LAO NG HC V LAO NG NGNH LM NGHIP b nng nghip v pht trin nng thn chng trnh h tr ngnh lm nghip i tc cm nang ngnh lm nghip

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1 B NNG NGHIP V PHT TRIN NNG THN CHNG TRNH H TR NGNH LM NGHIP & I TC CM NANG NGNH LM NGHIP Chng LAO NG HC V LAO NG NGNH LM NGHIP TS: Nguyn Vn Vinh Ths: Nguyxn Vn Ln Ths: Nguyn Ngc Thy Ths: Trn Vit Hng NM 2006 2 Mc lc Gii Thiu...................................................................................................................................6 Phn 1: Mt S Vn Bn Php Lut V Lao ng....................................................................9 1. Lut Lao ng (2002) .............................................................................................................9 1.1 Mt s quy nh v vic lm, hp ng lao ng, tha c lao ng tp th..................9 1.2. Mt s quy nh v thi gi lm vic v ngh ngi; k lut lao ng, trch nhim vt cht; an ton lao ng, v sinh lao ng, tai nn lao ng v bnh ngh nghip...................9 1.3. Mt s quy nh v tin lng-bo him x hi............................................................10 1.4. Mt s quy nh v gii quyt tranh chp lao ng v x pht vi phm php lut lao ng .......11 1.5. Mt s quy nh ring v sp xp lao ng ti doanh nghip nh nc khi thc hin vic sp xp, i mi v pht trin doanh nghip nh nc ................................................11 Phn 2: Tiu Hao Nng Lng V Nhu Cu Dinh Dng Ca Lao ng Lm Nghip.........12 1. Tiu hao nng lng theo loi lao ng ...............................................................................12 2. Dinh dng v cn bng nng lng theo loi lao ng......................................................17 Phn 3: nh Mc, Phng Php Xy Dng nh Mc Lao ng V T Chc Lao ng Khoa Hc..................................................................................................................................20 1. nh mc lao ng ...............................................................................................................20 1.1. Khi nim mc lao ng ...............................................................................................20 1.2. Phn loi nh mc lao ng .........................................................................................20 1.3. Tiu chun k thut nh mc lao ng ...................................................................20 1.3.1. Khi nim ...............................................................................................................20 1.3.2. Cc loi tiu chun .................................................................................................21 2. Phng php xy dng nh mc lao ng trong cc cng ty nh nc .............................21 2.1. Phm vi v i tng p dng.......................................................................................21 2.2. Nguyn tc.....................................................................................................................22 2.3. Phng php..................................................................................................................22 2.3.1 Phng php xy dng nh mc lao ng cho n v sn phm...........................22 2.3.2. Phng php xy dng nh mc lao ng tng hp theo nh bin.....................27 3. T chc lao ng khoa hc...................................................................................................30 3.1. Phn cng v hip tc ....................................................................................................30 3.2. T chc ni lm vic .....................................................................................................31 Phn 4: c im V Yu T nh Hng n Lao ng Lm Nghip ................................33 1. c im lao ng lm nghip.............................................................................................33 1.1. c im t chc sn xut lm nghip..........................................................................33 1.1.1. Khon vic..............................................................................................................33 3 1.1.2. Khon theo cng on ............................................................................................33 1.1.3. Khon hng nm.....................................................................................................33 1.1.4. Khon n nh lu di c u t.............................................................................34 1.1.5. Khon n nh lu di khng c u t ca lm trng.........................................34 1.2. Tnh cht lao ng v yu cu v th lc v tay ngh...................................................34 2. Yu t nh hng n lao ng lm nghip.........................................................................35 2.1. Ting n.........................................................................................................................35 2.2. rung..........................................................................................................................37 2.3. Nhit .........................................................................................................................38 2.4. nh sng v mu sc......................................................................................................41 2.5. m ............................................................................................................................42 2.6. Bi .................................................................................................................................42 2.7. T th lm vic ..............................................................................................................43 2.8. cng thng................................................................................................................49 2.9. Sc kho v sinh............................................................................................................53 2.9.1. Nhng vn chung...............................................................................................53 2.9.2.iu kin sng.........................................................................................................53 2.9.3. iu kin lm vic..................................................................................................56 2.10. an ton v tai nn lao ng ....................................................................................58 Phn 5: Khi Lng Cng Vic v Kh Nng Lao ng........................................................63 1. Trong khu k thut lm sinh ...............................................................................................63 1.1. Khu sn xut cy con...................................................................................................63 1.2. Trong khu trng rng...................................................................................................63 1.3. Trong khu chm sc rng ............................................................................................63 2. Trong khu khai thc rng, vn xut, vn chuyn g...........................................................63 3. Trong khu ch bin g ........................................................................................................64 4. Trong cng tc qun l, bo v rng ....................................................................................64 Phn 6: Thng K Tai Nn Lao ng Lm Nghip Thng Gp Vit Nam.......................65 1. Cc tai nn thng xy ra trong lm nghip.........................................................................65 1.1. Trong khu k thut lm sinh (v sinh rng, chm sc rng, trng rng.)...............65 1.2. Trong khu khai thc rng ( cht h, ct khc, ct cnh...)...........................................65 1.3. Trong khu vn xut g (ng cp, my ko, mng lao...) .........................................66 1.4. Trong khu vn chuyn g (bc xp, d g ln xe v xung sng...) ...........................66 1.5. Trong khu kho bi (ct khc, xp ng, bo qun...) ..................................................67 1.6. Trong khu ch bin g (ch bin c gii v ho hc...)...............................................67 4 1.7. Trong cng tc qun l, bo v rng .............................................................................68 2. Nguyn nhn, cch khc phc ..............................................................................................68 2.1. Nguyn nhn..................................................................................................................68 2.2. Cch khc phc..............................................................................................................69 3. S khc bit gia cc ma v ngnh ....................................................................................69 3.1. Trong khu lm sinh......................................................................................................69 3.1.1. Trong vic to cy con ...........................................................................................69 3.1.2. Trong cng tc trng rng ......................................................................................70 3.1.3. Trong cng tc chm sc, nui dng rng ...........................................................70 3.1.4. Trong cng tc bo v rng....................................................................................70 3.2. Trong khu khai thc, vn xut, vn chuyn .................................................................70 3.3. Trong khu ch bin ......................................................................................................70 Phn 7: An Ton V Hng Dn An Ton Lao ng Trong Lm Nghip .............................71 1. Cc yu t nguy him ...........................................................................................................71 2. Cc bin php v phng tin k thut an ton....................................................................73 2.1. Cc bin php m bo an ton lao ng trong sn xut ..............................................73 2.1.1. Bin php v k thut cng ngh ...........................................................................73 2.1.2. Bin php k thut v sinh .....................................................................................73 2.1.3. Bin php phng h c nhn ..................................................................................74 2.1.4. Bin php t chc lao ng khoa hc.....................................................................74 2.1.5. Bin php y t bo v sc khe ..............................................................................74 2.2. Bin php tng cng cng tc gio dc, hun luyn v an ton lao ng...................75 3. Thit lp h thng kim sot an ton lao ng.....................................................................75 4. Hng dn an ton lao ng trong khai thc, vn xut, vn chuyn g v lm sn.............77 4.1. An ton lao ng trong cht h g, tre, na ..................................................................77 4.2. An ton lao ng trong vn xut g v lm sn ............................................................79 4.2.1. An ton lao ng trong lao g ................................................................................79 4.2.2. An ton lao ng trong vn xut g bng my ko ................................................80 4.2.3. An ton lao ng trong vn xut g bng ng cp.............................................80 4.3. An ton lao ng trn kho g ........................................................................................81 4.4. An ton lao ng trong vn chuyn g v lm sn bng ng t ............................82 4.4.1. Yu cu an ton i vi cc thit b bc d, vn chuyn .......................................82 4.4.2. Yu cu an ton i vi tuyn ng vn chuyn g v lm sn ..........................82 4.4.3. Yu cu an ton khi bc d v vn chuyn g .......................................................83 4.4.4. An ton lao ng trong vn chuyn g v lm sn bng ng thy ....................84 5 5. Hng dn an ton lao ng trong ch bin lm sn ...........................................................85 6. Hng dn an ton lao ng trong khu lm sinh....83 7. Hng dn an ton lao ng trong qun l bo v rng ......................................................86 7.1. i vi cng tc phng chng ngi v gia sc ph hoi rng ....................................86 7.2. i vi cng tc phng tr su bnh hi rng ..............................................................86 7.3. i vi cng tc phng chng chy rng......................................................................87 Phn 8: Hng Dn S Dng Lao ng Hp L ....................................................................88 1. Mt s vn khi s dng lao ng trong lm nghip ........................................................88 1.1. T chc lao ng khoa hc............................................................................................88 1.2. Ngh ngi v gii tr.......................................................................................................88 1.3. Chm sc sc kho ........................................................................................................89 2. Mt s yu cu v cng tc bo h lao ng trong sn xut lm nghip .............................89 Ch tham kho.....................................................................................................................90 Ch 1................................................................................................................................90 Ch 2................................................................................................................................95 6 Gii Thiu Lm nghip l mt ngnh kinh t hon chnh, bao gm nhiu ngnh ngh khc nhau v hot ng khp cc vng, min trn lnh th Vit Nam. Sn xut lm nghip va mang tnh nng nghip nh sn xut kinh doanh gn vi t ai, ph thuc vo iu kin thi tit, ma v, nhiu khu cng vic thc hin bng th cng nng nhc, va mang tnh cng nghip nh sn xut theo dy chuyn, gn lin vi my mc, thit b c gii, cng lao ng cao, cng thng v thn kinh...Ngoi ra, sn xut lm nghip cn mang c th ring, nhiu hot ng tin hnh vng su, vng xa, iu kin kinh t kh khn, dn tr thp, ngi lao ng cha c o to y , vn bo h lao ng v an ton lao ng lm nghip cha c quan tm ng mc v thng xuyn. Chnh v vy, tim n nguy c v tai nn lao ng v bnh ngh nghip trong sn xut lm nghip l rt cao. Mc d, vn bo h lao ng c nh nc Vit Nam rt quan tm th hin trong B lut Lao ng v cc vn bn ca Chnh ph, B ngnh lin quan. Song lao ng trong lm nghip v nhng c th ring vn cha c cp y trong cc vn bn quy phm php lut. C th ni Vit Nam, s lng lao ng lm nghip kh di do nhng v c bn vn l lao ng th cng, c bp nng nhc, t th lm vic khng thoi mi, i din vi nguy