupani) aic manilcsicd liom ilc oiiginal loim, Kisna. Tlai ilc iiansccndcnial qualiiics ol ilc namc Kisna malc ii ilc mosi impoiiani ol God's namcs is conliimcd in ilc lollowing siaicmcni ol Vaisnava liiciaiuic: (Missing)In ilis way ilc namc Kisna is dcsciibcd. Tlc vcisc ol Vaisnava liiciaiuic docs noi acccpi any oilci namc as ilc mosi impoiiani namc ol God. In ilc Asiadasalsaia-maniia-vyallya ol boil ilc Upasana Taniia and ilc Gauiamiya Taniia ilc lollowing similai vcisc may bc sccn:"Tlc woid "lis" mcans 'cicinal iiansccndcnial cxisicncc" and 'na' mcans "spiiiiual plcasuic". Wlcn ilc vcib "lis" is addcd io ilc allix "na", ii bccomcs Kisna, wlicl indicaics ilc cicinally blisslul Absoluic Tiuil."Tlc woid "blu" comcs liom ilc vcib "blu", wlicl may mcan "io bc" oi "io aiiiaci". In ilc quoiaiion liom Vaisnava liiciaiuic ilc woid is inicipicicd io mcan "aiiiaciion" and in ilc quoic liom Gauiamiya Taniia, "blu" is inicipicicd io mcan "cxisicncc".Tlc woid "blu" may ilus bc inicipicicd io mcan "cxisicncc", bui in ilis casc ii may noi bc inicipicicd io mcan "movcmcni" oi "gcncialncss". Tlc piimaiy mcaning is "aiiiaciion". Tlc sccondaiy mcaning is "cxisicncc". Tlc mcanings "movcmcni" and "gcncialncss" cannoi bc acccpicd lcic.Tlc woid "niiviiii" mcans "bliss". Tlc pliasc "iayoi ailyam" mcans "wlcn ilc iwo syllablcs aic placcd iogcilci inio a woid". "Paiam bialma" mcans "ilc subsiancc ilai is ilc gicaicsi ol all". In ilc pliasc "lisna iiy ablidliyaic" an alicinaic icading icplaccs ilc woid "ablidliyaic" wiil "iiyaic" (is namcd).Asidc liom ilcsc vaiicd considciaiions, ilc piimaiy mcaning ol ilc iwo syllablcs Kisna is ilai "lis" mcans "aiiiaciion" and "na" mcans "iiansccndcnial bliss". Tlc woid "lis" mcaning "aiiiaciing" slould bc undcisiood io mcan " ilai wlicl aiiiacis", jusi as in ilc adagc "ayui gliiam" (glcc is long lilc) glcc is cquaicd wiil long lilc bccausc caiing loods coolcd in glcc malcs onc long-livcd.Vaiious cxplanaiions ol ilc woid "paiam bialma" aic givcn in ilc sciipiuics. Ioi cxamplc, ilc Visnu Puiana dcclaics:"Tlc wisc lnow ilai ilc woid 'paiam bialma' mcans 'Hc wlo is ilc gicaicsi' and 'Hc wlo nouiislcs and pioiccis all living cniiiics'".Tlc Gauiamiya Taniia also givcs ilc lollowing cxplanaiion ol ilc woid "paiam bialma":"Tlc woid 'lis' mcans 'cicinal iiansccndcnial cxisicncc' and 'na' mcans 'spiiiiual plcasuic'. Tlcsc iwo syllablcs, mcaning cicinal cxisicncc and spiiiiual plcasuic, aic joincd io bccomc ilc woid 'Kisna', ilc namc ol ilc paiam bialma."Tlc advaiiavadis (monisis) ilinl ilc pliasc "saiia-svanandayoi yogai" in ilis vcisc mcans "disiinciion sucl as cicinal cxisicncc and iiansccndcnial bliss losc ilcii scpaiaicncss and bccomc onc in ilc impcisonal absoluic." lccausc ilc woids "sai" and "ananda" lavc dillcicni mcanings, and bccausc, cvcn il ilcsc iwo woids aic ialcn io bc synonyms, ilcii icpciiiion in a scnicncc is mcaninglcss (as il wc wcic io icpcai ilc woid "vilsa" and "iaiu", wlicl boil mcan "iicc" wiilin a singlc scnicncc), ilc conclusion ol ilc impcisonalisis musi bc lalsc.Tlc woid "sai" (cicinal) is uscd lcic io mcan "ilc Supicmc Licinal, wlo is ilc souicc ol all oilci cicinals". Tlis is dcsciibcd in ilcsc woids ol ilc Siuii-sasiia:"O noblc siudcni, in ilc bcginning only ilc cicinal cxisicd."Tlc vcisc liom ilc Gauiamiya Taniia may bc cxplaincd in ilc lollowing way. Tlc