KHA LUẬN TỐT NGHIỆP - lib.hpu.edu.vnlib.hpu.edu.vn/bitstream/handle/123456789/19231/55...bỘ gio dỤc v Đo tẠo trƢỜng ĐẠi hỌc dn lẬp hẢi phng----- iso 9001 : 2008 kha luẬn tỐt nghiỆp

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  • B GIO DC V O TO

    TRNG I HC DN LP HI PHNG

    -------------------------------

    ISO 9001 : 2008

    KHA LUN TT NGHIP

    NGNH: K THUT MI TRNG

    Sinh vin : Bi Nam Huyn Trang

    Ngi hng dn: TS. Nguyn Th Kim Dung

    TS. Trn Th Mai

    HI PHNG 2012

  • B GIO DC V O TO

    TRNG I HC DN LP HI PHNG

    -----------------------------------

    KHO ST V NH GI HIN TRNG CHT

    LNG NC NGM TI X VN T HUYN T

    K TNH HI DNG

    KHA LUN TT NGHIP I HC H CHNH QUY

    NGNH: K THUT MI TRNG

    Sinh vin : Bi Nam Huyn Trang

    Ngi hng dn: TS. Nguyn Th Kim Dung

    TS. Trn Th Mai

    HI PHNG 2012

  • B GIO DC V O TO

    TRNG I HC DN LP HI PHNG

    --------------------------------------

    NHIM V TI TT NGHIP

    Sinh vin: Bi Nam Huyn Trang M s: 121139

    Lp: MT1202 Ngnh: K thut mi trng

    Tn ti: Kho st v nh gi hin trng cht lng nc ngm ti x Vn

    T huyn T K tnh Hi Dng

  • NHIM V TI

    1. Ni dung v cc yu cu cn gii quyt trong nhim v ti tt nghip

    (v l lun, thc tin, cc s liu cn tnh ton v cc bn v).

    ..

    ..

    ..

    ..

    ..

    ..

    ..

    ..

    ..

    2. Cc s liu cn thit thit k, tnh ton.

    ..

    ..

    ..

    ..

    ..

    ..

    ..

    ..

    ..

    ..

    3. a im thc tp tt nghip.

    - Phng th nghim F203, Trng i Hc Dn Lp Hi Phng

    ..

    ..

  • CN B HNG DN TI TT NGHIP

    Ngi hng dn th nht:

    H v tn: ..........................................................................................................

    Hc hm, hc v:................................................................................................

    C quan cng tc:...............................................................................................

    Ni dung hng dn:..........................................................................................

    ....................

    ...................

    ...................

    Ngi hng dn th hai:

    H v tn:...........................................................................................................

    Hc hm, hc v:................................................................................................

    C quan cng tc:...............................................................................................

    Ni dung hng dn:..........................................................................................

    ...................

    ...................

    ...................

    ti tt nghip c giao ngy ....... thng ....... nm 2012

    Yu cu phi hon thnh xong trc ngy ....... thng ....... nm 2012

    nhn nhim v TTN giao nhim v TTN

    Sinh vin Ngi hng dn

    Bi Nam Huyn Trang

    Hi Phng, ngy ......thng........nm 2012

    HIU TRNG

  • GS.TS.NGT Trn Hu Ngh

    PHN NHN XT TM TT CA CN B HNG DN

    1. Tinh thn thi ca sinh vin trong qu trnh lm ti tt nghip: ..

    ..

    ..

    ..

    ..

    ..

    ..

    ..

    2. nh gi cht lng ca kha lun (so vi ni dung yu cu ra trong nhim v .T. T.N trn cc mt l lun, thc tin, tnh ton s

    liu):

    ..

    ..

    ..

    ..

    ..

    ..

    ..

    3. Cho im ca cn b hng dn (ghi c s v ch):

    ..

    ..

    ..

    Hi Phng, ngy thng nm 2012

    Cn b hng dn

    (h tn v ch k)

  • Li cm n

    Li u tin ti xin c gi ti c gio - TS. Nguyn Th Kim Dung, c gio -

    TS.Trn Th Mai li cm n chn thnh v su sc nht. C l ngi trc

    tip giao ti v tn tnh ch bo, hng dn, gip ti trong qu trnh nghin

    cu v hon thnh lun vn.

    Ti xin chn thnh cm n cc thy c Khoa Mi Trung Trng i hc Dn

    Lp Hi Phng cc anh ch v cc bn gip , to iu kin thun li cho ti

    trong sut qu trnh thc hin ti.

    Cui cng ti xin c cm n nhng ngi thn trong gia nh, lun ng

    vin, c v ti hon thnh tt lun vn ca mnh.

    Em xin chn thnh cm n!