c cao v tai nn, bnh ngh nghip v c hi cho sc kho. i vi khu vc nhit i, nhng iu trn cng th hin r, c bit cc nc ang pht trin. Nhiu hot ng lm nghip vng nhit i c c im l nng sut lao ng thp do phng thc lao ng, k thut cng nh dng c lao ng khng ph hp. y l in hnh ca cc nc c iu kin kinh t-x hi v iu kin kh hu khng thun li, to thm kh khn cho n lc ci thin iu kin lm vic vng nhit i. Xt v mt ny, F.J.Staudt gii thiu thut ng "Vng i ngho lun qun" (Hnh 1) v khoa hc lao ng l mt trong nhng cng c hu ch ph v vng lun qun ny to ra iu kin sng v lm vic ph hp cho ngi lao ng lm nghip. i vi cc iu kin vng nhit i, ch yu l lao ng chn tay v iu kin kinh t - x hi khng thun li, cc vn chnh cn c gii quyt sm l: - Kh nng lm vic thp do ngi lao ng m yu v c ch dinh dng khng tt. - Lao ng c bp nng nhc. - Sc nng. - Thiu iu kin trang b v v sinh, an ton lao ng. - Thiu cc chng trnh o to. - T l tai nn cao. 7 Hnh 1. Vng i ngho lun qun Vi nhng ni c k thut c gii ho tng i v iu kin kinh t-x hi c thun li hn, th li phi thm vo danh sch trn mt s vn sau: - Tt ic. - "Bnh mng tay trng". - Bnh thn kinh ta hoc au lng. Vi nhng ni c hot ng c gii ho cao v iu kin kinh t - x hi thun li, th li c vn : - Khng c lao ng c bp lm cho ngi cng nhn vn hnh my b qu sc. - T th lm vic g b. - Cc c bp v khp xng hot ng qu ti. - n iu v cng thng thn kinh (Staudt 1990). tng nghin cu v lao ng do Murell gii thiu t nn tng ca Hi Nghin cu lao ng nm 1949. tng ny bt ngun t hai ting trong ting Hy Lp "ergon" c ngha l lm vic, cn"nomos" c ngha l lut hay nguyn tc. V vy, "ergonomics" l s nghin cu cc lut v nguyn tc chi phi lao ng ca con ngi. N l lnh vc rng v c lin quan ti nhiu ngnh khoa hc khc nh tm l hc, sinh l hc, nhn trc hc, c sinh hc cng nh nhiu mt khc cc ngnh k thut v kinh doanh. M, thay cho thut ng lao ng hc th thut ng xy dng con ngi v ang c s dng. Nghin cu v lao ng l nghin cu tt c cc yu t lin quan c th nh hng n iu kin lm vic hay ni cch khc l "h thng cng vic ca con ngi". Mt trong nhng nh ngha ph bin v lu i nht v lao ng l ca mt nh bo ngi Anh t nm 1949: "lm cho cng vic ph hp vi ngi lm". Mt nh ngha hon chnh v hin i hn, l vic thit k v ci thin mi trng lm vic vi nhng phng thc, cng c v mi trng c bit, sao cho to ra hiu qu ti u, an ton, sc khe v s sung sc khi vn hnh v duy 4. THU NHP THP 2. KHNG C CHM SC Y T 6. CNG NHN TR B VIC 3. NNG SUT LAO NG THP 5. I SNG NNG THN XUNG CP 1. IU KIN SNG V LM VIC TI T 8 tr mt h thng "con ngi - nhim v - my mc" (bt ngun t nh ngha ca Hi Nghin cu lao ng H Lan). Trong nhiu trng hp, tht kh c th chng minh hiu qu lm vic tng ln nh p dng nghin cu lao ng. Kha cnh ny c FAO minh ha v cho rng vic nh lng li ch kinh t l khng d dng nu nh: - Nng sut lao ng ca ngi cng nhn khng i nhng ngi cng nhn li mt t nng lng, sc lc v t nguy c tai nn hn. - Cht lng c ci thin nhng khng c nh gi. - Vic cng nhn vng mt do tai nn lao ng v bnh ngh nghip gim. - Ngi cng nhn ngy cng hi lng vi cng vic hn do vic thay i cng nhn gim i. - Hnh nh doanh nghip c ci thin v d dng chiu m c nhng cng nhn trnh cao. Mc d nh gi ca FAO l nh vy, nhng mt bo co c bit v mt hiu qu kinh t ca khoa hc lao ng trong ngnh lm nghip c chun b v mang nhiu kt qu ha hn (Apud 1992). Khoa hc lao ng cp ti ngi lao ng chn tay v vic s dng c bp v tr c. Chng l nhng khi nim chnh khi tip cn vi bt c h thng khoa hc lao ng no. C hai khi nim u c th din t bng thut ng lao ng, vi nhiu nh ngha khc nhau. Khoa hc lao ng hay lao ng i i vi nhau khi nghin cu tnh hiu qu, s an ton, sc khe ca lao ng lm nghip vng nhit i (F.J.Staudt). Trong ti liu ny, ngoi h thng mt s vn bn quy phm php lut v lao ng, chng ti mun a ra mt ci nhn chung v khoa hc lao ng ngnh lm nghip, bao gm c v l thuyt ln thc tin t kinh nghim ca cc nc v nhng ngi nghin cu trc l iu ht sc cn thit. Tuy vy, cng khng th a ra y nhng l gii hon ho, chng ti ch mun gii thiu nhng ni dung c c kt, ang t ra v nhng lun c, hng dn cn thit, thng tin chn lc c th ch mong phn no t c nh ny. 9 Phn 1: Mt S Vn Bn Php Lut V Lao ng 1. Lut Lao ng (2002) 1.1 Mt s quy nh v vic lm, hp ng lao ng, tha c lao ng tp th 1. Ngh nh s 39/2003/N-CP ngy 18/4/2003 ca Chnh ph quy nh chi tit v hng dn thi hnh mt s iu ca B lut Lao ng v vic lm. 2. Ngh nh s 44/2003/N-CP ngy 9/5/2003 ca Chnh ph quy nh chi tit v hng dn thi hnh mt s iu ca B lut Lao ng v hp ng lao ng. 3. Thng t s21/2003/TT-BLTBXH ngy 22/9/2003 ca B Lao ng-Thng binh v X hi v hng dn thi hnh mt s iu ca Ngh nh s 44/2003/N-CP ngy 9/5/2003 ca Chnh ph. 4. Thng t s 06/1998/TT-BLTBXH ngy 15/4/1998 ca B Lao ng-Thng binh v X hi hng dn v khai trnh vic s dng lao ng khi doanh nghip bt u hot ng v bo co vic chm dt s dng lao ng khi doanh nghip chm dt hot ng. 5. Vn bn s 1071/LTBXH-CV ngy 3/4/1997 ca B Lao ng-Thng binh v X hi hng dn v vic chm dt hp ng v tnh tr cp thi vic. 6. Vn bn s 1179/LTBXH-CS ngy 11/4/1997 ca B Lao ng-Thng binh v X hi v vic ngi s dng lao ng n phng chm dt hp ng lao ng tri php lut 1.2. Mt s quy nh v thi gi lm vic v ngh ngi; k lut lao ng, trch nhim vt cht; an ton lao ng, v sinh lao ng, tai nn lao ng v bnh ngh nghip 1. Ngh nh s 114/2002/N-CP ngy 31/12/2002 ca Chnh ph quy nh chi tit v hng dn thi hnh mt s iu ca B lut Lao ng v tin lng. 2. Thng t s 12/2003/TT-BLTBXH ngy 30/5/2003 ca B Lao ng-Thng binh v X hi v hng dn thi hnh mt s iu ca Ngh nh s 114/2002/N-CP ngy 9/5/2003 ca Chnh ph v tin lng i vi ngi lao ng lm vic trong doanh nghip nh nc. 3. Ngh nh s 10/1999/N-CP ngy 1/3/1999 ca Chnh ph v vic b sung Ngh nh s 195/CP ngy 31/12/1994 ca Chnh ph quy nh chi tit v hng dn thi hnh mt s iu ca B lut Lao ng v thi gi lm vic, thi gi ngh ngi. 4. Ngh nh s 206/2004/N-CP ngy 14/12/2004 ca Chnh ph quy nh qun l lao ng, tin lng v thu nhp trong cc cng ty nh nc. 5. Thng t s 16/LTBXH-TT ngy 23/4/1997 ca B Lao ng-Thng binh v X hi hng dn v thi gi lm vic hng ngy c rt ngn vi nhng ngi lm cng vic nng nhc, c hi, nguy him. 6. Thng t s 10/1998/LTBXH-TT ngy 28/5/1998 ca B Lao ng-Thng binh v X hi hng dn thc hin ch trang b phng tin bo v c nhn. 7. Thng t s 14/2005/TTLT/BLTBXH-BYT-TLLBVN ngy 8/3/2005 ca Lin tch B Lao ng Thng binh v X hi, B Y t v Tng Lin on Lao ng Vit Nam hng dn v khai bo v iu tra tai nn lao ng. 8. Thng t s 08/TTLB ngy 19/5/1976 v s 29/TTLB ngy 25/12/1992 ca Lin b B Y t, B Lao ng Thng binh v X hi, B Y t v Tng Lin on Lao ng Vit Nam 10 hng dn th tc ng k v kim nh cc loi my, thit b, vt t, cc cht c yu cu nghim ngt v an ton lao ng, v sinh lao ng. 9. Quyt nh s 915/LTBXH-Q ngy 30/7/1996 ca B trng B Lao ng Thng binh v X hi v ban hnh tm thi danh mc ngh, cng vic nng nhc c hi (trong c cc ngh lm nghip). 10. Ch th s 20/2004/CT-TTg ca Th tng Chnh ph v vic tng cng ch o v t chc thc hin an ton-v sinh lao ng trong sn xut nng nghip 1.3. Mt s quy nh v tin lng-bo him x hi 1. Ngh nh s 203/2004/N-CP ngy 14/12/2004 ca Chnh ph quy nh mc lng ti thiu. 2. Ngh nh s 205/2004/N-CP ngy 14/12/2004 ca Chnh ph quy nh h thng thang lng, bng lng v ch ph cp lng trong cc cng ty nh nc. 3. Ngh nh s 206/2004/N-CP ngy 14/12/2004 ca Chnh ph quy nh qun l lao ng, tin lng v thu nhp trong cc cng ty nh nc. 4. Ngh nh s 118/2005/N-CP ngy 15/9/2005 ca Chnh ph iu chnh mc tin lng chung. 5. Thng t s 25/2005/TT-BLTBXH ca B Lao ng-Thng binh v X hi hng dn thc hin iu chnh tin lng v ph cp lng trong doanh nghip theo Ngh nh s 118/2005/N-CP ngy 15/9/2005 ca Chnh ph iu chnh mc tin lng chung. 6. Thng t s 06/2005/TT-BLTBXH ngy 05/01/2005 ca B Lao ng-Thng binh v X hi hng dn xy dng nh mc lao ng trong cc cng ty nh nc theo Ngh nh s 206/2004/N-CP. 7. Thng t lin tch s 10/2005/TTLT-BNV-BLTBXH-BTC ngy 05/01/2005 ca Lin tch B Ni v-B Lao ng-Thng binh v X hi-B Ti chnh hng dn thc hin ch ph cp thu ht. 8. Thng t lin tch s 11/2005/TTLT-BNV-BLTBXH-BTC-UBDT ngy 05/01/2005 ca Lin tch B Ni v-B Lao ng-Thng binh v X hi-B Ti chnh-U ban dn tc hng dn thc hin ch ph cp khu vc. 9. Thng t s 11/TT-BLTBXH ngy 7/4/1997 ca B Lao ng-Thng binh v X hi hng dn p dng ch bo him x hi i vi ngi lm ngh hoc cng vic thuc danh mc ngh, cng vic c bit nng nhc, c hi, nguy him v nng nhc, c hi, nguy him. 10. Thng t s 91/TT-BLTBXH ngy 2/8/1997 ca B Lao ng-Thng binh v X hi hng dn vic thc hin ch bi thng cho ngi b tai nn lao ng. 11. Thng t lin tch s 03/1998/TTLT-BLTBXH-BYT-TLLVN ngy 26/3/1998 ca B Lao ng-Thng binh v X hi-B Y t v Tng Lin on Lao ng Vit Nam hng dn v khai bo v iu tra tai nn lao ng. 11 12. Thng t lin tch s 03/1998/TTLT-BYT-BLTBXH ca B Y t -B Lao ng-Thng binh v X hi hng dn thc hin cc quy nh v bnh ngh nghip. 13. Thng t s 06/2005/TT-BLDDTBXH ngy 05/01/2005 B Lao ng Thng binh v X hi hng dn Phng php xy dng nh mc lao ng trong cc cng ty nh nc theo Ngh nh s 206/2004/N-CP ngy 14/12/2004 ca Chnh ph quy nh qun l lao ng, tin lng v thu nhp trong cc cng ty nh nc. 1.4. Mt s quy nh v gii quyt tranh chp lao ng v x pht vi phm php lut lao ng 14. Php lnh th tc gii quyt tranh chp lao ng. 15. Ngh nh s 47/CP ngy 3/5/1997 ca Chnh ph v vic gii quyt bi thng thit hi do cng chc, vin chc nh nc, ngi c quyn ca c quan tin hnh t tng gy ra. 16. Ngh nh s 113/2004/N-CP ngy 16/4/2004 ca Chnh ph quy nh x pht hnh chnh v hnh vi vi phm php lut Lao ng. 17. Ngh nh s 04/2005/N-CP ngy 11/1/2005 ca Chnh ph quy nh chi tit v hng dn thi hnh mt s iu ca B lut Lao ng v khiu ni, t co v lao ng. 18. Thng t s 01/TT-BLTBXH ngy 6/1/1997 ca B Lao ng-Thng binh v X hi hng dn th tc, trnh t x pht, vic thu v s dng tin x pht vi phm hnh chnh v hnh vi vi phm php lut lao ng. 19. Thng t s12/2005/TT-BLTBXH ngy 28/1/2005 ca B Lao ng-Thng binh v X hi hng dn thi hnh Ngh nh s 113/2004/N-CP ngy 16/4/2004 ca Chnh ph quy nh x pht hnh chnh v hnh vi vi phm php lut Lao ng. 1.5. Mt s quy nh ring v sp xp lao ng ti doanh nghip nh nc khi thc hin vic sp xp, i mi v pht trin doanh nghip nh nc 20. Ngh nh s 41/2002/N-CP ngy 11/4/2002 ca Chnh ph v chnh sch i vi lao ng di d do sp xp li doanh nghip nh nc. 21. Thng t s 19/2004/TT-BLTB&XH ngy 22/11/2004 ca B Lao ng-Thng binh v X hi hng dn thi hnh mt s iu ca Ngh nh s 41/2002/N-CP c sa i, b sung theo Ngh nh s 115/2004/N-CP ngy 10/8/2004 ca Chnh ph. 22. Thng t s 18/2005/TT-BLTB&XH ngy 11/5/2005 ca B Lao ng-Thng binh v X hi v sa i, b sung Thng t s 19/2004/TT-BLTB&XH ngy 22/11/2004. 23. Quyt nh s 20/2005/Q-BTC 7/4/2005 ca B trng B Ti chnh ban hnh quy ch qun l v s dng qu h tr lao ng di d do sp xp li doanh nghip nh nc. 12 Phn 2: Tiu Hao Nng Lng V Nhu Cu Dinh Dng Ca Lao ng Lm Nghip 1. Tiu hao nng lng theo loi lao ng Trong sn xut c nhiu hnh thi lao ng khc nhau, nhiu ngh nghip khc nhau, nhng ngh no cng vy, tnh cht lao ng u bao hm trn 3 mt: lao ng th lc, lao ng tr no v lao ng cng thng v thn kinh tm l. Lao ng th lc th hin mc vn c. Lao ng tr no th hin mc suy ngh, phn tch, tnh ton,...Tnh cht lao ng cng thng v thn kinh tm l c lin quan n nhng ng tc n iu, u u, gy ra nhng kch thch hng phn qu mc mt trung khu gic quan nht nh nh thnh gic, th gic, hoc gy mt mi thn kinh. Cng tc ca ngi th bc vc, nh nghin cu, ngi li xe tiu biu cho tnh cht ca cc loi lao ng ni trn. Thng thng, nh gi mc nng nhc ca lao ng th lc nh lao ng lm nghip, ngi ta dng ch s tiu hao nng lng. Tiu hao nng lng trong lao ng cng cao, cng lao ng cng ln. Di y l bng tiu hao nng lng theo cc loi lao ng khc nhau (biu 1). Biu 1. Tiu hao nng lng theo cc loi lao ng c mc nng nhc khc nhau v khi ngh ngi (F.J Staudt - Chng 24 v lao ng hc - S tay Lm nghip Nhit i - L.Pancel - Springer Verlag. Heindelberg - 1993) Cng lao ng Tiu hao nng lng Kcal/ngy Ngh tng ng Ngh ngi 1500-2000 Lao ng nh 2300-3000 Nhn vin nh my, gio vin, thy thuc,... Lao ng trung bnh 3100-3900 Ni tr, a th, th ngui, th dt,... Lao ng nng 4000-5000 Lao ng nng nghip, th m, th khun vc,... Lao ng rt nng 5000 - 6000 Lao ng lm nghip (chn tay). Lao ng Lm nghp thuc loi lao ng nng nhc. Thc t, y l mt trong nhng ngh vt v nht. Durnin v Passmore (1967) tnh ton v a ra bng tiu hao nng lng i vi cc loi lao ng lm nghip nh sau: 13 Biu 2. Tiu hao nng lng theo lao ng lm nghip (Durnin v Passmore 1967) Kj/pht/ngi 65 kg Kcal/pht/ngi 65 kg Khong tiu hao Trung bnh Khong tiu hao Trung bnh Cng vic ti vn m - Trng cy con 18,4 4,4 - Cuc t 24,7 5,9 - Cuc t v lm c 18,4 4,4 - Lm c 19,7 4,7 - Cho c vo bao ti 13,4 3,2 - Mang bao ti c i vt 17,6 4,2 Trng cy - o mng nc bng tay 33,5 8,0 - Khi cc mng cn bng thung 32,7 7,8 - Ngi li my ko 14,2-22,6 19,3 3,4-5,4 4,6 - ng li my ko 23,4-31,4 27,6 5,6-7,5 6,6 - Li my ko cht t 20,5-31,4 27,2 4,9-7,5 6,5 - o h trng cy bng dng c c kh 15,5-30,6 21,8 3,7-7,3 6,2 - Trng cy bng tay 23,0-46,9 27,2 5,5-11,2 6,5 - Trng cy bng my 11,7 2,8 Dng ru b thng ng Trng lng li ru (kg) S ln b/pht 1,25 20 23,0 5,5 14 Kj/pht/ngi 65 kg Kcal/pht/ngi 65 kg Khong tiu hao Trung bnh Khong tiu hao Trung bnh 0,65-1,25 35 38,0- 44,4 41,0 9,1-10,06 9,8 2,0 35 41,9 10,0 n cy, ta cnh - n cy 28,5-53,2 36,0 6,8-12,7 8,6 - Ta cnh 21,8-48,6 35,2 5,2-12,6 8,4 - Bc v cy 21,8- 50,2 33,5 5,2- 12,0 8,0 - Mang g khc 41,4- 60,3 50,7 9,5- 14,4 12,1 - Ko g khc 34,7- 66,6 50,7 8,3- 15,9 12,1 Lm vic trong rng dng ca - Mi ca 13,4 3,2 - Mang ca in 27,2 6,5 - Ca cho bng tay 26,8- 44,0 36,0 6,4- 10,5 8,5 - Ca ngang bng tay 28,5- 32,2 30,1 6,8- 7,7 7,2 - Ca dc bng ca in 12,1- 20,9 18,0 2,9- 5,0 4,3 - Ca ngang bng ca in 15,1- 26,8 22,6 3,6-6,4 5,4 Cc cng vic khc - Ca vn bng tay ti nh my ca 21,8 5,2 - Ca cc khc g nh bng tay 15,1 3,5 - B ci 36,0- 38,1 36,8 8,6- 9,1 8,8 - Ko ca 32,7- 41,0 36,8 7,8- 9,8 8,8 - Xp ci 21,3- 26,0 23,9 5,1- 6,2 5,7 - Dng bn ca in x cc 14,2 3,4 15 Kj/pht/ngi 65 kg Kcal/pht/ngi 65 kg Khong tiu hao Trung bnh Khong tiu hao Trung bnh khc g thnh vn mng Cng vic ti vn m - Trng cy con 18,4 4,4 - Cuc t 24,7 5,9 - Cuc t v lm c 18,4 4,4 - Lm c 19,7 4,7 - Cho c vo bao ti 13,4 3,2 - Mang bao ti c i vt 17,6 4,2 Trng cy - o mng nc bng tay 33,5 8,0 - Khi cc mng cn bng thung 32,7 7,8 - Ngi li my ko 14,2-22,6 19,3 3,4-5,4 4,6 - ng li my ko 23,4-31,4 27,6 5,6-7,5 6,6 - Li my ko cht t 20,5-31,4 27,2 4,9-7,5 6,5 - o h trng cy bng dng c c kh 15,5-30,6 21,8 3,7-7,3 6,2 - Trng cy bng tay 23,0-46,9 27,2 5,5-11,2 6,5 - Trng cy bng my 11,7 2,8 Dng ru b thng ng Trng lng li ru (kg) S ln b/pht 1,25 20 23,0 5,5 0,65-1,25 35 38,0- 44,4 41,0 9,1-10,06 9,8 2,0 35 41,9 10,0 16 Kj/pht/ngi 65 kg Kcal/pht/ngi 65 kg Khong tiu hao Trung bnh Khong tiu hao Trung bnh n cy, ta cnh - n cy 28,5-53,2 36,0 6,8-12,7 8,6 - Ta cnh 21,8-48,6 35,2 5,2-12,6 8,4 - Bc v cy 21,8- 50,2 33,5 5,2- 12,0 8,0 - Mang g khc 41,4- 60,3 50,7 9,5- 14,4 12,1 - Ko g khc 34,7- 66,6 50,7 8,3- 15,9 12,1 Lm vic trong rng dng ca - Mi ca 13,4 3,2 - Mang ca in 27,2 6,5 - Ca cho bng tay 26,8- 44,0 36,0 6,4- 10,5 8,5 - Ca ngang bng tay 28,5- 32,2 30,1 6,8- 7,7 7,2 - Ca dc bng ca in 12,1- 20,9 18,0 2,9- 5,0 4,3 - Ca ngang bng ca in 15,1- 26,8 22,6 3,6-6,4 5,4 Cc cng vic khc - Ca vn bng tay ti nh my ca 21,8 5,2 - Ca cc khc g nh bng tay 15,1 3,5 - B ci 36,0- 38,1 