liisi lall ol ilc vcisc dcsciibcs Loid Kisna, wlo is all-aiiiaciivc and lull ol iiansccndcnial bliss. Tlc sccond lall ol ilc liisi siaics ilai bccausc Loid Kisna is blisslul and all-aiiiaciivc Hc dcliglis all living cniiiics. Ioi ilis icason ilc sciipiuics dcclaic:"lccausc ilcy lind iiansccndcnial bliss in Him, ilc dcvoiccs lavc lallcn in lovc wiil Sii Kisna."In ilis way ilc woid Kisna slould bc undcisiood io mcan "Hc wlo is lull ol iiansccndcnial bliss, and wlosc landsomc loim and iiansccndcnial qualiiics aiiiaci all living cniiiics." Ioi ilis icason populai usagc inicipicis ilc woid "dcvalinandana" io mcan "Hc wlo plcascs Dcvali." Sii Kisna's dcligliing cvciyonc may bc sccn in ilc lollowing siaicmcni ol ilc Vasudcva Upanisad:"Loid Kisna, ilc son ol Dcvali dcliglis cvciyonc"."Loid Kisna is indcpcndcnily pcilcci, cicinally clangclcss, and ilc oiigin ol all iiansccndcnial bliss."Ioi ilcsc icasons ilc populai cxplanaiion ol ilc woid Dcvalinandana (Hc wlo plcascs Dcvali) slould bc acccpicd and noi icjccicd in lavoui ol ilc vicws ol pcdaniic giammaiians. Tlis is conliimcd by ilc lollowing siaicmcni ol gicai sclolais:"Wlcn populai usagc inicipicis a woid in a way vciy appiopiiaic io ilc objcci ii dcsciibcs, ilai inicipiciaiion slould bc acccpicd. Wlcn scicniilic ciymology inicipicis a woid in a way noi appiopiiaic io ilc objcci dcsciibcd, ilai mcaning slould noi bc acccpicd."Tlai Sii Kisna is ilc Supicmc lialman is alliimcd in ilc woids ol Siimad-llagavaiam:"Tlc loim ol ilc Supicmc lialman is ilc lumanlilc loim ol Sii Kisna."In Siimad-llagavaiam (10.1+.32) is also said:"How gicaily loiiunaic aic Nanda Malaiaja, ilc cowlcid mcn and all ilc inlabiianis ol Viajablumi! Tlcic is no limii io ilcii loiiunc bccausc ilc Absoluic Tiuil, ilc souicc ol iiansccndcnial bliss, ilc cicinal Supicmc lialma, las bccomc ilcii liicnd."In ilc Visnu Puiana ii is said:"Tlc Supicmc lialman, wlo las a lumanlilc loim and wlo bcais ilc namc Kisna, las dcsccndcd io ilis woild."In ilc llagavad-giia (1+.27) Loid Kisna dcclaics:"I am ilc basis ol ilc impcisonal lialman."In ilc Gopala-iapani Upanisad ii is said:"Tlc cowlcid boy Kisna is ilc Supicmc lialman."IsvaraNow lci us iciuin io ilc liisi vcisc ol lialma-samliia. Now ilai wc lavc cxplaincd ilc woid "Kisna", wc will piocccd io ilc woid "isvaia". "Isvaia" mcans "ilc supicmc coniiollci ol cvciyonc". Tlis is sccn in ilc lollowing dcsciipiion ol ilc woid Kisna in ilc Gauiamiya Taniia:"Tlc Supicmc Pcisonaliiy ol Godlcad, ilc supicmc coniiollci, coniiols (lis) all moving and unmoving bcings. Tlcicloic Hc is namc 'Kisna'".In ilis vcisc ilc woid "lala" mcans "coniiollci". Ii is dciivcd liom ilc vcib "lal", wlicl mcans "io coniiol". Tlai Sii Kisna is ilc supicmc coniiollci is also conliimcd by ilc lollowing woids ol Siimad-llagavaiam (3.2.21):"Loid Sii Kisna is ilc Loid ol all linds ol iliccs and is indcpcndcnily supicmc by aclicvcmcni ol all linds ol loiiunc. Hc is woislippcd by ilc cicinal mainiaincis ol ilc cicaiion, wlo ollci Him ilc paiaplcinalia ol woislip by ioucling ilcii millions ol lclmcis io His lcci."In llagavad-giia (10.