    Hi Phng, ngy thng 11 nm 2012

    Sinh vin

    Bi Nam Huyn Trang

  • DANH MC CC CH VIT TT

    STT K hiu ngha

    1 BOD Nhu cu oxy sinh ha

    2 COD Nhu cu oxy ha hc

    3 DS Cht rn ha tan

    4 TS Tng hm lng cht rn

    5 TSS Tng hm lng cn l lng

    6 DO Oxy ha tan

    7 TVS Cht rn bay hi

    8 SS Cc cht rn l lng

    9 EC dn

    10 TCVN Tiu chun Vit Nam

    11 TCCP Tiu chun cho php

  • DANH MC BNG

    STT Tn bng Trang

    1 Bng 1.1

    Tiu chun v sinh i vi cht lng nc ung v sinh

    hot QCVN 02:2009/BYT 17

    2 Bng 1.2

    Bng gi tr gii hn cho php cc thng s v nng

    cc cht nhim trong nc ngm TCVN 5994-1995 19

    3 Bng 2.1 V tr cc im ly mu nc ngm x Vn T 21

    4 Bng 2.2 K thut bo qun cho tng ch tiu phn tch 24

    5 Bng 3.1 Kt qu o nhanh cht lng nc ngm x Vn T 32

    6 Bng 3.2 Kt qu xy dng ng chun Fe2+ 33

    7 Bng 3.3 Kt qu xy dng ng chun Mn2+ 33

    8 Bng 3.4 Kt qu xy dng ng chun Amoni 34

    9 Bng 3.5

    Kt qu xc nh hm lng Fe2+ v Mn2+ cc mu

    nc ngm 35

    10 Bng 3.6

    Kt qu xc nh hm lng Amoni v cng cc mu

    nc ngm 36

    11 Bng 3.7 Kt qu nc ngm x Vn T sau khi x l bng ct si 38

    12 Bng 3.7

    Kt qu nc ngm x Vn T sau khi x l bng than

    hot tnh 38

    DANH MC HNH

    STT

    Tn hnh Trang

    1 Hnh 3.2 ng chun xc nh Fe2+ 33

    2 Hnh 3.3 ng chun xc nh Mn2+

    34

    3 Hnh 3.4 ng chun xc nh Amoni 34

    4 Hnh 4.1 Cu to dn ng 45

    5 Hnh 4.2 Cu to ng ph 45

    6 Hnh 4.3 Kch thc ngn cha nc sch 46

    7 Hnh 4.4 Cu to b lc ct 47

  • MC LC

    M U ......................................................................................................................... 1

    CHNG I: TNG QUAN V NC NGM ......................................................... 13

    1.1.Tm quan trng ca nc ........................................................................................ 13

    1.2.Nc ngm .............................................................................................................. 14

    1.2.1.Ngun gc hnh thnh nc ngm ....................................................................... 14

    1.2.2.c im nc ngm ............................................................................................ 16

    1.2.3. Nguyn nhn gy nhim v hin trng nhim nc ngm. ........................... 20

    1.3 iu kin t nhin x hi ca x Vn T huyn T K tnh Hi Dung ...... 26

    1.3.1 iu kin t nhin ................................................................................................ 26

    1.3.2. iu kin x hi ................................................................................................... 27

    1.4 Tiu chun Vit Nam v nc sch ......................................................................... 28

    CHNG II: ............................. 31

    2.1. i tng nghin cu ............................................................................................. 31

    2.2. Phng php nghin cu ........................................................................................ 31

    2.3. La chn a im , thi gian v tn s ly mu .................................................... 31

    2.3.1. im ly mu ...................................................................................................... 31

    2.3.2. Thi gian v tn s ly mu ................................................................................. 33

    2.3.3. Chn phng php ly mu ................................................................................. 33

    2.3.4. Vn chuyn - n nh v lu gi mu ................................................................. 34

    2.4. Phng php phn tch trong phng th nghim [4] ............................................... 35

    2.4.1.Xc nh cng ca nc bng phng php chun complexon ................. 35

    2.4.2. Xc nh Fe bng thuc th KSCN ..................................................................... 37

    2.4.3 Xc nh Amoni ................................................................................................... 38

    2.4.4. Xc nh Mangan [2] ........................................................................................... 40

    CHNG III: KHO ST HIN TRNG V NH GI HIN TRNG MI

    TRNG NC NGM X VN T ...................................................................... 42

    3.1. Kho st hin trng khai thc nc ngm x Vn T ............................................ 42

    3.2. Kt qu kho st cht lng nc ngm x Vn T .............................................. 43

    3.2.1 Cc thng s o nhanh cht lng nc ngm QCVN 02:2009/BYT ................ 43

    3.2.2. Kt qu xy dng ng chun ........................................................................... 44

  • 3.2.2. Kt qu xc nh mu nc ngm x Vn T ..................................................... 46