36,8 8,6- 9,1 8,8 - Ko ca 32,7- 41,0 36,8 7,8- 9,8 8,8 - Xp ci 21,3- 26,0 23,9 5,1- 6,2 5,7 - Dng bn ca in x cc khc g thnh vn mng 14,2 3,4 17 nh gi mc nng nhc ca mt cng vic chn tay phi vn ng nhiu, ngi ta thng dng thang Christensen o. Thang ny nh gi mc nng nhc ca cng vic thng qua o lng nhp tim (s ln/pht), lng xy hp th (tnh bng lt/pht) v nng lng tiu th (tnh bng kj/pht) trong khi cng nhn ang lm vic. Biu 3. Thang Christensen dng nh gi mc nng nhc cc cng vic chn tay (Christensen 1953) Mc nng nhc Nhp tim/pht Lng xy hp th (lt/pht) Nng lng tiu th (kj/pht) 1. Rt nh nhng < 75 < 0,5 175 > 2,5 > 50 Nhp tim l mt ch s nh gi mc ti trng v tim mch v khi lng tiu th xy l mt ch s v khi lng lc mu v cung cp nng lng cho c th. tho mn nhu cu xy cho vic xy ho cc cht sinh ra nng lng, trong qu trnh lao ng, h thng h hp, tim mch phi hot ng khn trng: nhp th 16-18 ln trong mt pht lc bnh thng tng ln n 30-40 ln trong mt pht khi lao ng, nhp tim t 60-70 ln trong mt pht tng ln n 90-150 ln hoc hn. Lao ng th lc cng nng th sinh nhit trong c th cng nhiu, thn nhit c th tng ln hn bnh thng v c hin tng ra nhiu m hi duy tr thng bng nhit. Nu chu ti ko di, sn phm d ha nh a xt lc tc tng nhiu, thn phi lm vic khn trng o thi ht cn b. 2. Dinh dng v cn bng nng lng theo loi lao ng Gii hn kt qu cng vic ph thuc vo khi lng nng lng hng ngy mt c th bnh thng c th tiu th c mt cch hp l trn c s ba ba mt ngy v ngn sch sn c. Nu nhu cu nng lng hng ngy khng c n b bng lng thc n tip nhn, t nht trong mt khong thi gian nht nh, s dn ti tnh trng mt cn bng. iu ny s gy ra hu qu tiu cc i vi kt qu cng vic, sc kho ca cng nhn s gim v nguy c gy ra li v tai nn tng ln, dn n t l vng mt cao v tc thay th lao ng cao. C th thy cng vic lm nghip ni chung rt nng nhc, i hi phi tiu hao nhiu nng lng, nhng nguy c ni trn c th xy ra v do rt cn quan tm ti mc cn bng nng lng thc phm cho cng nhn. i vi mt s tnh hung cc nc ang pht trin, ngi ta chng minh c rng mt chng trnh n ung tt do doanh nghip lm nghip thc hin c th ci thin c kt qu cng vic. Biu 4. nh hng ca trng lng c th v ngh nghip n nhu cu nng lng ca nam gii (WHO 1973) 18 Hot ng nh nhng Hot ng bnh thng Hot ng rt tch cc Hot ng cc k tch cc Trng lng c th (kg) Kcal Mj Kcal Mj Kcal Mj Kcal Mj 50 2100 8,8 2300 9,6 2700 11,3 3100 13,0 55 2310 9,7 2530 10,6 2970 12,4 3410 14,3 60 2520 10,5 2760 11,5 3240 13,6 3720 15,6 65 2700 11,3 3000 12,5 3500 14,6 4000 16,7 70 2940 12,3 3220 13,5 3780 15,8 4340 18,2 75 3150 13,2 3450 14,4 4050 16,9 4650 19,5 80 3360 14,1 3680 15,4 4320 18,1 4960 20,8 Biu 05. nh hng ca trng lng c th v ngh nghip n nhu cu nng lng ca n gii (WHO 1973) Hot ng nh nhng Hot ng bnh thng Hot ng rt tch cc Hot ng cc k tch cc Trng lng c th (kg) Kcal Mj Kcal Mj Kcal Mj Kcal Mj 40 1440 6,0 1600 6,7 1880 7,9 2200 9,2 45 1620 6,8 1800 7,5 2120 8,9 2480 10,4 50 1800 7,5 2000 8,4 2350 9,8 2750 11,5 55 2000 8,4 2200 9,2 2600 10,9 3000 12,6 60 2160 9,0 2400 10,0 2820 11,8 3300 13,8 65 2340 9,8 2600 10,9 3055 12,8 3575 15,0 70 2520 10,5 2800 11,7 3290 13,8 3850 16,1 Mt s nghin cu v ch n ung v thnh phn dinh dng cho cng nhn lm nghip cho thy gi tr calo, lng protein, cht khong v cc vitamin rt quan trng khi xem xt thnh phn thc n. Gi tr dinh dng ca thc n ph thuc khng ch vo thnh phn v s lng thc n, m cn c vo vic phn phi cc ba n trong sut c ngy lm vic. Thc n c phn phi u trong ngy em li hiu qu cao nht. Nu khng, lng ng trong mu c th gim xung di mc cho php v gy ra triu chng mt mi ngi cng nhn. 19 Ngun nng lng chnh i vi c th con ngi l t carbonhydrate (gi tr calor, 17 kj/g). Ngun ny thng c trong nhng thc n r nh go, ng, khoai, sn,...Nhc im ca ngun nng lng ny l c lng calor cn thit cho c th, th phi tiu mt khi lng ln thc phm. tng lng calor cn thit cho c th, ngi ta c th b sung m v lipit (gi tr calor, 38kj/g). Loi nng lng ny c nhiu khi dng du, b, m ln, lc,...M, Lipit cn l dung mi ho tan mt s loi vitamin, gip cho vic hp th ca c th. Cc cht protein c bit cn thit cho s pht trin v duy tr c th v cho vic iu tit cc chc nng sinh l khc nhau. Chng cng l ngun nng lng c tr calor tng t nh carbonhydrate (gi tr calor, 17 kj/g). Cc ngun protein quan trng c th l t ng vt (tht, c, sa, trng,...), cng nh t thc vt (u v cc loi h u khc). Cc cht khong cn thit duy tr v m rng cc m c th v iu tit cc chc nng sinh l khc nhau. V d, cht khong trong mu, calxi trong xng v dy thn kinh, pht pho trong xng. Ngun cung cp cht khong l cc sn phm sa, tht, c, rau. Cc vitamin cng rt cn thit cho c th con ngi v ngun cung cp vitamin ch yu l t hoa qu v rau. nh gi mc cn bng nng lng v tnh trng dinh dng ca mt nhm cng nhn lm nghip, phng php n gin l theo di trng lng c th trong ma lm vic. Nu c th gim cn chng t thc n khng cn bng. Mt phng php khc b sung hon ho cho phng php cn nng l phng php o np gp da, l o dy np gp da bp tay, bp tht to ng sau cnh tay trn, di xng vai. Tng s np gp da c mi tng quan vi lng m ca c th (Aput 1989). Nu con s ny gim hoc khng c, tc l cn cn nng lng m (thiu nng lng). Tuy nhin, loi nghin cu ny phi do cc chuyn gia nh bc s hoc nh sinh l thc hin. 20 Phn 3: nh Mc, Phng Php Xy Dng nh Mc Lao ng V T Chc Lao ng Khoa Hc 1. nh mc lao ng 1.1. Khi nim mc lao ng Mc lao ng l chi ph lao ng c quy nh thc hin mt khi lng cng vic nht nh ca mt ngi hay mt tp th ngi lao ng c ngh nghip ph hp trong nhng iu kin sn xut nht nh. Thng qua cc mc lao ng, ngi ta c th bit c cn phi chi ph bao nhiu lao ng sn xut ra mt n v sn phm. Mc lao ng (ch yu l mc thi gian) c cn c k thut. 1.2. Phn loi nh mc lao ng Theo quy nh hin hnh, nh mc lao ng c xc nh trong cc cng ty nh nc c hai loi sau: - nh mc lao ng tng hp cho n v sn phm. - nh mc lao ng tng hp theo nh bin. 1.3. Tiu chun k thut nh mc lao ng 1.3.1. Khi nim Tiu chun nh mc lao ng l nhng i lng hao ph thi gian quy nh hon thnh nhng b phn ca bc cng vic trong nhng iu kin t chc k thut hp l, ng vi cc ch lm vic tin tin ca thit b. Cc b phn ca bc cng vic bao gm chun b, kt thc, tc nghip, phc v ni lm vic, ngh ngi, ngh cho nhu cu ca cng nhn,... Nh vy, cht lng ca tiu chun nh mc quyt nh cht lng ca cc mc lao ng. Do mc lao ng l c s lp k hoch sn xut, tnh s lng cng nhn v qu tin lng, tnh nng lc sn xut ca thit b v gi thnh sn phm, cho nn mc chnh xc ca tiu chun khng ch nh hng n cht lng ca mc lao ng, m cn nh hng n cht lng ca cc ch tiu nu trn. tiu chun nh mc m bo cht lng, khi xy dng cn ch cc yu cu c bn sau y: - Phi phn nh c nhng thnh tu mi nht ca khoa hc-k thut, nhng kinh nghim tin tin ca t chc sn xut v t chc lao ng. ng thi tiu chun lao ng cn phi th hin c nhng phng php lm vic tin tin ca nhng cng nhn c nhiu sng kin ci tin k thut v c nng sut lao ng cao. - Phi m bo mc chnh xc v mc tng hp ph hp vi tng loi hnh sn xut. - Phi tnh ton y v chnh xc nhng yu t nh hng n thi gian ca bc cng vic v cc b phn hp thnh ca bc cng vic. - Phi tnh n nhng iu kin t chc-k thut c th, n c im ca qu trnh cng ngh v ca loi hnh sn xut. - Phi bao gm nhng phng n cng ngh ph bin v c trng nht, phi n gin v thun tin khi s dng tnh ton mc lao ng. Tiu chun v mc thi gian khc nhau nhng im c bn sau: 21 - Theo ni dung, kt cu ca mc thi gian bao gm y cc loi thi gian: thi gian chun b, kt thc, thi gian tc nghip, thi gian phc v ni lm vic, thi gian ngh ngi, thi gian ngh cho nhu cu ca cng nhn, cn tiu chun xy dng v tnh ton ring bit cho tng loi thi gian nh chun b, kt thc, tc nghip, phc v ni lm vic, ngh ngi, ngh cho nhu cu ca cng nhn. - Theo phm vi s dng, mc thi gian ch dng cho nhng bc cng vic ging nhau v ni lm vic nh nhau, cn tiu chun thi gian c th s dng trong nhiu doanh nghip, lm trng khc nhau. l u im c bn ca tiu chun thi gian. - Theo mc ch s dng, mc thi gian cng vi cht lng ph hp vi cp bc cng vic l yu t quan trng tnh n gi sn phm, nhng tiu chun thi gian khng th dng tnh ton n gi sn phm. 1.3.2. Cc loi tiu chun Tiu chun nh mc lao ng c th chia thnh nhng loi sau: - Tiu chun ch lm vic ca thit b: l nhng quy nh v cc thng s ca ch lm vic hp l dng tnh mc thi gian chnh (thi gian my v my tay). - Tiu chun thi gian: l nhng i lng quy nh v thi gian dng nh mc cho nhng bc cng vic lm bng tay, hoc nhng phn vic lm bng tay ca bc cng vic c thc hin trn cc thit b khc nhau. - Tiu chun phc v: l nhng i lng hao ph thi gian quy nh cho vic phc v mt n v thit b, mt ni lm vic, hay mt i sn xut v c s dng tnh ton mc phc v. Tiu chun phc v xy dng cho tng loi cng nhn, theo tng loi thit b, v tng loi cng vic, trn c s nghin cu nhng iu kin sn xut bng phng php chp nh, bm gi, v trn c s nhng ti liu phn tch hiu qu kinh t ca vic b tr cng nhn. - Tiu chun s lng ngi lm vic: l nhng quy nh v s lng cng nhn cn thit hon thnh mt chc nng hoc n v khi lng cng vic. Tiu chun ny dng xc nh s lng cng nhn sn xut chnh phc v dy chuyn t ng, nhn vin chun b cng ngh, hch ton, kim tra, sa cha bo dng,... - Ngoi ra, tiu chun c th c chia ra theo tiu chun b phn (hao ph thi gian quy nh cho tng thao tc ca bc cng vic), hay tiu chun tng hp (hao ph thi gian quy nh cho nhng yu t cng vic ln hn nh tng hp cc thao tc, bc cng vic,...). Theo phm vi m mc ch s dng, tiu chun c th c chia ra: tiu chun x nghip, tiu chun ngnh v tiu chun thng nht. 2. Phng php xy dng nh mc lao ng trong cc cng ty nh nc1 2.1. Phm vi v i tng p dng Phm vi v i tng p dng l cc cng ty hot ng theo Lut Doanh nghip nh nc, bao gm: - Tng cng ty nh nc, Cng ty nh nc c lp. 1 Ngun: Thng t s 06/2005/TT-BLTBXH ngy 05/01/2005 B Lao ng Thng binh v X hi hng dn Phng php xy dng nh mc lao ng trong cc cng ty nh nc theo Ngh nh s 206/2004/N-CP ngy 14/12/2004 ca Chnh ph quy nh qun l lao ng, tin lng v thu nhp trong cc cng ty nh nc. 22 - Cng ty thnh vin hch ton c lp ca Tng cng ty do Nh nc quyt nh u t v thnh lp. Doanh nghip thuc cc thnh phn kinh t khc c vn dng theo quy nh v phng php xy dng nh mc ti Mc II ny. 2.2. Nguyn tc - Cc sn phm, dch v u phi c nh mc lao ng. Khi thay i k thut, cng ngh sn xut, kinh doanh th phi iu chnh nh mc lao ng. - nh mc lao ng tng hp cho n v sn phm (k c sn phm quy i) hoc theo nh bin phi hnh thnh t nh bin nguyn cng (nguyn cng cng ngh, nguyn cng ph tr, phc v), t nh bin ca tng b phn v lao ng qun l. i vi nh mc lao ng tng hp cho n v sn phm th trong qu trnh tnh ton, xy dng nh mc phi cn c vo cc thng s k thut quy nh cho sn phm, quy trnh cng ngh sn xut sn phm, ch lm vic ca thit b, kt hp vi nhng kinh nghim tin tin c iu kin p dng rng ri v cc yu cu v chn chnh t chc sn xut, t chc lao ng v qun l. - Khi xy dng nh mc lao ng tng hp th khng c tnh hao ph lao ng lm sn phm ph, sa cha ln my mc, thit b, nh xng, cng trnh xy dng, cng trnh xy dng c bn, ch to, lp t thit b. Nhng hao ph lao ng cho cc loi cng vic ny c xy dng nh mc tng hp ring. - Khi xy dng nh mc lao ng tng hp, cng ty ng thi phi xc nh phc tp lao ng v cp bc cng vic bnh qun theo phng php bnh qun gia quyn. 2.3. Phng php Cn c vo k thut, quy trnh cng ngh, t chc lao ng v mt hng sn xut, kinh doanh, cng ty la chn mt trong hai phng php xy dng nh mc lao ng tng hp sau: - Phng php xy dng nh mc lao ng tng hp cho n v sn phm - Phng php xy dng nh mc lao ng tng hp nh bin 2.3.1 Phng php xy dng nh mc lao ng cho n v sn phm nh mc lao ng tng hp cho n v sn phm, cng ty tin hnh cc bc sau: - Phn loi lao ng. - Xc nh n v sn phm tnh mc lao ng tng hp. - Chun b ti liu tnh mc lao ng tng hp. - Tnh mc lao ng tng hp cho n v sn phm. 2.3.1.1. Phn loi lao ng Phn loi lao ng l vic phn chia lao ng thnh lao ng cng ngh, lao ng ph tr, phc v v lao ng qun l nh mc hao ph thi gian lao ng theo tng loi, lm c s xc nh nh mc tng hp cho n v sn phm. Vic phn loi lao ng cn c vo tnh cht ngnh, ngh, t chc sn xut, t chc lao ng ca cng ty. C th phn loi lao ng nh sau: 23 a) Lao ng cng ngh: l nhng lao ng trc tip thc hin nhim v sn xut theo quy trnh cng ngh nhm lm bin i i tng lao ng v cc mt hnh dng, kch thc, c l ho tnh, v tr sn xut sn phm, nh: nhng ngi trc tip x l i tng lao ng; ngi trc tip iu khin my mc, thit b chuyn dng; ngi ng gi sn phm theo quy trnh cng ngh; ngi vn chuyn hng ha n ni giao nhn b) Lao ng ph tr, phc v: l nhng lao ng khng trc tip thc hin nhim v ca qu trnh cng ngh nhng c qu trnh phc v cho lao ng cng ngh hon thnh qu trnh cng ngh sn xut sn phm. Lao ng ph tr, phc v c xc nh cn c vo cc chc nng, nhim v phc v, nh: t chc cng ngh; ph tr cng ngh; bo dng thit b; sn xut, bo dng dng c, trang b cng ngh; kim tra k thut; vn ti xp d; cung cp nng lng; phc v kho tng; bo dng nh xng, kin trc, cng trnh; bao h lao ng, k thut an ton v v sinh cng nghip c) Lao ng qun l, gm: - Ph Tng gim c, Ph Gim c, K ton trng cng ty (khng k Ph Tng gim c, Ph Gim c, K ton trng lm vic theo hp ng) v vin chc chuyn mn, nghip v thuc b my iu hnh ca cng ty. - Thnh vin Ban kim sot (khng k Trng ban kim sot). - Vin chc gip vic Hi ng qun tr. - Cn b chuyn trch lm cng tc ng, on th do cng ty tr lng (khng k nhng ngi do on th tr lng). 2.3.1.2. Xc nh n v sn phm tnh mc lao ng tng hp Sn phm tnh mc lao ng tng hp l sn phm hng ho, c n v o (tn, m, m3) ph hp vi n vi o lng theo quy nh ca nh nc. i vi cng ty sn xut nhiu loi sn phm hoc bn thnh phm c n v o khng ng nht th c th tnh quy i ng nht v mt sn phm hng ha (xem cch tnh quy i sn phm hng ho theo hng dn ti mc sau). 2.3.1.3. Chun b ti liu tnh mc lao ng tng hp tnh mc lao ng tng hp, cng ty phi c cc ti liu: - H thng mc lao ng chi tit ca tt c cc nguyn cng sn xut sn phm. - Cc ti liu v k thut; nhim v sn xut, kinh doanh; cc nh mc vt t, nguyn, nhin, vt liu sn xut sn phm. 2.3.1.4. Phng php tnh mc lao ng tng hp cho n v sn phm (hoc sn phm quy i) Mc lao ng tng hp cho n v sn phm c tnh theo cng thc: Tsp = Tcn + Tpv + Tql Trong : Tsp: Mc lao ng tng hp cho dn v sn phm (n v tnh l gi-ngi/n v sn phm). Tcn: Mc lao ng cng ngh. Tpv: Mc lao ng ph tr, phc v. 24 Tql: Mc lao ng qun l. Tcn, Tpv, Tql xc nh nh sau: a) Mc lao ng cng ngh (Tcn): c tnh bng tng thi gian lao ng thc hin cc nguyn cng cng ngh sn xut sn phm trong iu kin t chc, k thut xc nh. b) Mc lao ng ph tr, phc v (Tpv): c tnh bng tng thi gian thc hin cc nguyn cng cng ph tr, phc v sn xut sn phm trong iu kin t chc, k thut xc nh. Tpv tnh t mc thi gian ph tr, phc v theo tng nguyn cng hoc tnh bng t l % so vi Tcn. c) Mc lao ng qun l (Tql): c tnh bng tng thi gian lao ng qun l sn xut sn phm. Tql tnh t qu thi gian qun l hoc tnh bng t l % so vi mc lao ng cng ngh cng vi mc lao ng ph tr, phc v (Tcn+Tpv). Cch tnh c th cc thng s Tcn, Tpv, Tql v tnh quy i sn phm nh sau: Phng php tnh Tcn, Tpv, Tql: 1) Tcn: Tcn = tcni Trong : tcni : Mc lao ng ca nguyn cng cng ngh th i; n : S nguyn cng cng ngh sn xut sn phm. Trng hp mt nguyn cng c thc hin trn nhiu loi my mc, thit b khc nhau, c mc thi gian v sn lng khc nhau th p dng phng php bnh qun gia quyn tnh mc lao ng cho nguyn cng . 2) Tpv: Cch 1: Tnh t mc lao ng thc hin cc nguyn cng ph tr, phc v, v theo cng thc: Tpv = tpvi Trong : tpvi : Mc lao ng ca nguyn cng ph tr, phc v th i; n : S nguyn cng ph tr, phc v sn xut sn phm. Cch 2: Tnh bng t l % so vi mc lao ng cng ngh (Tcn), theo cng thc: Tpv = p xTcn Trong : p l t l % so vi mc lao ng cng ngh (Tcn). T l % ny c tnh cn c theo quy trnh cng ngh hoc thng k kinh nghim hoc theo t l % gia lao ng ph tr, phc v nh bin so vi lao ng cng ngh nh bin. V d 1: Sn phm A c Tcn = 40 gi-ngi/sn phm. Phn xng sn xut sn phm A c lao ng cng ngh nh bin l 50 ngi; lao ng ph tr, phc v nh bin l 20 n i = 1 25 ngi, bng 40 % so vi lao ng cng ngh nh bn. Tpv ca sn phm A tnh theo t l % gia lao ng ph tr, phc v nh bin so vi lao ng cng ngh nh bin l: Tpv A = 40 gi-ngi/sn phm x 40% = 16 gi-ngi/sn phm. Trng hp cng ty sn xut nhiu loi sn phm, c s lao ng ph tr, phc v ng thi phc v cho sn xut cc loi sn phm th Tpv tnh phn b cho tng loi sn phm theo: mc phc v (nu c) hoc n t hng ca cc phn xng chnh (nu c) hoc t trng s lng (sn lng, lng lao ng cng ngh) ca tng loi sn phm trong tng s cc loi sn phm. V d 2: Mt cng on sn xut c 20 cng nhn ph tr, phc v ng thi phc v cho sn xut 3 sn phm A, B, C nh sau: Loi sn phm Mc sn lng trong ca lm vic 8 gi (chic) Tng Tpv trong mt ca cho tng loi sn phm (gi) A 50 520 B 100 340 C 800 140 Cng 1.000 Tpv c phn b theo t trng Tcn ca tng loin sn phm trong tng s sn phm (t trng Tpv ca sn phm A l 520 : 1.000 = 0,52; ca sn phm B l 340 : 1.000 = 0,34; ca sn phm C l 140 : 1.000 = 0,14) nh sau: 8 gi x 20 ngi x 0,52 Tpv A = = 1,644 gi-ngi; 50 8 gi x 20 ngi x 0,34 Tpv B = = 0,544 gi-ngi; 100 8 gi x 20 ngi x 0,14 Tpv C = = 0,028 gi-ngi. 800 3) Tql: Cch 1: Tnh t qu thi gian lao ng qun l, theo cng thc sau: Lql x S Tql = --------------- 26 Q Trong : Lql: S lao ng qun l. S: S gi cng lao ng k hoch bnh qun nm ca mt lao ng qun l. Q: S lng sn phm sn xut trong nm. Trng hp cng ty sn xut nhiu loi sn phm th tnh phn b Tql cho tng loi sn phm theo mc lao ng sn xut, theo cng thc sau: Tsxi . Qi Tqli = (Lql x S x --------------------- ): Qi (i c j ; i =1,2n) Tsxi . Qj Trong : Tql: Mc lao ng qun l cho n v sn phm loi i; Tsxi: Mc lao ng sn xut cho sn phm loi i (Tsxi = Tcni + Tpvi); Qi: S lng sn phm loi i sn xut trong nm; m: S loi sn phm sn xut trong nm. - Cch 2: Tnh bng t l % so vi mc lao ng cng ngh cng vi mc lao ng ph tr, phc v, theo cng thc sau: Tql = q x (Tcn + Tpv) Trong : q l t l % so vi mc lao ng cng ngh cng vi mc lao ng ph tr, phc v. Trng hp xc nh c t l % s lao ng qun l nh bin so vi tng s lao ng nh bin ca cng ty th q c tnh theo cng thc sau: k q = --------------- x 100 100 - k Trong : k l t l % gia s lao ng qun l nh bin so vi tng s lao ng nh bin ca cng ty. * Phng php tnh quy i sn phm i vi cng ty sn xut nhiu loi sn phm c cng tnh cht nhng c n v o khng ng nht, sau khi tnh c mc lao ng tng hp cho tng loi n v sn phm, cng ty c th tnh quy i ng nht v mt loi sn phm nh sau: - La chn sn phm quy i: sn phm quy i phi mang tnh c trng i din chung cho cc loi sn phm. - Xc nh h s quy i ca tng loi sn phm: h s ny c tnh bng mc lao ng tng hp ca tng loi sn phm chia cho mc lao ng tng hp ca n v sn phm . 27 - Tnh s lng sn phm quy i: ly s lng sn phm ca tng loi sn phm nhn vi h s quy i ca loi sn phm . V d 3: n v X sn xut 2 loi sn phm A v B. Tsp A = 50 gi-ngi/sn phm, Tsp B = 80 gi-ngi/sn phm. S lng sn phm A sn xut trong k l 150 chic, sn phm B l 200 chic. n v chn A l sn phm quy i. Bng tnh s lng sn phm quy i theo sn phm A nh sau: Loi sn phm S lng (chic) Tsp (gi-ngi) H s quy i S lng sn phm quy i A 150 50 1 150 B 200 80 1,6 320 Cng 470 2.3.2. Phng php xy dng nh mc lao ng tng hp theo nh bin nh mc lao ng tng hp theo nh bin, cng ty tin hnh cc bc sau: - Phn loi lao ng. - Xc nh khi lng nhim v, cng vic phi thc hin. - nh bin lao ng cho tng b phn. - Tng hp mc lao ng nh bin chung ca cng ty. 2.3.2.1. Phn loi lao ng Phn loi lao ng thnh lao ng chnh, lao ng ph tr, phc v, l lao ng b sung v lao ng qun l l c s xc nh nh bin lao ng theo tng loi cho tng b phn v c cng ty. Vic phn loi lao ng phi cn c vo tnh cht ngnh, ngh, t chc sn xut, t chc lao ng thc hin khi lng nhim v sn xut, kinh doanh, dch v ca cng ty. C th phn loi lao ng nh sau: a) Lao ng chnh: l nhng lao ng cng ngh, lao ng trc tip kinh doanh, dch v cc b phn chnh theo quy trnh cng ngh sn xut sn phm hoc t chc kinh doanh, dch v ca cng ty. b) Lao ng ph tr, phc v: l nhng lao ng thc hin chc nng ph tr, phc v cc b phn chnh, lm vic cc b phn chnh v b phn ph tr, phc v ca cng ty. c) Lao ng b sung: l nhng lao ng c s dng b sung, thay th cho lao ng chnh v lao ng ph tr, phc v khi thc hin ch ngy, gi ngh theo quy nh ca php lut lao ng hoc cng ty t chc lm vic lin tc cc ngy trong nm. d) Lao ng qun l, gm nhng i tng ging cch phn loi lao ng tnh nh mc lao ng tng hp cho n v sn phm, xem tiu mc c, mc 3.1.1.). 2.3.2.2. Xc nh khi lng nhim v sn xut, kinh doanh 28 Hng nm cng ty phi xc nh c th nhim v sn xut, kinh doanh v phng n cn i vi cc iu kin, t xc nh c cu, s lng lao ng chnh v ph tr, phc v hp l. i vi lao ng qun l th cn c vo chc nng, nhim v, khi lng cng vic v ch thi gi lm vic, ngh ngi xc nh ph hp vi cc nhim v, khi lng cng vic ca tng b phn qun l phi trin khai thc hin trong nm. 2.3.2.3. nh bin lao ng cho tng b phn Cng ty xc nh c cu, s lng v b tr, sp xp cc loi lao ng theo chc danh ngh, cng vic ph hp vi yu cu thc hin khi lng nhim v sn xut, kinh doanh ca tng b phn . Vic xc nh thc hin theo cc bc sau: - Phn tch, m t cng vic. - Phn tch v la chn phng n t chc lao ng hp l thc hin cng vic. - B tr lao ng ph hp (c trnh v kh nng thc hin cng vic theo tiu chun cp bc k thut, tiu chun chuyn mn, nghip v) vo tng v tr thc hin cng vic. 2.3.2.4. Phng php xy dng mc lao ng tng hp nh bin Sau khi nh bin lao ng ph hp cho tng b phn, cng ty tnh tng hp mc lao ng nh bin chung ca cng ty theo cng thc: Lb = Lch + Lpv + Lbs + Lql Trong : Lb: Lao ng nh bin ca cng ty (n v tnh l ngi). Lch: Lao ng chnh nh bin. Lpv: Lao ng ph tr, phc v nh bin. Lbs: Lao ng b sung nh bin thc hin ch ngy, gi ngh theo quy nh ca php lut lao ng i vi lao ng chnh v lao ng ph tr, phc v. Lql: Lao ng qun l nh bin. Lch, Lpv, Lql xc nh nh sau: a) Lao ng chnh nh bin (Lch): c tnh theo s lao ng chnh nh bin hp l ca tng b phn t, i, phn xng, chi nhnh, ca hng hoc t chc tng ng trong n v thnh vin ca cng ty. Lao ng chnh nh bin ca tng b phn c xc nh trn c s nhim v sn xut, kinh doanh, khi lng cng vic cn i vi cc iu kin v t chc sn xut v t chc lao ng. b) Lao ng ph tr, phc v nh bin (Lpv): c tnh theo tng s lao ng ph tr, phc v nh bin ca tng b phn t, i, phn xng, chi nhnh, ca hng hoc t chc tng ng trong n v thnh vin ca cng ty. Trn c s khi lng cng vic ph tr, phc v, quy trnh cng ngh sn xut, t chc lao ng ca tng b phn trong cng ty, tnh Lpv bng nh bin hoc t l % so vi Lch. c) Lao ng b sung nh bin (Lbs): c tnh i vi cng ty khi xc nh Lch v Lpv cha tnh n s lao ng b sung thc hin ch ngy, gi ngh theo quy nh ca php lut lao ng i vi lao ng chnh v lao ng ph tr, phc v. Lbs c tnh nh sau: - i vi cng ty khng lm vic vo ngy L, Tt v ngy ngh hng tun: 29 S ngy ngh ch theo quy nh S lao ng nh bin lm ngh, cng vic i hi phi lm vic vo ngy L, Tt v ngy ngh hng tun S ngy ngh ch theo quy nh Lbs = (Lch + Lpv) x (365 - 60) S ngy ngh ch theo quy nh ca php lut lao ng, bao gm: - S ngy ngh hng nm c hng lng tnh bnh qun trong nm cho 1 lao ng chnh v ph tr, phc v nh bin. - S ngy ngh vic ring c hng lng tnh bnh qun trong nm cho 1 lao ng chnh v ph tr, phc v nh bin theo thng k kinh nghim ca nm trc lin k. - S gi lm vic hng ngy c rt ngn i vi ngi lm cng vic c bit nng nhc, c hi, nguy him (quy i ra ngy) tnh bnh qun trong nm cho 1 lao ng chnh v ph tr, phc v nh bin. - Thi gian ngh thai sn tnh bnh qun trong nm cho 1 lao ng chnh v ph tr, phc v nh bin. i vi cng ty c nhng ngh, cng vic i hi phi lm vic lin tc cc ngy trong nm: Lbs = (Lch + Lpv) x d) Lao ng qun l nh bin (Lql): c tnh bng tng s lao ng qun l nh bin ca cng ty. Nh vy, nh mc lao ng chim mt v tr c bit quan trng trong gii quyt cc nhim v t chc lao ng, nng cao hiu qu s dng thi gian lm vic v gim chi ph lao ng. Xin gii thiu v d tham kho v nh mc lao ng to rng keo l trm lai chu k 9 nm xy dng, p dng trong giao khon mt s lm trng. Biu 6. nh mc lao ng to rng keo l trm lai chu k 9 nm (F.J Staudt - Chng 24 v lao ng hc - S tay Lm nghip Nhit i - L.Pancel - Springer Verlag. Heindelberg - 1993) STT Ni dung cng vic nh mc lao ng (ngy cng/ha) 1 Trng rng 73,4 - Pht thc b 25 60x+ 30 STT Ni dung cng vic nh mc lao ng (ngy cng/ha) - Dn sng 12 - Cuc h (40x40x40), 1650 h/ha 15,4 - Lp h 5,5 - Vn chuyn hom v trng 8 - Bn phn 5,5 - Lm ng ranh 2 2 Chm sc 101 Nm th nht 52,4 - Ln 1: Pht chm sc, xi vun gc, dm 18 - Ln 2: Pht chm sc, xi vun gc. 19,1 - Ln 3: Pht chm sc 15,3 Nm th 2 hai 34,4 - Ln 1: Pht chm sc, xi vun gc. 19,1 - Ln 2: Pht chm sc 15,3 Nm th ba: pht chm sc 14,2 3 Bo v rng t nm th nht n nm th 9 20 cng x 9 nm = 180 Tng cng 354,4 3. T chc lao ng khoa hc 3.1. Phn cng v hip tc Mt nhim v c bit quan trng trong t chc lao ng khoa hc l thc hin phn cng v hip tc lao ng. Phn cng lao ng l s phn chia ton b qu trnh lao ng thnh nhng phn vic nh v trao cho nhng c nhn hoc nhm lao ng c ngh nghip v trnh ph hp thc hin. Trong lm nghip, t chc cng vic theo t, i c tnh ph bin, trong cng vic c phn cng lun phin, cc thnh vin c th bn lun v vic phn cng v lun phin nhim v, thi gian lm vic, thi gian ngh ngi,...v hip tc vi nhau trong thc hin. Kinh nghim v cc hnh thc lao ng tin tin Thy in cho thy, i vi mt s nhm c hai cng nhn khai thc g u n lun phin cng vic cho nhau, chng hn mt cng nhn vn hnh my ch bin v mt cng nhn n g th cng, hoc mt vi nhm cng nhn vn hnh my ta tha t quyt nh cch thc vn hnh, lp k hoch mng phn lung, kim tra 31 cng tc ta tha v nhng cy cn li, o ng knh cc khc g, ng thi bo dng my mc, kt hp vi phn cng cng vic lun phin (Frykman 1980). Ager (1980) trnh by mt v d v ta tha v pht quang. Nhng hot ng ny cn c lp k hoch v thc hin ng thi trn cc vng khai thc ln cn. Sau tin hnh lp kh c v trao i cng vic gia nhng ngi cng nhn vi nhau. Nh vy, cht lng cng vic c nng ln. Mt v d khc v c cu t chc cng vic theo ca kiu cun chiu. Thng thng cc cng vic dng n my mc c thc hin theo ca nhm t hiu sut s dng my cao. Do vy, ngi qun l thng mun t chc t nht 2 ca lm vic, cn cng nhn vn hnh th li mun lm vic ch 1 ca. Mt s tha hip l t chc theo ca cun chiu. Thay v lm vic t 7 gi sng n 4 gi chiu, ngi cng nhn th nht lm vic t 6 gi n 3 gi chiu v ngi cng nhn th 2 lm vic t 9 gi n 6 gi ti trn cng mt my v c 3 ting h li thay phin nhau. Vic lun phin ny va m bo nng cao hiu sut s dng my, va m bo sc kho cho ngi lao ng. Tuy nhin, vi phng php t chc ca cun chiu rt cn thit phi la chn thnh vin v thnh lp nhm ph hp. Vic thay th mt thnh vin trong nhm cng c th gy ra nhng kh khn hoc thm ch l s phn i ca nhm. c th phn cng v hip tc lao ng c hiu qu, cn ch ti mt s yu t quan trng sau y: - H thng cc nhu cu ca ngi cng nhn. - Trnh ca cng nhn v cn b qun l. - Mc tiu ca h thng sn xut. - c im vn ho-x hi ca ngi lao ng: H c cng nhm ngi, dn tc, lng x,...khng ? H c sn sng lm vic khng ? cn c cng khng ? Ngi c cng trc y c sn sng chia s trch nhim vi nhng thnh vin khc trong nhm khng ? 3.2. T chc ni lm vic Ni lm vic l n v nh nht trong h thng t chc lao ng, trong ngi cng nhn thc hin cc hot ng lao ng. Ti ni lm vic c s kt hp gia ngi iu khin, cc phng tin k thut (cng c, thit b v trang b ph tr) v i tng lao ng. T chc ni lm vic hp l c th gip lm gim s mt mi v th lc v cng thng v thn kinh tm l. Xut pht t nhim v lao ng, ti ni lm vic cn b tr cc phng tin, cng c, trang thit b hp l trong mi quan h vi nhim v cng vic v s lng cng nhn. Ngi lao ng lm vic trong t th g b, ngi hoc ng trong thi gian di thng gy ra au lng, au c v cng thng c bp. Ni lm vic b chi lo do chiu sng khng tt gy mt mi th lc v thn kinh to nn tm l kh chu. Phng tin lao ng, my mc, thit b nu khc vi cc yu cu v nhn chng hc, cu trc vn ho, x hi c th dn n hu qu xu. V d, ngi Vit Nam nh b phi lm vic vi my mc cng c, phng tin vn chuyn c thit k cho ngi chu u to ln, th ngi iu khin phi lun gng sc vi ti v thao tc trn cc c cu iu khin nn nhanh chng mt mi, cc thao tc s chm v thiu chnh xc. 32 Do , vic thit k ni lm vic v phng tin lao ng phi thch ng vi kch thc ngi iu khin, ph hp vi t th, lc c bp v chuyn ng ca c th con ngi. Ni lm vic phi an ton, to cho ngi lao ng cm gic d chu, thoi mi, d dng thc hin nhim v lao ng. Cn phi loi tr s qu ti, gy nn bi tnh cht cng vic vt qu gii hn trn hoc di ca chc nng hot ng tm sinh l ca ngi cng nhn. Vic b tr cng c lm vic phi m bo chim t din tch, khng gian, ph hp vi t th lao ng ca ngi cng nhn. Cc thit b, cng c ti ni lm vic phi c thit k hp l v kch thc, ph hp vi ngi lao ng (chiu cao gh ngi, bn lm vic, gc quay, si tay,...). S dng cc dng c tt hn v mt lao ng hc (ergonomy), v d dng dng c c tay cm di hn, dng ca vng cung 2 ngi thay v ca ct cho; b tr cc dng c b tr nh n by, xe ko c tay ko di. gim s mt mi v cng thng thn kinh tm l, c th kt hp b tr ni lm vic hp l vi t chc lao ng ph hp nh lun chuyn cng vic thng xuyn, m rng cng vic v.v... 33 Phn 4: c im V Yu T nh Hng n Lao ng Lm Nghip 1. c im lao ng lm nghip 1.1. c im t chc sn xut lm nghip Hin nay, trong cc lm trng quc doanh, cc hnh thc khon n h v c nhn ngi lao ng ang c p dng ngy cng ph bin. Cc hnh thc khon ang c p dng rng ri bao gm: khon vic, khon theo cng an, khon hng nm v khon n nh lu di (theo Ngh nh 01/CP). 1.1.1. Khon vic L hnh thc c nhn, h gia nh nhn khon hon thnh mt khi lng cng vic c giao theo ng quy trnh k thut v thi hn, c lm trng tr cng theo sn lng v cht lng cng vic hon thnh. Hnh thc khon ny n gin, d thc hin, d theo di v gim st. Tuy nhin, vi hnh thc khon ny, chi ph qun l gim st ln, khng pht huy c tnh t gic, ch ng ca ngi lao ng, khng thch hp vi nhng quy trnh sn xut m kt qu ca khu trc, giai on trc gn lin vi kt qu ca cc khu sau, giai on sau v khng gn c kt qu sn xut cui cng vi qu trnh sn xut lm nghip. 