+2) Loid Kisna dcclaics:"Wiil a singlc liagmcni ol Myscll I pcivadc and suppoii ilis cniiic univcisc."In ilc Gopala-iapani Upanisad ii is said:"Sii Kisna is ilc woislipablc and all-pcivading supicmc coniiollci."ParamaNow ilai ilc woid "isvaia" las bccn cxplaincd, wc will dcsciibc ilc woid "paiama". "Paia" mcans "supicmc" and "ma" mcans "moilci". Tlc "paia-mas" ilcicloic aic ilc goddcsscs ol loiiunc wlo aic Loid Kisna's inicinal poicncics. Tlcy aic dcsciibcd in ilcsc woids ol Siimad-llagavaiam (10.59.+3)."Iull ol iiansccndcnial bliss, Loid Kisna cnjoycd pasiimcs wiil ilc bcauiilul gopis, wlo wcic all goddcsscs ol loiiunc."In Siimad-llagavaiam (10.+7.60) ii is also said:"Wlcn Loid Sii Kisna was dancing wiil ilc gopis in ilc iasa-lila, ilc gopis wcic cmbiaccd by ilc aims ol ilc Loid. Tlis iiansccndcnial lavoui was ncvci bcsiowcd upon ilc goddcss ol loiiunc oi ilc oilci consoiis in ilc spiiiiual woild. Indccd, ncvci was sucl a iling cvcn imagincd by ilc mosi bcauiilul giils in ilc lcavcnly plancis wlosc bodily lusiic and aioma icscmblc ilc loius llowci. And wlai io spcal ol woildly womcn wlo aic vciy bcauiilul accoiding io maiciial csiimaiion."In Siimad-llagavaiam (10.33.6) ii is also said:"Alilougl ilc son ol Dcvali, ilc Supicmc Pcisonaliiy ol Godlcad, is also ilc icscivoii ol all linds ol bcauiy, wlcn Hc is among ilc gopis Hc noncilclcss bccomcs moic bcauiilul, loi Hc icscmblcs a maialaia jcwcl suiioundcd by gold and oilci jcwcls."In ilc lialma-samliia (56) ii is said:"In Svciadvipa ilc Lalsmis in ilcii unalloycd spiiiiual csscncc piaciicc ilc amoious scivicc ol ilc Supicmc Loid Kisna as ilcii only lovci."In ilc Gopala-iapani Upanisad ii is said::Loid Kisna is woislippcd by ilc goddcss ol loiiunc."AdiSii Kisna is dcsciibcd as "adi" (ilc oiigin ol all). Tlis is cxplaincd in ilc lollowing woids ol Siimad-llagavaiam (10.72.15):"Hcaiing ilai Jaiasandla lad noi bccn dclcaicd, Malaiaja Yudlisiliia bcgan io ilinl ol a plan io dclcai lim. Ai ilai iimc Loid Haii, wlo is ilc oiigin ol all, spolc ilc plan ilai lad alicady bccn loimulaicd by Uddlava.""Tlc woid "laii" iclcis io Sii Kisna, wlo is ilc oiigin ol all."Tlai Sii Kisna is ilc Supicmc and ilc oiigin ol all is dcclaicd in ilcsc woids ol Siimad-llagavaiam:"I ollci my icspccilul obcisanccs io Sii Kisna, ilc Supicmc Pcisonaliiy ol Godlcad wlo is ilc oiigin ol all."AnadiTlcn again, Sii Kisna is noi "adi" bui "anadi" (Hc wlo las no oiigin). Tlis is dcsciibcd in Gopala-iapani Upanisad, wlicl dcclaics:"Sii Kisna is ilc clicl cicinal among many cicinals."Sarva-karana-karanamNcxi, ilc woid "saiva-laiana-laianam" mcans "ilc piimc causc ol all causcs". Tlis mcans ilai Hc is ilc cicaioi ol ilc univciscs and ilc oiigin ol ilc puiusa-avaiaia. Tlis is dcsciibcd in Siimad-llagavaiam (10.S5.31) wlcic Dcvali iclls Loid Kisna:"O Loid ol ilc univcisc, O oiiginal Supicmc Pcison, by a poiiion ol a poiiion ol a poiiion ol Youiscll You cicaic, mainiain and dcsiioy ilc maiciial univciscs. Now I ialc slclici ol You."Siidlaia Svami commcnis on ilis vcisc in ilcsc woids: "Tlc liisi poiiion mcniioncd lcic is ilc puiusa-avaiaia. A poiiion ol Him is ilc illusoiy poicncy maya. A poiiion ol maya is ilc modcs ol naiuic. ly a poiiion ol ilc modcs ol naiuic ilc univciscs aic cicaicd, mainiaincd and dcsiioycd. "iva" mcans 'ol You' and 'gaiim gaia' mcans 'I ialc slclici'."Tlai Sii Kisna is ilc oiigin ol ilc puiusa-avaiaia is also dcsciibcd in ilc lollowing piayci ol Loid lialma (Siimad-llagavaiam 10.1+.1+):"O Loid Kisna, Naiayana iclcis io onc wlosc abodc is in ilc waici boin liom Naia (Gaiblodalasayi Visnu) and il...</p>