    3.2.3. Kt qu xc nh mu nc ngm qua x l cc h dn x Vn T ........... 48

    3.3. nh gi hin trng ngun nc ngm x Vn T ............................................. 50

    3.3.1. Hin trng nc ngm x Vn T ....................................................................... 50

    3.3.2 Nguyn nhn gy nhim ngun nc ngm ti x Vn T ............................... 51

    CHNG IV: GII PHP BO V TI NGUYN MI TRNG NC NGM

    ....................................................................................................................................... 53

    4.1. y mnh cng tc tuyn truyn ............................................................................ 53

    4.2.u t xy dng nh my nc cho ton x ........................................................... 54

    4.3 Bo dng v nng cao hiu sut ca ging ang b xung cp ............................. 54

    4.4. Thit k b lc ph hp gim nng cc cht nhim trong nc ngm. ..... 54

    4.4.1. Kh st v mangan bng phng php lm thong [5, 7] ................................... 55

    4.4.2. Lc ....................................................................................................................... 56

    4.4.3. Kch thc b lc................................................................................................. 57

    4.5. Xy dng i thu gom cht thi rn cho ton x .................................................... 59

    4.6. Ci tin hot ng sn xut nng nghip ............................................................... 59

    KT LUN ................................................................................................................... 61

  • 12

    M U

    Hi Dng l mt tnh thuc ng Bng Bc B, nm trong vng kinh t trng

    im pha Bc: H Ni - Hi Phng - Qung Ninh. Cng vi s gia tng cc th trn

    ton quc l s gia tng dn s th. Theo , nhu cu s dng nc khng ngng

    tng. Thng k s b cho thy, lng nc khai thc s dng cho cc th t vi

    trm n hng triu m3/nm, trong khong 50% ngun nc cung cp cho cc

    th c khai thc t ngun nc ngm. Cc ngun nc ngm c khai thc nm

    ngay trong th hoc ven th. Th nn, theo thi gian, nhiu ngun nc cn

    kit hoc ang b nhim bi s xm ln qu nhanh ca th, mc nc ca cc tng

    cha nc khai thc b h thp lin tc theo thi gian.

    C ti 80% dn s nng thn s dng nc ngm, vi cc loi cng trnh: ging

    o, ging khoan v mch l. Nc ngm c s dng ph bin ti mu, cy

    cng ng ph, h tiu, cao su Ty nguyn, vi Bc Giang...). N cn

    s dng ti la chng hn.

    nh gi trng tnh hnh khai thc, s dng v cht lng nc ngm mt s

    vng nng thn Hi Dng, chng ti tin hnh thc hin n Kho st v nh

    gi hin trng cht lng nc ngm ti x Vn T huyn T K tnh Hi Dng v

    xut bin php gim thiu nhim, Nhm gp phn ci thin cht lng nc

    ngm v bo v sc kho cho ngi dn khu vc ny.

  • 13

    CHNG I:

    TNG QUAN V NC NGM

    1.1.Tm quan trng ca nc

    Cng nh khng kh v nh sng, nc khng th thiu c trong i sng

    con ngi. Trong qu trnh hnh thnh s sng trn Tri t th nc v mi trng

    nc ng vai tr quan trng. Nc tham gia vo vai tr ti sinh th gii hu c (tham

    gia qu trnh quang hp). Trong qu trnh trao i cht nc ng vai tr trung tm.

    Nhiu phn ng l ha hc din ra cn s tham gia bt buc ca nc. Nc l dung

    mi ca nhiu cht v ng vai tr dn ng cho cc mui i vo c th. Trong khu

    dn c, nc phc v cho mc ch sinh hot, nng cao i sng tinh thn cho ngi

    dn (mt ngi nh hin i khng c nc khc no mt c th khng c mu). Nc

    ng vai tr cc k quan trng trong sn xut cng nghip. i vi cy trng nc l

    nhu cu thit yu, ng thi cn c vai tr iu tit cc ch nhit, nh sng, cht

    dinh dng, vi sinh vt, thong kh trong t

    Nc l ti nguyn vt liu quan trng nht ca loi ngi v sinh vt trn tri

    t. Con ngi mi ngy cn 250 lt nc cho sinh hot, 1.500 lt nc cho hot ng

    cng nghip v 2.000 lt cho hot ng nng nghip. Nc chim 99% trng lng

    sinh vt sng trong mi trng nc v 44% trng lng c th con ngi. sn

    xut 1 tn giy cn 250 tn nc, 1 tn m cn 600 tn nc v 1 tn cht bt cn

    1.000 tn nc.