1.1.2. Khon theo cng on L hnh thc c nhn, h gia nh nhn khon hon thnh mt cng on sn xut (gm nhiu cng vic khc nhau). Vic giao khon ny c thc hin da trn nh mc kinh t, k thut v nh mc tin cng tr cho ngi lao ng. V d, khon cho c giai on kin thit c bn, khon giai on kinh doanh, hoc khon c giai on kin thit c bn v kinh doanh. Khon theo cng on c th chia thnh 2 hnh thc: khon tin lng v mt phn chi ph thng xuyn v khon tin lng vi ton b chi ph thng xuyn. Vi hnh thc khon ny, lm trng thng nht qun l ton b quy trnh k thut v ton b sn phm, cng nh ton b cht lng sn phm. Quyn s dng t ai v gi tr ti sn trn t thuc v lm trng. Vi phng thc khon ny, lm trng ch ng trong vic thay i phng thc sn xut, iu chnh quy hoch, cn ngi lao ng an tm gn b vi cng vic. Tuy nhin, cng nh i vi hnh thc khon vic, t chc b my ca lm trng cng knh, chi ph qun l ln. 1.1.3. Khon hng nm Vi hnh thc khon ny, nh mc khon c th c iu chnh hng nm hoc xy dng n nh trong mt s nm. Lm trng u t trng mi hnh thnh vn cy, rng trng ri sau giao khon cho cc h chm sc, thu hoch theo k hoch hng nm. Lm trng qun l quy trnh k thut, u t, phn bn, bo v thc vt, qun l v tiu th sn phm, thanh ton tin cng cho ngi lao ng v cc khon khc theo quy trnh k thut. H gia nh nhn khon chu trch nhim chm sc vn cy, rng trng v thu hoch sn phm hng nm. H gia nh np sn phm theo nh mc khon, phn vt khon, h gia nh c hng t 60 - 100% n gi sn phm tu theo iu kin c th. Hnh thc khon ny c th huy ng v khai thc c mt phn tim nng vn, lao ng v k thut ca cc h nhn khon. Vic thanh ton dt im hng nm trnh c n nn dy da. Lm trng qun l c sn phm v quy trnh k thut. Tuy nhin, vi phng thc ny, ngi lao ng vn cha hon ton t ch trong sn xut, do khng khuyn khch ngi nhn khon u t chiu su cho sn xut. 34 1.1.4. Khon n nh lu di c u t y l hnh thc hp ng khon thc hin nhim v gia lnh o lm trng vi ngi nhn khon, cn gi tr vn cy, rng vn thuc quyn s hu ca lm trng. Hnh thc ny c 2 m hnh khon ch yu sau y: - Khon n nh lu di vi cc nh mc khon c nh. M hnh ny c u im l ngi lao ng nhn khon an tm u t pht trin sn xut, lm trng qun l v kim sot c ton b cht lng sn phm v phn ln sn lng. Tuy nhin, hn ch ca m hnh ny l cc nh mc kinh t k thut khng thay i kp vi gi c lm sn, vt t trn th trng v lm trng gp kh khn trong iu chnh cc hp ng khon. Khi gi vt t u vo tng cao, lm trng khng cung ng khi lng v chng loi vt t theo hp ng v phng n giao khon, gy nh hng n vic giao np sn phm ca ngi nhn khon. Khi gi bn sn phm tng t bin, ngi nhn khon c tm l giu sn phm bn ra ngoi gy thit hi cho lm trng. - Khon n nh lu di vi nh mc khon c iu chnh theo tng giai on (2-3 nm iu chnh mt ln theo cc giai on pht trin v iu kin thc t ca vn cy). Vi m hnh ny, cc nh mc c iu chnh theo tng giai on, tng i st vi s bin ng ca th trng nn lm trng c th gim c cc ri ro trong sn xut kinh doanh. Tuy nhin, vic iu chnh nh mc lin tc, mt mt i hi phi c i ng cn b nghip v gii, c kh nng d bo c cc bin ng ca th trng, mt khc, vic iu chnh thng xuyn c th gy tm l khng yn tm u t theo chiu su i vi ngi nhn khon. 1.1.5. Khon n nh lu di khng c u t ca lm trng Hnh thc ny c vn dng ngy cng ph bin, nht l t khi cc lm trng thc hin giao khon t theo Ngh nh 01/CP. tin hnh giao khon, cc lm trng tin hnh nh gi gi tr vn cy, rng, xc nh sn lng giao khon ri giao cho ngi nhn khon t sn xut v t chu trch nhim v kt qu sn xut ca mnh. Vi phng php khon ny, ngi nhn khon an tm u t thm canh, nng cao nng sut v hiu qu sn xut kinh doanh. Tuy nhin, cn trnh tnh trng khon trng cho ngi nhn khon, bung lng qun l, dn n vic chuyn mc ch s dng t tri php, chuyn nhng hp ng khon vn cy qua nhiu ch m lm trng khng bit, ph v quy hoch chung, khng cung cp nguyn liu cho cc nh my ch bin. Mt s trng hp d?nh m?c thu s?n lu?ng khon v.v...cc kho?n khc t? ngu?i nh?n khon thu?ng r?t th?p, khng d? chi cho cng tc qu?n l. 1.2. Tnh cht lao ng v yu cu v th lc v tay ngh Cc lm trng thng c din tch rt rng ti hng ngn hecta, thm ch vi chc ngn hecta. Hu ht cc cng vic lm nghip c tin hnh ngoi tri, trc tip chu nh hng ca bc x nhit mt tri v di chuyn trong khng gian tng i rng v b c lp vi x hi bn ngoi. Mt s cng vic ngi cng nhn phi vn hnh my qu trng lng (my nng, my i), my c rung ln (ca xch). Nhn chung, trnh cng ngh v k thut sn xut ca lm nghip nc ta cn lc hu, lao ng th cng l ch yu. Lao ng lm nghip lm vic trong nhng iu kin khng thun li, lao ng c bp nng nhc, t th lm vic khng thoi mi, nguy him v c hi cho sc kho. Cng vic trong lm nghip thuc loi c nguy c tai nn lao ng v bnh ngh nghip tng i cao, c bit nhng nh hng do sc nng, nhng bnh ic do phi lm vic trong mi trng n, bnh thn kinh ta hay au lng do phi lm vic nng vi t th 35 khng thun li (khing, vc, ko xe, ct cnh,...). Nhng nh hng do cc c bp v khp xng hot ng qu ti... Do c im lao ng nh vy, lao ng lm nghip i hi phi c ch dinh dng tt m bo th lc cho cng nhn. Mt s cng trnh nghin cu vi lao ng lm nghip nh Aput v Valdes (1986), Staal (1990) chng minh s cn thit phi m bo ch n ung cung cp dinh dng cho cng nhn lm nghip, khi nng sut lao ng c nng cao. Ngoi cung cp s lng dinh dng, vic b tr cc ba n hp l nhm phn phi nng lng cn thit cho c th trong nhng khong thi gian khc nhau trong ca lm vic cng c ngha rt quan trng. c th p dng cc tin b khoa hc v cng ngh, cn c cc chng trnh o to tay ngh cho cng nhn lm nghip. Nhng ngh ph bin cn o to cho cng nhn lm nghip l vn hnh my ct ta, vn hnh my ca xch, my ko, my vn chuyn, my trt, my trng cy,... 2. Yu t nh hng n lao ng lm nghip iu kin lao ng l tng th cc yu t kinh t, x hi, t chc, k thut, t nhin th hin qua quy trnh cng ngh, cng c lao ng, i tng lao ng, mi trng lao ng, con ngi lao ng v s tc ng qua li gia chng to iu kin cn thit cho hot ng lao ng ca con ngi trong qu trnh sn xut. Trong mt iu kin lao ng c th, bao gi cng xut hin cc yu t c nh hng xu, nguy him, c nguy c gy tai nn hay bnh ngh nghip cho ngi lao ng. Cc yu t c th l do cc tc nhn vt l, ho hc, vi sinh vt, do t th lao ng hoc thuc v tm sinh l. Lao ng lm nghip c iu kin lao ng khng thun li, lao ng c bp nng nhc, t th lm vic khng thoi mi. i vi lao ng lm nghip, nhng yu t iu kin lao ng quan trng l ting n, rung, nhit , nh sng v mu sc, m, bi, t th lm vic v cng thng. 2.1. Ting n Ting n l nhng m thanh gy kh chu nh hng n cng vic v ngh ngi ca con ngi. V mt vt l m thanh, ting n l dao ng sng trong mi trng n hi gy ra bi s dao ng ca cc vt th, khng gian trong c sng m lan truyn gi l trng m. p sut d trong trng m gi l p sut p, n v l dyn/cm2 hay l bar. Tai chng ta tip nhn m nh dao ng ca p sut m. Dao ng m m tai chng ta nghe c c tn s t 16-20 Hz n 16-20 kHz. Gii hn ny mi ngi khng ging nhau, tu theo la tui v trng thi c quan thnh gic. Ngi ta o mc cng m thanh bng xiben (dB). Theo quy c, khi m thanh c p lc bng 2.10-5 N/m2 hay cng Io = 10-2 w/m2 th mc m bng 0 dB. Ting n tc ng trc ht n h thn kinh trung ng, sau n h tim mch v nhiu c quan khc, cui cng n c quan thnh gic. Tc hi ca ting n ph thuc vo mc n. Tuy nhin, tn s lp li v c im ca n cng nh hng ln. Ting n c tn s cao gy kh chu hn ting n c tn s thp. Kh chu nht l ting n thay i c v tn s v cng . bo v thnh gic, ngi ta quy nh thi gian chu c ti a tc ng ca ting n trong mi ngy ph thuc vo mc n khc nhau (biu 7) Biu 7. Thi gian chu c ting n ti a (F.J Staudt - Chng 24 v lao ng hc - S tay Lm nghip Nhit i - L.Pancel - Springer Verlag. Heindelberg - 1993) 36 Thi gian tc ng (s gi trong ngy) Mc n (dB) 8 90 6 92 4 95 3 97 2 100 1,5 102 1,0 105 0,5 110 Nu tc dng ca ting n lp li nhiu ln, hin tng mt mi thnh gic khng c kh nng hi phc hon ton v trng thi bnh thng. Sau mt thi gian di s pht trin thnh cc bnh nng tai v bnh ic. Ting n cng gy ra nhng thay i trong h tim mch km theo s ri lon trng lc bnh thng ca mch mu v ri lon nhp tim. Nhng ngi lm vic lu ngy trong mi trng n thng b bnh au d dy v cao p huyt. Trong lm nghip, c rt nhiu loi my mc c th gy ra ting n nh ca xch, my ct, my bo, cc loi my ko lm nghip my khai thc g, my ch bin g,...Tt c cc my ny u to ra cc tr s m thanh ln, gy ting n vt qu gii hn tiu chun cho php. Ca xch hin i gy ra ting n t 100- 105 dB (A), v ch c nhng dng c bo v thnh gic tt mi bo v c tai cho ngi lao ng. My mc lm nghip hin i hu ht u c trang b mt khoang nh (cabin) cch ly ting n v rung, gy ra ting n khong 80 dB (A) hoc thp hn tc ng vo tai ngi cng nhn vn hnh, trong trng hp ny khng cn tng cng thm cc bin php phng h. Tuy nhin, cc my mc c hn c th pht ra ting n nhiu hn (85-95 dB), hoc trong nhiu trng hp do thi tit nng, my iu ho nhit khng lm vic, ngi cng nhn phi m ca ra, khi h thng cch m khng c tc dng. Ngoi ra, cn lu n nhng ngi lm vic bn ngoi cabin v gn cc my mc ny. Trong nhng trng hp ny, ngi cng nhn cn phi eo nt bt tai, hoc dng bng nt tai (c 2 u t n 90 dB), hoc cun xp (t n 95 dB) hoc khn bao tay (t n 105 dB). Cn lu rng cc thit b bo v thnh gic cha bao gi l gii php l tng, chng gy kh chu, lm nhiu m hi, tch t hi nng v gy kh khn cho giao tip. kim sot ting n v bo v thnh gic, cn tin hnh cc bc sau y: - C gng loi b cc cng vic pht ra ting n, hoc loi b hon ton, hoc chuyn vic t rng n mt nh my trung tm ni c th d dng lm gim ting n. - Kt hp hi ho cc bin php gim ting n vi chnh sch mua sm ca doanh nghip, bng cch mua cc loi my mc c thng s ting n thp. - Phn cch ng thi trong qu trnh lp t, lp t cc vt liu chng rung gia my v chn my, v lp t cc vt liu cch m vo vt gy ting n. 37 - Lp t cc vt liu cch m vo bn cnh hoc trn trn ca cabin iu khin, phng kim sot v xng sn xut. - Di chuyn cng nhiu cng nhn cng tt ra xa khi nhng ni lm vic/phng lm vic c ting n n nhng ni yn tnh, nu c th, s dng iu khin t xa hoc phng kim sot ting n. - c bit lu bo dng tt cc thit b gy ra ting n. - C gng hn ch thi gian chu ting n bng cch phn cng cng vic theo phin hoc tng cng cc cng vic c t ting n. - S dng cc dng c bo v thnh gic nh khn bt mt, nt bt tai, cc cun nha c xp, hoc cun bng len si thu tinh (cun bng y t khng ph hp dng lm gim ting n); tham vn cc nh cung cp dng c bo v thnh gic v mc quang ph suy gim c th tnh ton c mc ting n cn st li. - Kim tra sc kho nh k hng nm cho cc cng nhn, gm kim tra cc bnh lin quan n ting n v kim tra thnh lc. 2.2. rung Rung ng l dao ng c hc ca vt th n hi sinh ra khi trng tm hoc trc i xng ca chng x xch trong khng gian hoc do s thay i c tnh chu k hnh dng m chng c trng thi tnh. Tn s nhng rung ng ta cm nhn c nm trong khong 12 - 8000Hz. Cng ging nh ting n, rung ng trc ht nh hng n thn kinh trung ng, sau l n cc b phn khc. Rung ng c 2 loi: rung ng chung v rung ng cc b. Rung ng chung gy ra dao ng ca ton b c th, cn rung ng cc b ch lm cho tng b phn ca c th dao ng. Tuy nhin, nh hng ca rung ng cc b khng ch gii hn trong phm vi chu tc ng ca n, m nh hng n h thn kinh trung ng v c th lm thay i chc nng ca cc c quan v b phn khc, gy ra cc bnh l tng ng. c bit nh hng n c th l khi tn s rung ng xp x tn s dao ng ca c th v cc c quan bn trong. Nhiu nghin cu cho thy hin tng cng hng xy ra mnh t th ng thng ca cng nhn, lc dao ng ca my mc d truyn vo c th v lm cho cng nhn chng mt mi. Tri li, nu ng hi cong u gi, cc dao ng ca my mc b tt nhiu bn chn v khp xng nn d chu hn. Khi xy ra hin tng cng hng ca mt dao ng vi cc b phn c th, ngi ta c cm gic nga ngy, t chn hoc vng tht lng,...Rung ng cng nh hng n h tim mch. Rung ng c th gy ra ri lon chc nng tuyn gip, tuyn sinh dc nam, n. Rung ng gy vim khp, vi ho cc khp v.v... Tn s gy hi c th dao ng t 1 n 80 Hz. Mc rung ng nhy cm nht tc ng vo c th con ngi dao ng t 4-12 Hz. Nhng rung ng ny tc ng vo rut, tim v ct sng,... cn cc rung ng t 20-30 Hz tc ng vo u. Cc phng tin i li v my mc trong cng nghip thng c tn s rung ng t 1-20 Hz. Nhng ngi vn hnh my thng hay c vn v lng, c, au ngc v bng, rt c v kh th. Rung ng chung c th c tc ng n h thn kinh trung ng v nh hng xu n qu trnh trao i cht ca c th. rung cao c th lm tn thng n cc c quan ni tng, ng thi c th nh hng n th lc. Trong hu ht cc trng hp, nguyn nhn dn n rung chung l cc phng tin c ng c trn mt t. Ngoi ng c my mc, gia tc do a hnh hoc iu kin ng x, s ln tng tc , trng lng phng tin v trng ti cng nh cc thit b lp t thm u c th lm tng thm rung. Vng khai thc lm nghip c sn ng vn chuyn cho xe i hoc 38 loi b cc chng ngi vt, chng hn nh cc hot ng trn cc vng c san phng, t c hi hn l nhng hot ng ni m ngi li my cy phi i theo nhng ng thng tp v di trong khu lm t. C th hn ch thi gian chu rung chung bng cch sau: - Trang b h thng gim xc tt hn hn cho ng c, ca khoang v gh ngi ca khoang vn hnh. - Lm gim t l tc /trng lng. - Lp t thm cc thit b ng sau my mc, thay v lp t pha trc (Golsse 1990). - Rung ng cc b, chng hn rung cnh tay, xy ra khi tay ca ngi iu khin tip xc vi cc b phn iu khin v c rung cao hn so vi rung chung, dao ng t 4- 1000 Hz. Trong lm nghip, ca xch v my ct bo u c bit nguy him. - Mc tn s quan trng nht gy tc ng n ngi vn hnh dao ng t 40-125 Hz. Rung cc b (cnh tay), nh hng n cc mch mu v dy thn kinh, ng thi gin tip tc ng ln cc c bp, xng, khp cnh tay. - Di y l mt s gii php nhm trnh tc ng v hn ch nhng chng bnh rung cnh tay: - Chm dt hoc hn ch s dng cc thit b iu khin ng c bng tay, chng hn nh thay h thng khai thc g ngn bng khai thc c cy hoc c kh ho ton b bng cch s dng my cht cy. - Trang b my mc c cng rung thp hn, c s dng cao su m hoc cc vt liu khc cch ng c vi khung gm v cc b phn iu khin. - Bo dng tt. - S dng gng tay lm gim rung chuyn t b iu khin sang tay ngi vn hnh. - Vn hnh cc b iu khin cng lng cng tt, ng bao gi vn hnh qu mnh gy rung ng. - i vi cc vng lnh, nn dng ca st c cn c lm m. - Khi m cc bin php nu trn khng th thc hin c, th tin hnh phn cng cng vic lun phin bng cc cng vic khng chu p lc rung. - Quy nh ko di thi gian ngh ngi. Lin quan n 2 gii php cui, cc quc gia chu u khuyn co nn gim thi gian chu p lc rung xung t 2-4 gi khi vn hnh ca xch. 2.3. Nhit Nhit l yu t quan trng trong sn xut, ph thuc vo cc qu trnh sn xut: l pht nhit, ngn la, nng lng in, c bin thnh nhit, phn ng ho hc sinh nhit, bc x nhit ca mt tri, nhit do chnh ngi cng nhn sn ra,...Chnh cc ngun nhit ny lm cho nhit khng kh tng ln, c khi ln n 50-60oC Nhit ti a cho php ti ni lm vic ca cng nhn v ma h l 300C v khng vt qu nhit cho php t 3-50C. C th ngi c nhit khng i trong khong 37 0,50C l nh 2 qu trnh iu nhit do trung tm ch huy iu nhit iu khin. duy tr thng bng thn nhit trong iu kin vi kh hu nng, c th thi nhit tha bng cch gin mch ngoi bin v tng cng tit 39 m hi. Chuyn mt lt mu t ni tng ra ngoi da thi c 2,5 kcal v nhit h c 30C. Mt lt m hi bay hi hon ton thi ra c chng 580 kcal. Cn trong iu kin vi kh hu lnh c th tng cng qu trnh sinh nhit v hn ch qu trnh thi nhit duy tr thng bng nhit. Thng bng nhit ch c th thc hin c trong phm vi trng iu nhit, gm 2 vng: vng iu nhit ha hc v vng iu nhit l hc. Vt qu gii hn ny v pha di c th s b nhim lnh v ngc li v pha trn s b qu nng. - iu nhit ho hc: l qu trnh bin i sinh nhit do xy ho cc cht dinh dng. Bin i chuyn ha thay i theo nhit khng kh bn ngoi v trng thi lao ng hay ngh ngi ca c th. Qu trnh chuyn ha tng khi nhit bn ngoi thp v lao ng nng, ngc li qu trnh gim khi nhit mi trng cao v c th trng thi ngh ngi. - iu nhit l hc: l tt c cc qu trnh bin i thi nhit ca c th gm truyn nhit, i lu, bc x v bay hi m hi,...Thi nhit bng truyn nhit l hnh thc mt nhit ca c th khi nhit ca khng kh v cc vt th m ta tip xc c nhit thp hn nhit da. Khi da c nhit cao hn nhit mi trng s xy ra qu trnh truyn nhit ngc li. Do c s thay i , m c th c cm gic mt m hoc nng bc v ma h hoc c th c cm gic lnh hay m p v ma ng. Biu 8. Bin i qu trnh iu nhit theo nhit khng kh Bin thin nhit Loi iu nhit Qu trnh iu nhit Gim Tng Kt qu iu nhit Ho hc Bin i qu trnh sinh nhit Chuyn ho tng Chuyn ha gim L hc Bin i qu trnh thi nhit Thi nhit gim Thi nhit tng Thng bng nhit ca c th duy tr thn nhit mc 37 0,50c nc ta, nht l min Bc ma ng lnh cn phi phng cm lnh do b mt nhiu nhit, v vy u tin l phi qun o m, phi ch gi kh. Nu lao ng trong iu kin vi kh hu nng cn ch ung tt th trong iu kin vi kh hu lnh li phi ch ch n calo m bo cung cp nng lng cho lao ng v chng rt. Khu phn n cn nhng cht giu nng lng nh du m. Hu ht cc cng vic lm nghip u c th hin ngoi tri, ni m hu nh khng c kh nng bo v mnh chng li cc nh hng ca thi tit. i vi cc nc nm trong vng nhit i nh Vit Nam, nhit cao l mt gnh nng ln i vi cng nhn, c bit l khi kt hp vi m cao v vn tc chu chuyn khng kh thp. Cng vi nhit khng kh cao, vic loi b nhit c th khng cn thit tr thnh mt vn ln (hn 75% nng lng trong c th cn cho cng vic c chuyn thnh nhit). Do , stress do nhit c th hn ch vic thc hin cng vic nng nhc v gim nng sut. Hn na, stress do nhit c th nh hng ti sc kho ca cng nhn v tng nguy c xy ra tai nn. Khi nhit vt qu kh nng chu ng ca c th (kh nng iu tit nhit ca c th), th mt s ngi c th b chut rt do nng, b kit sc v nng v b say nng. Chut rt xy ra khi c s thiu c nc v mui, tc l ngi cng nhn sau khi ra m hi nhiu ung mt lng nc ln nhng lng mui mt li khng c b p. iu ny c th gy ra s au tht trc tin cc c xng bng v chn. Cch cha tr l cho bnh nhn nhp nc mui, mt tha c ph cho 1 ly nc, c 15 pht ung 1/2 ly nc, trong sut 1 gi. 40 C gng lm gim cn au bng cch mt xa nh nhng cc c b chut rt. Chut rt l giai on u ca kit sc do nng. Biu 9. Hng dn gii hn chu ng i vi stress do nng i vi lao ng lm nghip: vi gi nh l tnh trng thch nghi t mc bnh thng ti mc cao (Axelson 1974) Hot ng Nng lng tiu hao Nhit mi trng (CET) 0C Cng vic rt nng > 6,5 kcal/kg h 27 Cng vic nng 6,0 kcal/kg h 29 Cng vic bnh thng 4,3 kcal/kg h 30 Cng vic nh 2,6 kcal/kg h 32 Kit sc v nng thng do thiu nc hoc thiu mui gy ra, hoc do c hai. Lc , nhit c th vn bnh thng hoc hi cao. Ngi bnh cm thy rt yu, cm thy bun nn, chng mt v i khi l au u v chut rt. Kit sc v nng xy ra khi c th c thot khi sc nng qu mc bng cch a cng nhiu mu cng tt vo cc mao mch di da. iu ny lm gim lng mu cn cho cc b phn quan trng nh no, tim v phi. Da tr nn trng bch hoc ti xm, lnh v m. Vic iu tr cng l cho nhp nc mui nh khi b chut rt. Cho bnh nhn nm xung, u thp, chn nng cao. Ni lng qun o, a bnh nhn ra ch mt, p ln ngi bnh nhn mt mnh khn lanh m v qut cho bnh nhn. Say nng l triu chng ri lon nghim trng nht do nng gy ra v c th dn n t vong. Say nng xy ra khi c th khng th kim sot c sc nng. Cc triu chng l da b kh, , nng. Chng thn nhit cao xy ra khi nhit c th t t 400C tr ln. Khi mch p nhanh. C th c nhng biu hin ri lon no nh nhm ln, m sng, co git, hoc hn m. Say nng c t l t vong cao v do cn phi c cu cha ngay. S cu phi c thc hin ngay ti ch: a ngi bnh vo ch mt, bnh nhn nm xung, dp nc lnh lin tc ln ngi, hoc lau ngi bng cn, qut lm tng s bay hi nc v s i lu. Nhit c th xung cn 380C th khng cn qut na, song vn phi tip tc kim tra nhit v n c th tng ln tr li. Tt nht l nhng ni c nguy c xy ra cc ri lon do nng, nn cung cp mt b dng c s cu bao gm mt cp nhit ; mt ng h; nc mui v cn Ethyl. Ngoi ra, cng cn c sn thit b vn chuyn. Trong sut qu trnh lm vic di tri nng bc v thc hin khi lng cng vic nng nhc, c th con ngi c th b mt mt lng nc v mui ng k. Lng nc v mui mt i phi c b sung u n, nu khng c th s mt nc. Vic lm ht kht c iu ho bi s tp trung mui trong c th. V vy, lm ht kht c th vn cha b p cho lng nc mt i. iu ny c th c kim tra bng cch cn trng lng c th. Ch cn trng lng gim i 1-2% do mt nc l lm kh nng lao ng gim i ri. Vi mi phn trm trng lng c th gim i, nhit c th tng ln 0,20C v nhp tim tng ln khong 10 ln p/pht. Nu trng lng c th gim i 5% hoc hn, th c nguy c kit sc hay ng qu. Mi ca sn xut mi ngi cng nhn cn ti mt lng nc c hm lng mui 0,1% t 6 lt tr ln. Nc ny cn c ung lm nhiu ln vi lng nh (1/10) trong mi gi. phng trnh nhng tc ng xu do sc nng gy ra i vi lao ng lm nghip, cn ch mt s bin php sau y: - B tr cc cng vic nng vo bui sng sm hoc chiu mun v dnh nhng thi gian khi tri nng nht ngh ngi hoc lm vic nh. 41 - Lm cho mi t lao ng mt mi che ngh ngi v trnh nng, hoc trnh lm vic trong nhng gi nng nht. - Thc hin lun phin cng vic hoc lng ghp cc ca lm vic. - T chc lm vic lun phin vi cc ch ph cp ngh chng nng tho ng. - Ch y n khoa hc lao ng trong lm nghip, iu ny s gip ti u ho khi lng cng vic v gim cc nguy c ri lon do qu nng. - Bo h lao ng ph hp. - Cung cp nc c mui. - Kim tra ch dinh dng v cung cp thm thc phm nu cn. - Cung cp cc dng c s cu cho tng t v hng dn cng nhn phng php s cu. - Cung cp phng tin i li hng ngy. - Thng bo cho cng nhn v cc nguy c ri lon do nng v cch i ph. 2.4. nh sng v mu sc Trong sn xut, chiu sng v mu sc c nh hng nhiu ti nng sut lao ng v an ton lao ng. nh sng thy c l nhng bc x photon c bc sng trong khong t 380m n 760m ng vi cc di mu tm, lam, xanh, lc, vng, da cam, hng, . Mt bc x in t c bc sng xc nh trong min thy c, khi tc dng vo mt ngi s to mt cm gic mu sc xc nh. Ph ca min bc x thy c (nh sng ban ngy) gm: Bc x mu tm = 380 450 m Bc x mu chm = 450 480 m Bc x mu lam = 480 510 m Bc x mu lc = 510 550 m Bc x mu vng = 550 585 m Bc x mu da cam = 585 620 m Bc x mu = 620 760 m Trong ph ca min bc x thy c, mt ca con ngi nhy vi bc x n sc vng lc c = 555 m. - ri (E) l i lng dng nh gi sng ca mt b mt c chiu sng. n v o ri l lux (lx). Lux l ri gy ra do lung sng c quan thng l 1 lumen chiu sng u trn din tch 1 m2 (1 lumen = 0,00146 watt nh sng). Sau y l mt s ri thng gp: 42 Nng gia tra Khong 100.000 lux Tri nhiu my Khong 1000 lux dc sch Khong 30 lux ( lm vic tinh vi Khong 500 lux li xe Khong 0,5 lux m trng trn Khong 0,25 lux - chi (B) nhn theo phng n l t s gia cng pht ra theo phng no trn din tch hnh chiu mt chiu sng xung phng thng gc vi phng n. n v o chi l nit (nt). Sau y l bng chi ca mt vi vt: chi nh nht mt ngi c th nhn bit Khong 10-6 nt Mt tri gia tra Khong (1,5-2).109 nt Mt tri mi mc Khong 5.106 nt Dy tc ca bng n Khong 106 nt n neon Khong 1000 nt Mt trng rm nhn qua kh quyn Khong 2500 nt S nhn r ca mt lin h trc tip vi nhng yu t sinh l ca mt. Khi ri E ln, vi E >= 10 lux (nh sng ban ngy) th t bo hu sc cho cm gic mu sc v phn bit chi tit ca vt quan st. Khi ri E 43 nh hn theo khng kh vo tn ph nang, y bi c cc lp thc bo bao vy v tiu dit khong 90% na, s cn li ng phi c th gy ra mt s bnh bi phi v cc bnh khc nh bnh phi nhim bi, bnh silicose, vim mi, hng, ph qun, vim teo mi, bnh mn nht, l lot do bi vi, bi thic, thuc tr su, vim mi mt, nhi qut, mng tht, su rng, ri lon tiu ha, vim d dy v.v... 2.7. T th lm vic T th lm vic, cng vi lc sinh ra l mt trong 2 yu t xc nh gnh nng th lc. Di y l mt s khuyn co v t th lm vic. Biu 10. Nhn trc hc ca ngi lao ng khi lm vic cc t th khc nhau (F.J Staudt Chng 24 v lao ng hc - S tay Lm nghip Nhit i L.Pancel Springer Verlag. Heindelberg 1993) Tnh trng ch lm vic Gi tr nh nht (mm) Gi tr thch hp (mm) Khi mc qun o (mm) Lm vic khi ngi Chiu cao 1220 - 1300Chiu rng 690 915 1020Din tch chim ch - 690- 1100 -Din tch hot ng - 480- 865 -Lm vic khi ci khom Chiu rng 915 1020 1120Din tch chim ch - 815- 1220 -Din tch hot ng - 610 - 990 -Lm vic khi qu Chiu cao 1450 - 1500Chiu rng 1070 1220 1270Chiu cao ca tay t mt t - 690 -Din tch chim ch - 715- 1120 -Din tch hot ng - 510- 890 -Lm vic nm b Chiu cao 790 915 965Chiu di 1500 - 1575 44 Tnh trng ch lm vic Gi tr nh nht (mm) Gi tr thch hp (mm) Khi mc qun o (mm) Lm vic nm sp Chiu cao 436 510 610Chiu di 2440 - -Lm vic nm nga Chiu cao 510 610 660Chiu di 1880 1935 1980Cng nhn lm nghip phi thng xuyn lm vic trong nhng t th khng thun li. Thng xuyn phi nng v mang vc khi lng nng, c bit l khi c th phi nghing hoc vn, lm vic trn cao. Cc t th ny lu ngy c th lm cho cc a xng sng kit sc, c bit l cc a phn xng di. Cng nhn lm nghip, do vy c nhiu vn v lng hn cc nhm cng nhn khc. Cc v d v t th lm vic khng tt trong lm nghip (xem Hnh 3) l: - Nng bng tay cc khc g, nng xe ct kt khng ng t th. - n cy bng tay. - Lt mt khc g, hoc th mt cy b treo khng c dng c h tr ng n. - Lm c hoc lm t bng cc dng c c tay cm qu ngn. - Vn hnh my ko vi lng b vn (thng cng tip xc vi rung v xc). 45 Hu qu c th l: - Bin dng cc dia m ct sng v gai ct sng, ln cc dy thn kinh (gy au lng). - Bin dng a m nghim trng hn, khi nhn ca a b trt ra v vn cc dy thn kinh (a b chch) gy au t hng xung chn nghim trng hn (au thn kinh ta). Trong nhng trng hp ny cn thit phi cho cng nhn ngh ngi, cha tr y hc hoc kt hp y hc, hoc c th phi phu thut. Nguyn nhn thng xuyn khc ca cc cn bnh au c th l khi lng cng vic tnh. iu ny xy ra khi cc c b co trong mt thi gian di cng mt t th, gy ra mi mt nhanh hn khi cc c hot ng tch cc. V d v cng vic tnh trong lm nghip l: - Cc c chn: ng trong khi ta cnh hoc n cy. - Cc c tay: mang vc dng c, ti phn, hoc khi vn hnh cc my nh ca xch hoc my ko hai bnh. - Cc c bng: ngi trong khi li my ko. Cc bnh c th l mt mi, chut rt, au c. Ln u c th hi phc c, song nu lin tc b th c th dn n bin dng mch mu, c v xng. nng, lt g nng xe ct kt Hnh 3. T th lm vic tt v khng tt (ILO 1992) 46 Cc gii php trnh cc bnh gy ra do t th lm vic khng tt cng vi khi lng cng vic chn tay nng v tnh l: - Loi b cc cng vic c hi; khng thc hin cc hot ng nh ta cnh v bc d trong rng. - Ci tin phng php lm vic, bao gm vic s dng cc phng tin, dng c h tr ng n, v d nh: S dng phng php ta cnh Scandinavia (iu khin ca theo lao ng hc bng cch cho ca trt v dng li gc v lng, xem Hnh 4). Dng cc mc lt v nng. Dng cn y, ko (xem Hnh 5). Dng gh ngi (cng vic chm sc cy hoc ca). - C gii ho cc cng vic chn tay bng cch dng my ko, my gt, my vn chuyn, my trt,...Tuy nhin, c gii ho gy ra cc vn lao ng hc mi, k c t th lm vic. - Lun chuyn cng vic, v d, thay i cng vic ct cho bng cng vic cht cy. - Thay i dng c, v d, s dng ru thay cho ca xch khi ta cnh nh. - Nu khng c bin php no khc, th s dng thi gian ngh ngi, cc qung thi gian ngh ngi ngn v nhiu hn c chia u trong sut ngy lm vic c hiu qu hn. Hnh 4. Phng php ct cnh cy khng ng (khi lng tnh cao) v tt (Scandinavia) 47 Tm li, c th kt lun rng c t th lm vic thoi mi, cn: - Trnh cc lc gy ra t lng. - Gi lng thng. - Khi dng sc cn s dng cc c ln nh c chn. - Trnh cc cng vic tnh. - Thay i t th thng xuyn. Ngy nay, c mt phng php rt thng dng nh gi t th lm vic l phng php OWAS (Karhu v nhng ngi khc 1977). Phng php ny phn tch v phn hng cc t th lm vic t c cc t th lm vic ci tin bi cc phng php lm vic mi. Phn tch ny c da trn mu lm vic cc t th lm vic tiu chun. Tng t th c th c phn loi theo bn nhm hnh ng, mi nhm cho thy c cn thit phi p dng bin php hay khng v mc nguy cp nh th no. Thng qua mt h thng m, bt k t th lm vic no cng c th c m t theo t th chun. M bao gm mt con s Hnh 5. Cc dng c h tr lm cho cng vic lm rng thoi mi hn (ILO 1979 v 1992) 48 nh v theo t th ca lng (1-4), cnh tay (1-3), chn (1-7), v ca lc cn thit (1-3) (xem Hnh 6); c th thm bn v tr ca u. i vi mi t th tiu chun, c th tnh ton khi lng trn c cu chuyn ng ca c th con ngi, cng vi tn sut ca mu cng vic, do c th phn hng thnh cc hng sau: Hng 1 = t th bnh thng, khng cn bin php no. Hng 2 = cng vic hi qu ti, phi ci tin trong khi kim tra ln sau cc phng php lm vic. Hng 3 = cng vic tng i qu ti, phi ci tin cng sm cng tt. Hng 4 = cng vic rt qu ti, cn phi c bin php ngay lp tc. Phng php OWAS tr nn thng dng bi c phn cng v mm dnh cho phng php ny trn th trng (Kant v nhng ngi khc, 1990). u im ca phng php OWAS l khi nim n gin; nhc im l thiu c s khoa hc mt mt v mi quan h gia tun sut ca cc t th lm vic c hi, v mt khc l nh hng ca chng i vi sc khe (F.J.Staudt). 49 ). 2.8. cng thng cng thng trong lao ng l tc ng ca s chu ti lao ng i vi con ngi, n ph thuc vo tnh cht v kh nng ca mi c th. S chu ti trong lao ng l tc ng tng th ca cc yu t iu kin bn ngoi v cc yu t bn trong h thng lao ng, nhng yu t ny c th lm thay i tnh trng vt l hay tm l ca con ngi. Biu 1. S chu ti v mc cng thng trong lao ng Hnh 6: Danh sch cc t th lm vic tiu chun, c s m, c phn hng bi OWAS. Mi t th c th c m t vi m 3 ch s (dnh cho lng, tay v chn, lc b lng ph) V d bn tay phi ca biu ny c th c miu t bng m 215 (Karhu v nhng ngi khc 1977). 50 cng thng c th lm gim nng sut lao ng. Khi yu cu lao ng vt qu gii hn cho php no , n s gy ra cng thng trong lao ng, dn n mt mi v tm l, bun chn, sc v.v... hn ch mc cng thng, cn c ch lao ng v ngh ngi hp l cho cng nhn. Ch lao ng v ngh ngi l s lun phin gia lm vic v ngh ngi trn c s nghin cu, phn tch ng thi kh nng lm vic nhm m bo ngn nga s mt mi, nng cao kh nng lm vic v tnh sng to trong lao ng. C th tnh ton gi tr gn ng thi gian ngh trong ca lm vic bng cng thc sau (theo Murrel 1965): W (b-s) Thi gian phc hi (pht) = -------- b-1,5 Trong : - W l tng thi gian lm vic tnh bng pht; - b l khi lng nng lng tiu th bnh qun tnh bng kcal/pht; - s l khi lng nng lng tiu th trong iu kin chun (6,0 kcal/pht). S bn b Lc, thao tc Tri gic Phn ng S kho tayS nhy cm Trch nhim S hp l Tnh sng to Tun hon Mu v tim C bp, XngCc gic quan Thn kinhCm xc S cng thng Tm trng S cng S cng thng vt l S cng thng tm l S CHU TI Qu trnh lao ng Mi trng lao ng (vt l v x hi) 51 Ngoi ra, phng s gia tng mt mi, cn phi b tr cc ln ngh trong qu trnh lm vic. Cc ln ngh ny c tc dng lm gim mt nhc, gi kh nng lm vic, to tm l tt trong qu trnh lm vic (ngi lao ng c tm l khc phc s mt mi ang gia tng, nu bit rng sp ti s c ngh). Cc ln ngh ngi cng cn c thc hin sao cho c hiu qu. C th y li vic gim kh nng lm vic gia ca bng cch t chc ngh n gia ca vi thi gian t 30-60 pht. y l thi gian cn thit, mt mt m bo phc hi nhng chc nng sinh l, lm gim s mt mi v bo m kh nng lm vic bn vng trong na th hai ca ca lm vic. Mt khc, n cn gm thi gian cn thit tip nhn dinh dng vo c th nh thng l. i vi nhng n v sn xut lm vic theo ch mt ca hoc 2 ca, thi gian ny khng tnh vo thi gian lm vic quy nh. Vi cc n v c ch lm vic 3 ca, thi gian ngh n gia ca tnh vo thi gian lm vic theo quy nh. S lng cc ln ngh ph thuc vo mc v tnh cht biu th mc mt mi. Ngh ngi hp l nn b tr vo lc mt mi bt u xut hin, tc l khi nhng du hiu lm gim kh nng lm vic bt u xut hin. Vic quyt nh cc ln ngh trong ca/ngy lm vic cn m bo cc yu cu sau y: 1. Ti trng v mc cng thng ca cng vic cng ln th cng gn thi im u ca/ngy (hoc cng gn ln ngh n gia ca trong na th hai ca ca lm vic), cn t chc nhng ln ngh theo quy nh. 2. Trong na th hai ca ca/ngy lm vic, mc mt mi thng su hn, nn cn c di thi gian ln hn so vi na ca/ngy lm vic th nht. Thng thng, nn dnh 30-40% tng thi gian ngh ngi cho na ca u v 60-70% cho na ca sau. 3. di ca cc ln ngh ph thuc vo c im lao ng v mc gia tng mt mi. Nhng ln ngh qu ln, hoc qu nh trong khi lm vic u mang li hiu qu thp. Nhiu tnh ton ch ra rng, qung ngh hp l nht nm trong khong t 5-10 pht. Nhng cng vic c cng thng thn kinh v s ch ln, ng thi c tnh n iu cao th cn t chc nhng ln ngh mau hn. Nhng cng vic yu cu ti trng c bp vi nhp lm vic khng cao th cn t chc nhng ln ngh tha hn, nhng di hn (10-15 pht). 4. i vi nhng cng nhn phc v cn tnh ton thi gian bt u lm vic v thi gian ngh ngi sao cho c th phc v cng nhn chnh c kp thi. Nhng cng vic nh: kim tra thnh phm, dn dp ni lm vic, iu chnh thit b, vn chuyn nguyn vt liu hoc thnh phm,... trong nhiu trng hp cn b tr trng vi thi gian ngh ca cng nhn chnh. 5. C hnh thc ngh thch hp vi tng loi cng vic; tp th dc, nghe nhc chc nng, ngh tnh, luyn c bp,...Vi nhng cng vic tng i nng nhc v th lc, phi di chuyn nhiu hay lun phi t th ng th trong thi gian ngh nn t xoa bp hay tp th dc nhm th gin c lm vic nhiu v chng mu dn xung chn. Vi nhng cng vic di chuyn, c cng thng thn kinh trung bnh th ni dung ngh nn tp th dc, nghe nhc chc nng. Biu 11. Ch lao ng v ngh ngi 52 (cha k thi gian n gia ca) c tnh cng vic di v phn b ln ngh Ni dung ngh Cng vic cng thng th lc v thn kinh khng ng k. 2 ln ngh, mi ln 5 pht: Ln 1: Sau khi lm vic 2 gi. Ln 2: Trc khi kt thc 1,5 gi. Th dc 2 ln trong ngy, 5 pht/ln. Cng vic c cng thng th lc v thn kinh trung bnh. 2 ln ngh, mi ln 10 pht: Ln 1: Sau khi lm vic 2 gi. Ln 2: Trc khi kt thc 1,5 gi. Th dc 2 ln trong ngy, 5 pht/ln. Cng vic khng i hi ti trng c bp nhiu, nhng c nhp iu v t th lm vic khng thun li. 4 ln ngh, mi ln 5 pht: Cc ln ngh cch nhau 1,5 gi. Th dc 2 ln trong ngy, 5 pht/ln. Ngh t do 2 ln Cng vic i hi nhiu sc lc v c cng thng thn kinh cao. 3 ln ngh, mi ln 10 pht: Ln 1: na ca u. Ln 2 v 3: na ca sau. Ngh yn tnh lm thng bng thn kinh. Cng vic c nhp v mc cng thng thn kinh cao, cc iu kin lao ng khng thun li (bi, n, nng,... 5 ln ngh, 2 ln ngh 10 pht v 3 ln ngh 5 pht. Ln ngh 10 pht, tp th dc; ln ngh 5 pht, ngh t do. Cng vic rt nng nhc, iu kin lao ng bnh thng. C 1 gi ngh 10 pht Ngh tnh trong phng Cng vic rt nng nhc, iu kin lao ng khng thun li. 3 ln ngh, 15-20 pht/ln. Ln 2 v 3 na ca th 2. Ngh tnh trong phng Cng vic trong iu kin khng thun li, nhp cao, thn kinh rt cng thng. Ngh 4-5 pht trong mi 1/2 gi. Ngh tnh trong phng Cng vic nng nhc trong iu kin c bit khng thun li. Mi gi ngh 10-15 ph Ngh tnh trong phng Ngun: Ch dn phng php nh mc lao ng cho cng nhn trong nn kinh t quc dn, Matxcva 1970. 53 2.9. Sc kho v sinh 2.9.1. Nhng vn chung cc nc nhit i c nhiu yu t gp thm vo iu kin sc kho vn khng tt l cht v lng ca thc phm, cht lng ca nc ung, nh v thi quen sinh hot v cui cng nhng khng km phn quan trng l iu kin lm vic. Sc kho km cng vi bnh tt nh hng tiu cc ln kh nng lao ng ca ngi cng nhn. iu ny phi c xem xt khi t ra cc tiu chun nh gi khi lng cng vic theo khoa hc lao ng cc vng nhit i. Nu coi tnh trng sc kho ca ton b dn s th gii l nh nhau th khng c ng cho lm. Cc con s c on cho thy ch c mt phn t dn s th gii hin nay may mn c c cc iu kin v sinh mc chp nhn c v ch dinh y . Nhng ngi phn ln ang sng ti cc khu vc c kh hu n ho. cc khu vc nhiu bnh gn nh b trit hn. hu ht cc nc nhit i th khng c nh th, cc yu t tiu cc lun hot ng chng hn nh kh hu nng, m chnh l th phm gy ra s lan truyn ca cc bnh truyn nhim. Cc bnh vn cn ang tn ti trn din rng cc nc nhit i l lao, giang mai, st rt, giun mc, thng hn, t, bch hu, ci xng, sco-but vv. V gn y l s tng ln ng k s lng ngi nhim vi rt HIV v sau cng l b mc bnh AIDS, c bit l Chu Phi. mt s nc chu Phi nh Uganda v Zaire, c 30 n 50% dn s b nhim vi rt AIDS. Hn na, khong 40 triu dn chu Phi b nhim vi rt HIV(2), vi rt ny, ngc vi nhng nhn nh ban u, c chng minh l cng gy ra bnh AIDS. Trc mt iu ny s c hu qu ln i vi lc lng lao ng v kh nng lao ng ca ngi cng nhn. Vic ci thin tnh trng sc kho khng phi d. C rt nhiu yu t lin quan nh tnh hnh kinh t-x hi, vi cc dch v y t, s di do v vc-xin, cc chng trnh y t v v sinh m rng (F.J.Staudt). 2.9.2.iu kin sng nhng ni m ngi cng nhn sng vi gia nh ca h v i li lm vic hng ngy th ngi ch rng rt kh c th c tc ng ti vic chm sc sc kho v v sinh ti ni sinh sng ca cng nhn. H ch c th tp trung vo iu kin lm vic. V vy, phi nhc ti cc gng doanh nghip lm nghip cho thy cc cng nhn v ban lnh o nn xy dng cc tri lm nghip gn vi cc ni lm vic ngi cng nhn c th sut c tun. Apud.et.al.(1990 v 1992) c bo co v vic ny Chil. Ngoi mc ch gim vic i li hng ngy ca ngi cng nhn, th cn cho thy l cc yu t tiu cc ti ni sinh sng, gp thm vo iu kin sc kho vn khng tt, c th c kim sot d dng, vi iu kin l c nhn vin chm sc y t (F.J.Staudt). Biu 12. Danh sch cc bnh nhit i ph bin, nguyn nhn v ghi ch (T chc nng lng-FAO 1976). Bnh Tnh ph bin Nguyn nhn Ghi ch Thiu mu Ph bin Dinh dng km. Acid folic b mt trong qu trnh nu nng. Thiu protin: St rt: lm mt ngun acid folic d tr. Mt mu: giun mc v cc ng vt k sinh khc Gio dc v dinh dng Tr tn gc bnh st rt 54 Bnh Tnh ph bin Nguyn nhn Ghi ch Tiu chy Rt ph bin Bnh l do khun que: nc nhim Bnh l do amip: thc phm, rui Ng c thc n: - Thc n lu gi lu ngy - un i un li Thng hn: ngun cung cp nc b nhim khun, thc n b nhim khun trc tip t tay i vi tt c: ra rau qu trong nc bn. Nh v sinh phi hp cch, ra tay sch s. un si nc ung. Hng dn cch bo qun v nu thc phm. Nh v sinh hp cch, ra tay sch s. un si nc ung Giun Ph bin n phi cc con b nhim khun c trong nc Thot v da v giun ln chui ra sau 12-18 thng b nhim. Ngi cng nhn mt kh nng lm vic khi giun ln ln Nu giun cht hoc hoc b t, th vim m, nhim trng mu hoc vim khp c th xy ra. Un vn l dng bin chng ca bnh giun. Tng huyt p Rt ph bin ph n Kh ph bin nam gii C 2 loi-loi bnh thng lnh tnh cha bit nguyn nhn, nhng vic i vt nng trn u c cho l mt yu t gy ra (rt nghim trng thiu nin hoc thanh nin khong hn 20 tui). Khng vt qu mc i nng cho php c bit l thanh nin. St rt Bnh a phng - tt c cng nhn b nh hng Ngi b mui anphen mang bnh cn v xc tin bnh Phun thuc chng mui xung quanh nh, lp cc rnh nc t. Thng xuyn dng thuc st rt. Cc bnh v Kh ph bin iu kin kh hu l mt yu t Khng nn mc 55 Bnh Tnh ph bin Nguyn nhn Ghi ch c quan trng Chng au lng v bnh au lng ni chung do kh hu v vic qun o m, khi nh phi thay qun o kh. Hng dn mang vc ng cch. Vim ng h hp Rt ph bin nht l vim xoang v vim ph qun. iu kin kh hu thc y cc bnh ny ny v nht l rng ma nhit i Sn mng Ph bin Sn l c th chui qua da khi ngi bnh ngm mnh trong nc bn. Ngun bnh: nc bn do phn v nc tiu. cc sui v b l ngun ch yu. Cn c nhiu ngun khc gy ra mt mu do i tiu v i tin ra mu. Phng bnh: phi c ngun nc khng nhim. Hn ch thi gian ngm mnh di nc, sau lau khp ngi bng khn rp tht nhanh. Gio dc y t. Un vn Bnh a phng Clostridium tetani. Ngun bnh ng vt v ngi b nhim bnh. Ngun ly nhim trc tip l: t, bi, phn ngi v ng vt. Vo c th qua cc vt thng, thng l cc vt thng nh c bit lu ti cc cng nhn lm nghip d b cc chn thng Phng chng: dng thuc phng ung vn v phi iu tr khi vt thng b dnh t hoc phn. L lot Ph bin Do b try da hoc b t Vt try sc phi c ra sch v bng li ngay( vic cung cp ch n tt, cc vt dng lau ra v s cu 56 Bnh Tnh ph bin Nguyn nhn Ghi ch loi hn bnh l lot trong cng nhn cc in trang c qun l tt). Lao Rt ph bin Ly nhim do bi nhim v do ho, khc nh v nh ngho nn (qu ng c- ch c mt phng) Gio dc y t: ho phi che ming, trnh khc nh ba bi. Phi iu tr ngay nu thy au ngc. Dit tr tn gc l rt kh. 2.9.3. iu kin lm vic Khi trao i, tho lun v iu kin lm vic lin quan n sc kho v v sinh, cn thit phi ch n khi lng cng vic, kh nng lm vic, iu kin lm vic thc t, thc n ung, p lc do thi tit nng bc v.v... nhng phn nu trn. C th m bo sc kho nu nh cc vn thuc lnh vc lao ng c quan tm ch v khng vt qu gii hn cng lao ng cho php. Bn cnh vn cn mt s vn v sc kho cha xc nh c cng cn phi lu , c th nh cc loi cy, g v ng vt c hi (c c) v cch s dng mt s hp cht c hi nh cht ho hc, cc cht dung mi, bi, kh gas v.v... Khi tip xc vi cy ci, g v ng vt gy hi, c th xy ra mt s triu chng nh b thng, nhim trng hay d ng. Do , trong mi i hoc ti mi im thc a, t nht phi c mt cng nhn am hiu v mt s ri ro hay gp trn a bn v bit cch iu tr nhng triu chng ny khi gp phi. Nn t chc chng trnh tp hun ph bin mt s tai nn ph bin thng gp, c bit i vi ngi lao ng khng quen vi iu kin a phng. trnh nhng cy, gai nhn hay nhng mnh v vn v.v...c c, ngi lao ng phi mang bao tay da, ng bng da hay vi d chuyn dng (ng cao su ch ph hp trong iu kin m t), qun o va vn vi cht vi dy, chc, ng qun di b st v tay o cng phi di khng h da. Ngi lao ng cng phi c trang b mt ti ng dng c s cu cng nh chic kp fooc-xp ly gai hay ming vn ra. Trong trng hp cng vic trin khai tip xc vi loi vt nui, ri ro tai nn lun lun c th xy ra, c bit khi m nhng con vt ny b ngc i hoc khi nhng nguyn tc v an ton khng c thun th (Theo T chc lao ng th gii-ILO 1979, T chc Nng Lng th gii - FAO 1990). Vic i x vi loi vt cng cn phi c tp hun mt cch c bit, tnh yu v lng nhn ni kin tr i vi loi vt cng rt quan trng. Nhng vt cn do vt nui hay th hoang cn c th ly, truyn bnh sang cho ngi nh bnh di hay bnh un vn. Trong trng hp b cn, nn nhn cn phi c a ngay n trm x hoc bc s iu tr kp thi. Cc loi rn c rt him khi cn ngi lao ng. Tuy nhin, nu trng hp b rn cn th phi xc nh xem c phi l rn c hay khng. Vic s cu ban u l cc k cn thit. Vic s cu ny nhm gim bt s lu thng mu lm chm li kh nng 57 thm nhp ca nc c vo c th nn nhn. Nn nhn phi nm yn khng c ng phn b cn. Dng bng y t qun nh ln vt thng t 5 n 10 cm. Vt thng phi c ra sch bng nc v x phng. Trong khi , phi chun b phng tin a bnh nhn n trm x cng nh huyt thanh cha rn cn. i ng hay x cp cng c th trnh khi b rn cn. Ngoi ra, cn c mt s loi c hi nh mt s loi b cp, nhn hay a. Ngi dn bn a c th bit lm th no trnh tip xc vi chng hay l lm th no cha tr khi b chng cn. Cui cng l c rt nhiu loi cn trng khc mang mm bnh, c bit l nhng vng nhit i. Mt s loi cng c cp trong phn iu kin sng trn. C rt nhiu cht ang c s dng trong lm nghip c th tr thnh mi him ho cho sc kho, c th l cc cht ho hc nh phn bn v thuc tr su, cc loi dung mi nh xng v du, cc loi kh gas nh cc loi kh thi. Nhng loi hp cht c lit k ny khng nhng c tc hi khn cng m cn c khuyn co trnh tip xc vi chng, bi v thng th sau rt nhiu nm dm ma, di nng, nhng hp cht ny vn c kh nng gy nguy hi cho ngi lao ng. Nhng hp cht ny hay nhng thnh phn ca chng thng thng c th b c th con ngi trung ho nhng n mt tch t cao n ni khng mt b my c th no c th chng tri c hp cht ny na. S tch t ny trong mt vi b phn ca c th c th xy ra nh dung mi lm phn gii cht bo c trong nhng b phn c th c cha cht bo nh no v h thng n ron thn kinh. Trong trng hp ny, nhng triu chng thng gp nh au u, hoa mt chng mt, nn ma, nhng nh hng ti h thng thn kinh, lm gim kh nng nhn bit v phn hi ca c th. C th thy r rng, hp cht ny khng nhng lm gim st sc kho, kh nng lm vic ca ngi lao ng m cn gim nng sut lao ng, n cn lm gia tng nguy c v tai nn lao ng. bo v bn thn chng li nhng hp cht ho hc v dung mi cn phi nm c mt trong nhng cch thc m chng xm nhp vo c th con ngi nh sau: - Qua tip xc vi da, nh chun b thuc tr su phun, bn phn ho hc trc tip bng tay. - Qua ht th, nh khi phun xt thuc th cng hoc ty ra vt bn bng cc hp cht ho hc. - Qua tiu ho thc n, ung, nu tay ngi lao ng hoc ni lm vic khng c v sinh sch s. ngn chn s xm nhp ca cc hp cht ho hc dng trong lm nghip vo c th con ngi, ngi lao ng cn phi rt cn trng theo th nhng ch nh sau. Cng vi nhng hiu bit v nhng quy nh ca cng ty hay nh nc, ngi lao ng cng cn phi c o to tp hun v lnh vc ny. Sau y l mt s ch nh c th nh: - C gng hn ch vic s dng nhng hp cht hay dung mi ho hc, chng hn nh tham kho cch dit c di bng bin php c gii thay v s dng thuc dit c. - Thay th bng cc hp cht t c hi hn, v d nh du tinh ch thay v du th. - Bo tr, bo dng tt thit b my mc, chng hn nh iu chnh ng b ch ho kh s lm gim s thot kh c trong kh thi thot ra. - S dng bo h lao ng c nhn nh bao tay v tp d nha, ng cao su v khu trang v.v... - Khng ht thuc, n v ung trong khi ang s dng ho cht v.v... - Git sch qun o hay dng trong sau khi s dng ho cht. - Ra sch s bng x phng, c bit l ra tay; nu c th th cn phi tm ra. 58 - Tun th nhng qui nh ca nh nc v nhng ho cht b cm s dng, ch s dng v d tr nhng ho cht cho php, ng thi ngi s dng phi c hng dn s dng sn phm. 2.10. an ton v tai nn lao ng Theo F.I.Staudt, tr ngi ln nht trong mc tiu ca ngnh khoa hc lao ng, l thiu an ton lao ng trong khi thc hin ti a ho h thng phn cng nhim v. Tai nn lao ng hu hoi ton b thnh qu lao ng ch bng mt ln xy ra tai ha. Do , vic phng tai nn lao ng l mt nhim v quan trng ca ngnh khoa hc lao ng. nh ngha th no v mt tai nn? l mt s c khng mong mun xy ra ch yu do hnh ng khng an ton v/hoc mi trng lm vic khng an ton, gy ra b thng hoc t vong v/hoc chm ch v thit hi. C th khng nh ngh rng l mt trong cc ngh nguy him nht lin quan n s lng tai nn v bnh ngh nghip, trong hot ng khai thc g c it nguy him, gm cc nguyn nhn ch yu sau: - Mi trng lm vic t nhin (a hnh, h thc vt, kh hu...) - Cy ci, l mt sn phm t nhin hay bin i, do l mt yu t kh on trc. - S dng khng an ton cc cng c v thit b. - Nhn chung l mt ngnh kinh t cn yu km vi t l li nhun cn bin thp. - S dng lao ng khng c k nng v khng c o to. - Cng vic nng nhc v n iu thng tin hnh nhng vng su, vng xa. i vi rng nhit i v c bit i vi cc nc ang pht trin, nhng yu t khng thun li ny c th bin thnh: - iu kin sng v kinh t v x hi cn ngho nn, cng vi nhng hu qu v tnh hnh dinh dng v sc kho. - Thiu lut an ton lao ng, ni quy v quy ch doanh nghip, ng thi thiu thanh tra, gim st thc hin lut, ni quy v quy ch. - Thiu kin thc v an ton lao ng ca ch lao ng v ngi lao ng. - t quan tm u t vo chnh sch an ton lao ng, gm o to v bi dng, trong trng hp chi ph lao ng thp v ngi lao ng rt d b thay th. Tt c cc yu t khng thun li nu trn lm cho t l tai nn lao ng trong ngnh lm nghip ti cc nc ang pht trin, gm cc quc gia c rng nhit i tng cao hn cc nc cng nghip ho nm trong vng kh hu n ho. Tuy nhin, rt kh thu thp d liu ng tin cy v cc tai nn lao ng t cc nc c rng nhit i. Mt s s liu t cc lm trng ca Nigeria v Malaysia cho thy t l t vong cao hn t 15-20 ln so vi lm trng ca hu ht cc nc cng nghip ho (ILO 1991). Nhng hu qu m nn nhn ca tai nn lao ng c th phi chu, l: - C nhn chu au n hay thm ch cn mt i ngi thn. - Chi ph iu tr y t, bao gm c chi ph nm vin. - Gim hoc mt thu nhp. i vi doanh nghip, nhng mt mt c th l: - Chi ph h tr u tin 59 - Thit hi v my mc, trang thit b v sn phm - Hao tn sn lng Trn y l nhng hu qu xy n i vi quc gia c rng nhit i t nht mc nghim trng cng bng vi cc nc cng nghip ho, nu khng mun ni l nghim trng hn, ngi dn v cc lm trng y c ri ro cao hn. Nhm phng tai nn xy ra, cn trang b nhng kin thc v tai nn v an ton lao ng (xem thm mc 11). Cng tc nghin cu phi gii p c cu hi v nguyn nhn v hu qu ca tai nn, cn c vo ch an ton no. C th phn bit cc loi nghin cu di y (Strehlke 1989): - Khai bo chnh xc s tai nn xy ra phn tch thng k, nhm bit c tn s, loi v tnh nghim trng ca cc tai nn. - Khai bo c lng s tai nn xy ra, c th lm tng d liu, ng thi d on trc tnh hnh nguy him bng cc phng php mi - Nghin cu k mt s trng hp tai nn c bit, gip tm hiu thm cc yu t khc (v mt tm l, x hi, t chc v.v), dn n tai nn. - Sau khi tai nn xy ra, tin hnh phng vn trc tip c h thng tt c cc cp, t ngi lao ng, qun c n gim c iu hnh nhm vn ng tt c cc cp chp nhn thc hin cc bin php phng tai nn. - Phn tch h thng hoc phng php tip cn ngnh khoa hc lao ng da vo nhng sai st, da vo gi thit rng c th coi cc tai nn l hu qu do c sai st trong h thng phn cng cng vic (FAO 1999). - Nghin cu v cc kha cnh c bit nh chi ph ca cc tai nn, nghin cu tm l sau khi c m hnh ni nghip v ngoi nghip tng i so vi tnh hung tai nn xy ra. Vic khai bo chnh xc tai nn xy ra nhm phn tch thng k ch ng khi p ng cc tiu ch di y: - Tnh ng nht (lun s dng cc nh ngha tng t, phng php khai bo, mu v.v). - Tnh trn vn (phi hon tt y th tc, gm in phiu iu tra). - Tnh lin tc (khai bo thng xuyn c nm v t nm ny sang nm khc). Nghin cu cc tai nn nhm mc ch gim s lng tai nn v tng cng an ton lao ng. nh ngha th no v an ton lao ng? Hin c rt nhiu nh ngha khc nhau. Hu ht cc nh ngha u thiu cp n nhng tnh hung dn n tai nn. Loi nh ngha ny khng thc t, ng thi khng to ng c lm vic; ngc li, chng lm gim ng c thc y bi v v mt l thuyt tai nn s khng xy n nu ngng cng vic hon ton. Mt nh ngha v an ton lao ng c th chp nhn c, l An ton lao ng l mt mi trng lm vic m ngi lao ng hon ton c thc chp nhn ri ro tai nn c th xy ra. nh ngha ny khuyn khch ngi lao ng lm vic v tch cc tham gia gio dc, o to v bi dng. Nhm t c mt mi trng lm vic an ton, cn nghin cu cc tai nn. Nghin cu tai nn gp phn: 60 - Hiu bit r hn v nguyn nhn gy tai nn t phng cc tai nn tng t xy ra nh cc bin php ci thin k thut, ni quy an ton, tng cng o to v gim st. - Hiu r v nhng ri ro ca nhiu h thng cng vic khc nhau v dung sai ca cc nhn t ng vai tr gy ra tai nn. - nh gi chnh sch an ton lao ng ca mt lm trng. C nhiu lp lun v ngun gc ca tai nn, nh: - Thuyt hon ton ngu nhin (tai nn l do Cha). - Thuyt d gp tai nn (s phn khin cho mt s ngi lao ng c nguy c s gp tai nn nhiu hn nhng ngi khc), hoc - Thuyt yu t c iu kin (c tp hp phc tp cc yu t chc chn gy ra tai nn). Ch tin hnh nghin cu thuyt cp cui cng Trong qu trnh khai bo tai nn, khng chng c ch phn bit nguyn nhn chnh gy tai nn (c gi l h thng phn loi n gin): my mc, thit b, cht nng, ho cht, dy rng rc, vt ri, cng c cm tay, ng vt v.vTrn thc t, thng c nhiu nguyn nhn v tnh hung khin gy ra tai nn. Mt h thng phn loi phc tp c gng m t tt c yu t lin quan n tai nn v nhng thng tn m tai nn gy ra: - Hnh ng khng an ton. - Tnh hung lm vic khng an ton. - Hot ng v vt th. - Mi trng lm vic(a hnh, kh hu, t v.v...mi trng con ngi - V tr v bn cht ca thng tn. - Loi tai nn (xem h thng phn loi n gin), v.v... Mt vn t ra i vi nhiu nh nghin cu trong nhiu nm, l liu mt mt, hnh vi khng an ton, hay mt khc tnh hung khng an ton thng l nguyn nhn gy tai nn (Heinrich 1928, trong ILO 1986). Hin nay, quan im cho rng nn la chn tnh hung khng an ton, bi v ngoi nhng sai lm ca con ngi, cc tai nn thng lin quan n tnh hung k thut khng an ton, cuc chin chng li cc tnh hung khng an ton bng cch p dng cc cc bin php ci tin k thut c c hi thnh cng hn nhiu so vi cuc chin chng li nhng sai lm ca con ngi. Do , nhn chung, khi phi chn mt nguyn nhn chnh t 2 nguyn nhn, th la chn nguyn nhn no d vn dng. Chng hn, nu mt ngi vn hnh ca xch khi i t cy ny sang cy khc, chng may vp ng v t mnh ca vo chn mnh, nguyn nhn chnh khng phi l anh ta mt kim sot m l do dy xch vn vn hnh trong khi di chuyn. Do nguyn nhn gy tai nn ny c th gii quyt bng cch tng cng o to k thut (iu chnh ng c ca xch) v bng cch hng dn cn thn hn v phng php lm vic (s dng phanh xch trong khi di chuyn). V mt c bn, xc nh thc hnh loi h thng phn loi no, th phi tr li c cc cu hi sau: - i tng no b thng? - Tai nn xy ra nh th no v nhng yu t no khin gy tai nn? - Tai nn xy ra u? - Ti sao tai nn li xy ra? v yu t quan trng nht? 61 - Lm th no phng tai nn tng t xy ra? (ILO 1986) Cc v d v cc mu bo co tai nn t n gin n phc tp do Strehke (1989) n hnh. Trong khi khai bo tai nn v phn tch thng k, rt cn t c mc no c th so snh vi quc t. V l do ny, T chc Phn loi Hot ng Kinh t Quc t (ISIC) v nhiu Hi ngh Quc t v Thng k Lao ng t ra cc tiu chun quc t (ILO 1986, Strehlke 1989). Tiu chun ho thut ng, phn loi v bin php so snh. Di y, xut phn bit gia s lng ngi: - B thng hoc t vong do tai nn lao ng, v tai nn lao ng hay gp phi; v - Chu cc bnh ngh nghip. Cc phng php mi ca cc nh thng k lao ng phn loi cc thng tn nh sau: - Gy t vong: trong vng 30 ngy v dao ng gia 31 n 361 ngy; - Khng gy t vong: khng mt thi gian, mt thi gian (tr ngy b tai nn): n 3-4 ngy hoc hn. Trong trng hp khng c tin l bo co v tai nn xy ra, th cn phi bo co t nht 2 loi tai nn, l tai nn gy t vong v tai nn lm mt thi gian. Cc nh thng k lao ng xut cc tiu ch sau, lin quan n cc bin php c tiu chun ho: tng s tai nn lao ng x 100% I (T l gp tai nn) = tng s ngi lao ng c nguy c gp tai nn tng s tai nn lao ng x 1 triu F (T l thng xuyn) = tng s gi lao ng c nguy c gp tai nn Hai cng thc khc m c th gii p dng l: s lng ngy cng b mt A (t l ngh lm) = s lng gi lao ng c nguy c gp tai nn v tnh nghim trng c th c xc nh bng Fx A hoc I x A, hoc thm ch c th tnh bng cng thc khc.Di y l nh ngha v tnh nghim trng: s lng ngy b mt x 1 triu S (T l mc nghim trng) = s lng gi lao ng c nguy c gp tai nn 62 Trong ngnh lm nghip, thng c s lin quan gia s tai nn v khi lng g c khai thc. C th so snh s liu tai nn trong mt ban, mt doanh nghip hay mt t nc, t c th cho thy tc dng ca chnh sch an ton lao ng. Tuy nhin, vic so snh s liu gia cc doanh nghip v quc gia khc nhau nhn chung u tht bi bi v tt c cc doanh nghip hay quc gia u s dng tiu chun ca ring t chc mnh m khng tun theo cc tiu chun quc t. Nguyn nhn gy tai nn thng c khai bo, khi c nhu cu ti chnh, chng hn, khi c hng bo him y t. Nhng tiu chun ny khc nhau tng quc gia; mt s nc y l vn sau 1 ngy ngh lm, mt s nc khc th li l sau 10 ngy ngh lm. Di y l kt qu thng k hot ng nguy him v tai nn d xy ra trong ngnh lm nghip (ILO 1991): - Hot ng nguy him nht l khai thc g. - Hnh ng nguy him nht l cht ngang cy. - Chn, sau tay, l nhng b phn c th thng hay b thng nht. - Nhm tui thng d b tai nn dao ng t 20 n 29 tui. - Thi gian thng hay xy ra tai nn l khong 10 gi m v khong t 2-3 gi sng. Cc kt qu phng on l nhng thng tin ti thiu cn thit. Con s thng k ca doanh nghip cho kt qu chi tit hn, bao gm bi cnh v nguyn nhn thc s gy tai nn. Mt vn kh khn vn cn tn ti, l ti sao con ngi gy ra tai nn, ti sao h li th vi ni quy an ton v khng thc hin cc k thut m bo an ton lao ng m h hc. Cc nh tm l c gng hiu lm th no ngi Khoa hc Lao ng cch hon thnh nhim v tt. Cc nh tm l dy dn kinh nghim hin nay c quan im rng m hnh phng nga ni b gip hon tt mt hot ng ngay tc th. iu ny c th xy ra khi m hnh ni b c xy dng khng y hoc cha c hnh thnh, hoc khi cc m hnh c cha cc yu t ri ro (s v t chc tr thnh thi quen) hoc khi cc m hnh b loi b do ri lon chc nng. C th phn bit 3 cp m hnh ni b trong qu trnh hc hi v tip thu kinh nghim. M hnh kim sot vn ng, m hnh x l cy v m hnh mi trng lm vic. Tnh hiu lc ca thuyt m hnh ni b c m t bng thc t s ri lon trong m hnh iu khin ni b (tip xc vi dy xch, mt kh nng kim sot ca) dn n tai nn cho nhng ngi lao ng tr thiu kinh nghim trong khi nhng ri lon trong m hnh mi trng lm vic (tai ha t do cy , hoc mt phn ca cy , mt v tr lm vic...) gy tai nn cho nhng ngi ln tui hn hoc c nhiu kinh nghim hn. Nhng ri lon hnh vi nh vi vng, tnh hnh khng hong, ngoan c, cng thng, mt mi gy ra tai nn cho nhng ngi tr tui hn v khng c kinh nghim (Kannimen 1991). Theo cc ngun thng tin khc (ILO 1986), cc yu t nh mt mi hay cng thng, m khng c cc yu t khc c lin quan, s khng d dng gy ra tai nn. Trong trng hp b qu trm cm v mt mi (chy rng, thc phm...), nhng ngi gip kit sc c th to ra n lc ln, bi v h c ng vin cao. Nu khng c s ng vin, s ri lon hnh vi nh mt mi, cng thng c nhiu kh nng gy ra tai nn. R rng, cn tng cng tin hnh nghin cu tm l v hnh vi an ton lao ng v nn lng ghp cc kt qu nghin cu ny vo cc chng trnh o to v bi dng v cng tc lm nghip (F.J.Staudt). 63 Phn 5: Khi Lng Cng Vic v Kh Nng Lao ng 1. Trong khu k thut lm sinh Khi lng cng vic trong lnh vc k thut lm sinh tp trung vo thi im trng rng theo thi v, tng vng khc nhau v tng khu cng vic c th. 1.1. Khu sn xut cy con Cng vic sn xut cy con thng phi c p ng thng xuyn nhu cu v cy con theo tng thi v. Trc khi v trng cy bt u, cy con phi p ng y theo yu cu k thut t ra. Khi lng cng vic thc hin ti khu sn xut vn m ch yu vo ma xun v thu, ma h v ma ng khi lng cng vic thng t hn do s tc ng ca nhn t thi tit. Cng vic sn xut cy con thc hin t ht ging ti vn m bt u t khu lm t, ng bu, gieo ht, to cy mm, cy cy con vo bu v cui cng l qun l v chm sc cy con chun b a vo trng khi thi v bt u. Hoc sn xut cy con bng phng php nhn ging dinh dng (gim hom, ghp, nui cy m). Tu theo mi phng php m khi lng cng vic cng khc nhau. 1.2. Trong khu trng rng Trong khu trng rng khi lng cng vic tp trung r rt mang tnh thi v v tu theo tng vng nh sau: Min Bc thng trng rng theo 2 ma v l v xun v v thu. V xun, y l ma v trng rng chnh thng chim trn 50% k hoch trng rng tp trung vo v ny, thi gian thng din ra t thng 2 n thng 4 hng nm. V thu t thng 8 n thng 10, y l v th yu khi lng cng vic tp trung vo thi k ny khng ln. Min Trung thng trng rng tp trung chnh vo v thu. Min Nam thng trng rng tp trung vo ma ma, t thng 5, 6, 7. Cc khu cng vic chnh trong trng rng l x l thc b n lm t, trng cy, chm sc v bo v. Trong cc khu x l thc b, lm t v trng cy l cc khu c khi lng cng vic nng nhc nht d xy ra tai nn lao ng. 1.3. Trong khu chm sc rng Tu theo quy trnh chm sc cho tng loi cy c th, cc cng vic cn tin hnh bao gm: Xi t lm c v vun gc cy, pht quang dy leo bi rm, bn thc (tu tng iu kin), ta cnh (t nm th 3 tr i), v cng vic cht ta tha, cht nui dng cho rng khp tn. Nhn chung chu k chm sc din ra trong thi gian di nn khi lng cng vic thng phn tn vi khi lng t. Cc tai nn thng xy ra t trong giai on ny m ch yu cc khu cng vic cht ta tha v nui dng. 2. Trong khu khai thc rng, vn xut, vn chuyn g Ma kh (thng cc thng cui nm) l thi k t ma, m thp, vo thi im ny iu kin thi tit khng gy kh khn cho cc hot ng khai thc, vn xut v vn chuyn g. Cc thng cui nm cng l thng tp trung k hoch khai thc g ln cho sn xut, k hoch khai thc hng nm thng tp trung ht vo thi k ny. Bn cnh cc hot ng khai thc cng l cc hot ng vn xut, ct khc v vn chuyn khc cng c khi lng cng vic rt ln. 64 Hnh 7. Vn xut khai thc bng voi Vic tp trung mt s lng nhn lc, my mc v thit b ln hon thnh k hoch khai thc t ra, v vy vic t chc sn xut cho cc khu cng vic mang tnh cng nghip nh vy s rt phc tp v thng xy ra cc tai nn ng tic trong cc khu cng vic ny. y cng l nhng khu cng vic rt nng nhc, i hi phi chp hnh nghim cc k thut, nguyn tc v quy trnh sn xut th mi c th thc hin theo k hoch. Cc tuyn ng vn chuyn, vn xut thng c s dng vi cng vn xut, vn chuyn cao lm cho cc tuyn ng b gim v cht lng, nh hng n nng sut v qu trnh lu thng ca xe c trn ng. V vy cng tc chm sc bo dng cc tuyn ng vn xut, vn chuyn cng phi c thc hin mt cch thng xuyn. 3. Trong khu ch bin g Tu theo k hoch sn xut ca nh my, x nghip..., tu theo tng quy trnh sn xut, quy m v tin ca cc dy chuyn sn xut, ch bin m khi lng cng vic trong tng khu v tng cng on s khc nhau. Trong ch bin g cc khu cng vic c tnh chuyn nghip cao, i hi chnh xc, thng l cc cng vic nng nhc, mi trng lm vic phc tp. 4. Trong cng tc qun l, bo v rng C 3 loi cng vic chnh trong lnh vc qun l bo v rng l: - Phng chng ngi v gia sc ph hoi rng: Cng tc ny phi c tin hnh thng xuyn v quanh nm nhm bo v rng khng b ph hoi do con ngi gy ra nh ph rng, t nng lm ry v cc hot ng ph hoi khc ca sc vt trong rng. - Phng chng su bnh hi rng: y l loi cng vic mang tnh ma v v khi lng cng vic ch tp trung vo mt khong thi gian nht nh. Cng vic ny tuy khi lng t nhng mc nguy him cao cho ngi v mi trng trong v xung quanh rng. - Phng chng chy rng: Cng vic ny phi c theo di thng xuyn v din bin ca thi tit d gy chy rng nht l ma hanh kh, m thp. Phi c nhng bin php phng chng chy rng nh t chc lc lng phng chy, cha chy rng; t chc tuyn truyn, gio dc nhn dn v phng chy cha chy rng; cc bin php v lm sinh nhm hn ch chy rng. Cng vic ny t xy ra nu c bin php phng chng chy rng tt, nhng nu chy rng xy ra thit hi v ngi v vt cht s rt ln, i hi phi huy ng mt lc lng nhn lc v thit b ln mi c th x l c. 65 Phn 6: Thng K Tai Nn Lao ng Lm Nghip Thng Gp Vit Nam 1. Cc tai nn thng xy ra trong lm nghip 1.1. Trong khu k thut lm sinh (v sinh rng, chm sc rng, trng rng.) , t ln, trt theo sn dc gy tai nn cho cng nhn trng, chm sc v v sinh rng. Tai nn ny thng xy ra khi tri ma, mt t m t khi c s tc ng nh c th gy nn hin tng l v trt t . Tai nn do trn trt ng trn ng i, trn cc sn dc do ma, t m t d sinh ra trt ng v do chnh iu kin a hnh bt li kh khn gy nn cho ngi lao ng. Tai nn do chnh cc dng c, my mc phc v cho vic o h trng cy, pht lung, v sinh rng v chm sc rng trong iu kin lm vic trn a hnh dc, m t, trn trt. Tai nn do rn c cn c th gy nguy him cht ngi, nu s cu khng kp thi c th li nhng hu qu ng k cho ngi lao ng. Tai nn do cc loi ng vt hoang d khc nh trn, voi, tru b rng, cc loi ng vt khc. Ngoi ra c th tai nn do cc loi cn trng c hi khc nh rt, nhn c... Tai nn do ng c vi ngun nc trong rng, do n phi cc loi nm c, cc loi hoa qu, l cy trong rng. Tai nn do cnh cy kh, thn cy ri, vo ngi do s tc ng ca con ngi (trong khi pht lung, cht nui dng, ta tha...) hoc do cc yu t khch quan khc nh gi, ma, bo... D ng vi phn hoa, bi cy do trong khi trng rng, pht lung, v sinh v chm sc rng tc ng vo cy ci trong rng gy ln. Ng c, d ng vi cc loi thuc kch thch, thuc tr su trong khu vn m, khu qun l nui dng cy con ti vn m, trong khi x l ht ging, trong khi phun thuc kch thch v thuc bo v thc vt. 1.2. Trong khu khai thc rng ( cht h, ct khc, ct cnh...) Trong khu cht h g v tre na thng xy ra cc tai nn sau: Cy ngc hng so vi hng chn nh ngc dc, ngang dc khi ko theo cc cy con theo lm cho cng nhn cht h khng c ng trnh c th gy cht ngi hoc tai nn. Trong qu trnh cht h cy gp tri gi to lm cho cy nhanh hn v khng ng hng theo mun gy nguy him cho ngi, my mc thit b. Tai nn do x l cy chng chy, cy ngc, cht h cc cy c bit (cy mc rng, cy nhiu nhnh, cy nghing, cy cong, cy lch tn, cy c khuyt tt, cy nhiu bnh v, cy mc trn sn qu dc...) khng ng k thut cht h. Cnh cy gy ri vo u vo ngi do dy leo, tn cnh cy lm gy gy ra tai nn cho cng nhn khai thc g. Khi ct cnh khng tun theo nhng trnh t hp l lm kp ca, xoay cy, xoay cnh gy mt thng bng cho ngi ct gy tai nn. 66 Hnh 1. ng vn chuyn g lm nghip Khi ct ngn cy, ct khc khng ng k thut, pht dn ng trnh khng cn thn, t th ng ct khng hp l khi cy t thn cy, khc g chuyn dch lao ko theo c thit b v ngi gy nguy him. Khi cht tre, na cao hn tm ngc khi cy t lao vo ngi gy tai nn cht ngi. Khi cht cc cy cong khng ng k thut sinh toc dc cy rt nguy him cho ngi cht h. 1.3. Trong khu vn xut g (ng cp, my ko, mng lao...) Hin tng t cp trong khi vn xut dn n cp vng vo ngi hoc g lao vo ngi. G tut khi cp do cc mi buc khng ng k thut dn n vng cp vo cng nhn ang vn hnh hoc g lao vo ngi trn a hnh dc trong iu kin sn xut lm nghip. G lao ra ngoi ng mng lao gy nguy him cho nhng ngi ang thao tc trn ng mng gy mt an ton. Cc my mc, thit b vn xut g do ng v tr ko khng ng k thut khi ko g dn n vic lt, tri my khi vn xut gy nguy him. Hin tng g, cnh cy trn cc mi ta luy lao, ri xung gy nguy him cho ngi v my mc thit b khi ko gom g v khi vn xut g trn cc ng vn xut trong rng. 1.4. Trong khu vn chuyn g (bc xp, d g ln xe v xung sng...) Do t vn chuyn trn ng trn trt, ti trng ca xe ln, do x dch v tr cht ti trn xe dn n kh nng iu khin xe trn ng kh khn (hin tng mt li), hin tng lt xe, hin tng tt g v pha sau khi ln dc, x g v pha trc khi xung dc, hin tng v lt xe... gy mt an ton cho xe v li ph xe. