KHA LUẬN TỐT NGHIỆP - lib.hpu.edu.vnlib.hpu.edu.vn/bitstream/handle/123456789/16983/18_TranThiNgocLien...KHA LUẬN TỐT NGHIỆP ĐẠI HỌC HỆ CHNH QUY ... Cc số liệu cần thiết để thiết kế, tnh ton ... trong khoa Mi Trường đ tận

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  • B GIO DC V O TO

    TRNG I HC DN LP HI PHNG

    -------------------------------

    ISO 9001:2008

    KHA LUN TT NGHIP

    NGNH: K THUT MI TRNG

    Sinh vin : Trn Th Ngc Lin

    Ging vin hng dn : ThS. Nguyn Th Cm Thu

    HI PHNG - 2013

  • B GIO DC V O TO

    TRNG I HC DN LP HI PHNG

    -----------------------------------

    KHO ST HM LNG NH4+, NO2

    -, NO3

    -, PO4

    3-

    TRONG NC SNG A

    KHA LUN TT NGHIP I HC H CHNH QUY

    NGNH: K THUT MI TRNG

    Sinh vin :Trn Th Ngc Lin

    Ging vin hng dn :ThS. Nguyn Th Cm Thu

    HI PHNG - 2013

  • B GIO DC V O TO

    TRNG I HC DN LP HI PHNG

    --------------------------------------

    NHIM V TI TT NGHIP

    Sinh vin: Trn Th Ngc Lin M SV: 1353010024

    Lp: MT1301 Ngnh: K thut Mi trng

    Tn ti: Kho st hm lng NH4+, NO2

    -, NO3

    -, PO4

    3-

    trong nc sng a

  • NHIM V TI

    1. Ni dung v cc yu cu cn gii quyt trong nhim v ti tt

    nghip

    ( v l lun, thc tin, cc s liu cn tnh ton v cc bn v).

    ..

    ..

    ..

    ..

    ..

    ..

    ..

    ..

    2. Cc s liu cn thit thit k, tnh ton.

    ..

    ..

    ..

    ..

    ..

    ..

    ..

    ..

    ..

    3. a im thc tp tt nghip.

    ..

    ..

    ..

  • CN B HNG DN TI TT NGHIP

    Ngi hng dn th nht:

    H v tn:.............................................................................................

    Hc hm, hc v:...................................................................................

    C quan cng tc:.................................................................................

    Ni dung hng dn:............................................................................

    Ngi hng dn th hai:

    H v tn:.............................................................................................

    Hc hm, hc v:...................................................................................

    C quan cng tc:.................................................................................

    Ni dung hng dn:............................................................................

    ti tt nghip c giao ngy 25 thng 03 nm 2013

    Yu cu phi hon thnh xong trc ngy 29 thng 06 nm 2013

    nhn nhim v TTN giao nhim v TTN

    Sinh vin Ngi hng dn

    Hi Phng, ngy ...... thng........nm 2013

    Hiu trng

    GS.TS.NGT Trn Hu Ngh

  • PHN NHN XT CA CN B HNG DN

    1. Tinh thn thi ca sinh vin trong qu trnh lm ti tt nghip:

    ..

    ..

    ..

    ..

    ..

    ..

    ..

    2. nh gi cht lng ca kha lun (so vi ni dung yu cu ra trong nhim v .T. T.N trn cc mt l lun, thc tin, tnh ton s

    liu):

    ..

    ..

    ..

    ..

    ..

    ..

    ..

    ..

    ..

    3. Cho im ca cn b hng dn (ghi bng c s v ch):

    ..

    ..

    ..

    Hi Phng, ngy thng nm 2013

    Cn b hng dn (K v ghi r h tn)

  • LI CM N

    Vi lng bit n su sc, em xin chn thnh cm n tt c cc thy c

    trong khoa Mi Trng tn tm hng dn v ging dy nhng kin thc

    cn bn, quan trng, cn thit trong sut thi gian em hc tp ti trng i

    hc Dn lp Hi Phng.

    c bit, em xin cm n c gio ThS Nguyn Th Cm Thu ngi

    giao ti v tn tnh hng dn, gip em hon thnh ni dung bi kha

    lun ny.

    Em cng xin cm n gia nh v bn b ng vin, gip v chia s

    kh khn trong qu trnh em lm kha lun tt nghip.

    Em xin chn thnh cm n!

  • DANH MC CC CH CI VIT TT

    PTN : Phng th ngim

    TCVN: Tiu chun Vit Nam

    CLNM: Cht lng nc mt

    STT: S th t

    BOD: Nhu cu oxy sinh ha

    COD: Nhu cu oxy ha hc

    KLN: Kim loi nng

    PE: Polyetylen

    TP: Thnh ph

    HP HN: Hi Phng H Ni

    TNHH MTV: Trch nhim hu hn mt thnh vin

  • DANH MC BNG

    2.1: Xc nh hm lng NH4+ .............................................................. 13

    2.2: Xc nh hm lng NO2- .............................................................. 16

    2.3: Xc nh hm lng NO3- .............................................................. 19

    2.4: Xc nh hm lng PO43-

    .............................................................. 23

    2.5: Kt qu xc nh ng chun NH4+ ............................................. 24

    2.6: Kt qu xc nh ng chun NO2- .............................................. 24

    2.7: Kt qu xc nh ng chun NO3- .............................................. 25

    2.8: Kt qu xc nh ng chun PO43-

    ............................................. 26

    3.1: Ta cc v tr ly mu nc sng a ................................... 27

    3.2: Kt qu phn tch mu .................................................................... 29

  • DANH MC HNH

    Hnh 2.1: ng chun xc nh NH4+ ........................................................... 24

    Hnh 2.2: ng chun xc nh NO2- ........................................................... 25

    Hnh 2.3: ng chun xc nh NO3- ........................................................... 25

    Hnh 2.4: ng chun xc nh PO43-

    ........................................................... 26

    Hnh 3.1: Cc im ly mu trn sng a ................................................ 28

    Hnh 3.2 Nng Amoni (NH4+) ca nc sng a ................................ 30

    Hnh 3.3 Nng Nitrit (NO2-) ca nc sng a ................................... 31

    Hnh 3.4 Nng Nitrat (NO3-) ca nc sng a .................................. 32

    Hnh 3.5 Nng Photphat (PO43-

    ) ca nc sng a ............................ 33

  • MC LC

    M U .......................................................................................................... 1

    CHNG 1 TNG QUAN MI TRNG NC SNG A ........ 3

    1.1 Tng quan v nc mt ...................................................................... 3

    1.2 Cc ngun gy nhim nc sng a ........................................ 3

    1.2.1 nhim do nc thi t hot ng cng nghip ....................... 3

    1.2.2 nhim do sinh hot .................................................................... 4

    1.2.3 nhim hot ng t nng nghip ............................................. 5

    1.2.4 nhim t hot ng y t ............................................................ 6

    1.3 C s nh gi cht lng nc ........................................................ 6

    1.4 i cng v thng s kho st ......................................................... 7

    CHNG 2 MNG LI QUAN TRC V PHNG PHP

    NGHIN CU ................................................................................................. 9

    2.1 Mng li quan trc ........................................................................... 9

    2.2 Phng php nghin cu ................................................................. 10

    2.2.1 Xc nh Amoniac (NH4+) trong nc Phng php ln mu

    trc tip vi thuc th Nessler ..................................................................... 11

    2.2.2 Xc nh Nitrit (NO2-) trong nc Phng php o mu vi

    thuc th Griess ............................................................................................ 14

    2.2.3 Xc nh Nitrat (NO3-) trong nc Phng php o mu vi

    thuc th Disunfophenic ............................................................................... 17

    2.2.4 Xc nh Photphat (PO43-

    ) trong nc Phng php xanh

    Molybden. ....................................................................................................... 21

    2.3 ng chun NH4+, NO2

    -, NO3

    -, PO4

    3- ............................................ 24

    2.3.1 ng chun NH4+ ...................................................................... 24

    2.3.2 ng chun NO2- ...................................................................... 24

  • 2.3.3 ng chun NO3- ...................................................................... 25

    2.3.4 ng chun PO43-

    ..................................................................... 26

    CHNG 3 KT QU QU TRNH KHO ST .................................. 27

    3.1 V tr cc im quan trc .................................................................. 27

    3.2 Kt qu phn tch .............................................................................. 28

    3.2.1 Thng s Amoni .......................................................................... 30

    3.2.2 Thng s Nitrit ............................................................................ 31

    3.2.3 Thng s Nitrat ........................................................................... 32

    3.2.4 Thng s Photphat ...................................................................... 32

    3.3 S tc ng n mi trng ca nc sng a ....................... 34

    3.3.1 Tc ng n sc khe con ngi ............................................. 34

    3.3.2 Tc ng n mi trng ........................................................... 35

    3.3.3 Tc ng n pht trin kinh t - x hi ................................... 36

    KT LUN V KIN NGH ...................................................................... 38

    Kt lun ...................................................................................................... 38

    Kin ngh .................................................................................................... 38

    TI LIU THAM KHO ............................................................................ 40

  • KHA LUN TT NGHIP Trng HDL Hi Phng

    -1-

    Sinh vin: Trn Th Ngc Lin

    MSV: 1353010024 Lp: MT1301

    M U

    1. Tnh cp thit ca ti

    Thnh ph Hi Phng l mt thnh ph cng ln nht pha Bc (Cng Hi

    Phng) v cng nghip min Bc Vit Nam nm trong Vng duyn hi Bc

    B. Hi Phng l mt trong nhng thnh ph ln ca Vit Nam v cn l 1

    trong 5 thnh ph trc thuc trung ng, th loi 1 trung tm cp quc gia,

    cng vi Nng v Cn Th. Din tch t nhin ca thnh ph l 1.519,2

    km2 v tnh n thng 12/2011, dn s Hi Phng l 1.907.705 ngi, trong

    dn c thnh th chim 46,1% v dn c nng thn chim 53,9%, l thnh

    ph ng dn th 3 Vit Nam.

    y l ni c v tr quan trng v kinh t, x hi, cng ngh thng tin v

    an ninh, quc phng ca vng Bc B v c nc. Hi Phng l u mi giao

    thng ng bin pha Bc. Vi li th cng nn vn ti bin rt pht trin,

    ng thi l mt trong nhng ng lc tng trng ca vng kinh t trng

    im Bc B, Hi Phng l Trung tm kinh t - khoa hc - k thut tng hp

    ca Vng duyn hi Bc B v l mt trong 2 trung tm pht trin ca vng

    kinh t trng im Bc B.

    a hnh ca Hi Phng b chia ct mnh nn c nhiu sng sui nh chy

    qua cc cu trc a cht khc nhau, mt sng sui t 1-1,9km/km2, c ni

    n 2,4km/km2. Cc sng ln l cc sng Thi Bnh, Vn c, Lch Tray,

    Bch ng, Bc, sng Cm... Trong Hi Phng c 3 h thng sng

    cung cp u vo sn xut nc sch phc v i sng x hi ca thnh ph

    l sng R, sng a , sng Gi vi tng din tch mt nc ca ba sng

    ny khong hn 9,8 ha vi tr lng nc khong 40 triu m3.

    Nm pha Ty Nam ca TP. Hi Phng, sng a c bi p bi

    ph sa ca h du sng Thi Bnh v sng Hng. Ngoi chc nng ti tiu

    cho sn xut nng nghip, nui trng thy sn, con sng di 50km ny cn

    http://vi.wikipedia.org/wiki/C%E1%BA%A3ng_H%E1%BA%A3i_Ph%C3%B2nghttp://vi.wikipedia.org/wiki/C%E1%BA%A3ng_H%E1%BA%A3i_Ph%C3%B2nghttp://vi.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mi%E1%BB%81n_B%E1%BA%AFc_(Vi%E1%BB%87t_Nam)http://vi.wikipedia.org/wiki/V%C3%B9ng_duy%C3%AAn_h%E1%BA%A3i_B%E1%BA%AFc_B%E1%BB%99http://vi.wikipedia.org/wiki/V%C3%B9ng_duy%C3%AAn_h%E1%BA%A3i_B%E1%BA%AFc_B%E1%BB%99http://vi.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vi%E1%BB%87t_Namhttp://vi.wikipedia.org/wiki/Th%C3%A0nh_ph%E1%BB%91_tr%E1%BB%B1c_thu%E1%BB%99c_trung_%C6%B0%C6%A1ng_(Vi%E1%BB%87t_Nam)http://vi.wikipedia.org/wiki/%C4%90%C3%B4_th%E1%BB%8B_lo%E1%BA%A1i_Ihttp://vi.wikipedia.org/wiki/%C4%90%C3%A0_N%E1%BA%B5nghttp://vi.wikipedia.org/wiki/C%E1%BA%A7n_Th%C6%A1http://vi.wikipedia.org/wiki/V%C3%B9ng_kinh_t%E1%BA%BF_tr%E1%BB%8Dng_%C4%91i%E1%BB%83m_B%E1%BA%AFc_b%E1%BB%99http://vi.wikipedia.org/wiki/V%C3%B9ng_kinh_t%E1%BA%BF_tr%E1%BB%8Dng_%C4%91i%E1%BB%83m_B%E1%BA%AFc_b%E1%BB%99http://vi.wikipedia.org/wiki/V%C3%B9ng_kinh_t%E1%BA%BF_tr%E1%BB%8Dng_%C4%91i%E1%BB%83m_B%E1%BA%AFc_b%E1%BB%99http://vi.wikipedia.org/wiki/V%C3%B9ng_kinh_t%E1%BA%BF_tr%E1%BB%8Dng_%C4%91i%E1%BB%83m_B%E1%BA%AFc_b%E1%BB%99http://vi.wikipedia.org/wiki/V%C3%B9ng_kinh_t%E1%BA%BF_tr%E1%BB%8Dng_%C4%91i%E1%BB%83m_B%E1%BA%AFc_b%E1%BB%99

  • KHA LUN TT NGHIP Trng HDL Hi Phng

    -2-

    Sinh vin: Trn Th Ngc Lin

    MSV: 1353010024 Lp: MT1301

    cung cp ngun nc sinh hot cho cc Nh my nc sch ca Hi Phng

    gm: nh my nc cu Nguyt (cng sut 80.000 m3/ngy m); Nh my

    nc th cho khu cng nghip nh V (cng sut 20.000 m3/ngy m) v

    35 nh my nc sch nng thn. Mi nm, trn 7 triu m3 nc ca dng a

    phc v sn xut cng nghip v dn sinh ca thnh ph. Tuy nhin, con

    sng ny cng ang b ln chim bi cc h dn hai bn b v ngun nc b

    nhim t sn xut nng nghip v cng nghip. Hin cht lng ngun

    nc b nhim qu tiu chun cho php do trn h thng sng a c 120

    c s cng nghip v 50 lng ngh, 11 bnh vin ln nh, gn 60 trm y t x

    ang x nc thi cha qua x l ra sng, nc thi ng rung mang theo d

    lng ho cht ca thuc bo v thc vt v t cc hot ng giao thng thu

    gy ra. Do vy, vn quan trc, kim sot , gim thiu nhim nc mt

    trn sng a l cn thit. Trn c s em chn kha lun vi ti:

    Kho st hm lng NH4+, NO2

    -, NO3

    -, PO4

    3- trong nc sng a .

    2 Cc thng s kho st

    Cc thng s o ngoi hin trng: pH, nhit (t0).

    Cc thng s phn tch trong PTN: Amoni (NH4+), Nitrit (NO2

    -), Nitrat

    (NO3-), Photphat (PO4

    3-).

    3 Phm vi nghin cu

    Phm vi khng gian: La chn 5 im quan trc trn sng a nhm

    kho st cht lng nc sng a chy qua huyn Kin Thy:

    - Cng Trung Trang

    - Cu Nguyt ng

    - Cu Ha Bnh

    - Cu vt cao tc HP HN (on bc qua sng a )

    - Cu Ni i

    Phm vi thi gian: ti c tin hnh v hon thnh trong 3 thng (t

    thng 4/2013 n thng 6/2013).

  • KHA LUN TT NGHIP Trng HDL Hi Phng

    -3-

    Sinh vin: Trn Th Ngc Lin

    MSV: 1353010024 Lp: MT1301

    CHNG 1

    TNG QUAN MI TRNG NC SNG A

    1.1 Tng quan v nc mt

    Nc mt bao gm cc ngun nc trong cc h cha, sng, sui. Do kt

    hp t cc dng chy trn b mt v thng xuyn tip xc vi khng kh nn

    cc c trng ca nc mt l:

    - Cha kh ha tan, c bit l oxy.

    - Cha nhiu cht rn l lng (ring trng hp nc trong c ao h,

    m ly cha cht l lng v ch yu dng keo).

    - C s hin din ca nhiu loi to.

    - Cha nhiu vi sinh vt.

    1.2 Cc ngun gy nhim nc sng a

    1.2.1 nhim do nc thi t hot ng cng nghip

    Hi Phng l mt trong nhng trung tm cng nghip, thng mi ln ca

    Vit Nam. Song do c th ca nn cng nghip mi pht trin, cha c s

    quy hoch tng th v nhiu nguyn nhn khc nhau nh: iu kin kinh t

    cn kh khn hoc do chi ph x l nh hng n li nhun nn hu nh

    cht thi cng nghip ca nhiu nh my cha c x l m thi thng ra

    mi trng.

    Nc thi t cc c s sn xut cng nghip v khu cng nghip l gy p

    lc ln nht n mi trng nc nc mt ni chung v nc sng a

    ni ring nh: cc nh my thp v 5 doanh nghip cm cng nghip ng

    10 (x Quc Tun, huyn An Lo); khu vc t cu Nguyt ng n knh c

    Phong c 7 doanh nghip hot ng... i dc sng a , con sng ny c

    tip nc t sng Vn c ti thn Cu Thng, x Quang Hng (huyn An

    Lo) vo sng Vn c ti x Tn Tro (huyn Kin Thy) c nhiu cc

    cng xng, nh my, mng chy thi ngy m ang thng vo dng

    sng. Cc loi hnh doanh nghip khc nhau c nh hng ti ngun nc

  • KHA LUN TT NGHIP Trng HDL Hi Phng

    -4-

    Sinh vin: Trn Th Ngc Lin

    MSV: 1353010024 Lp: MT1301

    khc nhau: nc thi ca ngnh c kh cha nhiu du m v cht rn l

    lng; nc thi ca ngnh ch bin ty ra rau cu cha nhiu ha cht nh

    xt, thuc ty, javen, axit clohidric u c nhng tc ng xu ti cht lng

    nc sng trn a bn thnh ph. V s tht, dc hai bn b a c kh

    nhiu ng x thi chm di mt sng.

    Phn ln cc c s tiu th cng nghip, cc lng ngh (khu lng ngh th

    cng Ph Lu), cc c s sn xut nh, h gia nh vi thit b cng ngh n

    gin, mt bng sn xut nh... hu nh khng c h thng x l nc thi.

    Nc thi thi trc tip ra ngun tip nhn gy nhim ng...

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