    Ngoi chc nng tham gia vo chu trnh sng trn, nc cn l cht mang nng lng

    (hi triu, thu nng), cht mang vt liu v tc nhn iu ho kh hu, thc hin cc

    chu trnh tun hon vt cht trong t nhin. C th ni s sng ca con ngi v mi

    sinh vt trn tri t ph thuc vo nc.

    Ti nguyn nc trn th gii theo tnh ton hin nay l 1,39.103t m

    3, tp

    trung trong thu quyn 97,2% (1,35.103 t m

    3), cn li trong kh quyn v thch

  • 14

    quyn. 94% lng nc l nc mn, 2% l nc ngt tp trung trong bng hai cc,

    0,6% l nc ngm, cn li l nc sng v h. Lng nc trong kh quyn khong

    0,001%, trong sinh quyn 0,002%, trong sng sui 0,00007% tng lng nc trn

    tri t. Lng nc ngt con ngi s dng xut pht t nc ma (lng ma trn

    tri t 105.106 m

    3/nm. Lng nc con ngi s dng trong mt nm khong

    35.106m

    3, trong 8% cho sinh hot, 23% cho cng nghip v 63% cho hot ng

    nng nghip.

    Mc d lng nc trn th gii l rt ln nhng lng nc ngt m con

    ngi c th s dng c l rt t (1/100000). Hn na s phn b ca n li khng

    ng u c v khng gian ln thi gian khin cho nc tr thnh mt ngun ti

    nguyn c bit cn c bo v v s dng hp l.

    1.2.Nc ngm

    1.2.1.Ngun gc hnh thnh nc ngm

    Nc ngm c hnh thnh do nc trn b mt ngm xung, khng th ngm

    qua tng m nn trn n nc s tp, trung trn b mt, ty tng kin to a cht

    m n hnh thnh nn cc hnh dng khc nhau, nc tp trung nhiu s bt u di

    chuyn v lin kt vi cc khoang, ti nc khc, dn dn hnh thnh mch ngc

    ngm ln nh, tuy nhin vic hnh thnh nc ngm ph thc vo lng nc ngm

    xung v ph thuc vo lng ma v kh nng tr nc ca t.

    Trong chuyn ngnh cn s dng thut ng nc di t ch khi nim gn

    nh tng ng.

    Nc ngm c ngun gc ni sinh: Nc c sinh ra trong iu kin nhit cao

    v p sut ln ca cc hot ng xm nhp nng ni la tr. Ngun nc ny mt

    phn c phun ln mt t khi ni la hot ng, phn cn li c lu gi trong

    lng t to thnh nc ngm. Cha th tnh c tr lng ca loi nc ngm

    ngun gc ni sinh ny, nhng n gi vai tr to ln trong vic cung cp nc thng

    xuyn cho cc sng sui t cc vng ni cao v s cung cp nc sinh hot mt cch

    http://thietbilocnuoc.com/thuat-ngu-nganh-nuoc/nuoc-ngam.html

  • 15

    bn vng cho c dn vng ni cao, vng trung du, hi o v sa mc bng mt t

    hp ti u cc phng php a cht, a mo, a vt l v khoan hoc o ging

    ly nc ngm mt cch khng kh lm. Tuy vy, vi cc vng cao nguyn vi cn

    i hi cc ngun (ni la) phi ln lp nht y cc khe nt v hang hc ca

    vi, ng thi c nhiu nc ngm c kch thc ln, cn t vn tm, thm d

    v xy dng cc ging khoan khai thc nc ngm ngun gc ni sinh. Lu nay, quan

    nim nc ngm do nc trn mt ngm xung thnh cc tng cha nc nn ngi ta

    tm rt tn cng sc m khng ra.

    Lu lng nc ngm

    Nc ngm gp lng ln cho dng chy ca nhiu con sng. Con ngi s

    dng nc ngm t hng ngn nm nay v vn ang tip tc s dng n hng ngy,

    phn ln cho nhu cu nc ung v nc ti. Cuc sng trn tri t ph thuc vo

    nc ngm cng ging nh l nc b mt. Nc ngm chy bn di mt t.

    Mt phn lng ma ri trn mt t v thm vo trong t tr thnh nc ngm.

    Phn nc chy st mt s l ra rt nhanh khi chy vo trong lng sng, nhng do

    trng lc, mt phn lng nc tip tc thm su vo trong t.

    Hng v tc di chuyn nc ngm c tnh thng qua cc c trng ca

    tng nc ngm v lp cn nc ( y nc kh chy qua). S chuyn ng ca

    nc bn di mt t ph thuc vo thm (nc thm kh khn hay d dng) v

    khe rng ca bn di mt t (s cc khe h trong vt liu). Nu cc lp cho

    php nc chy qua...

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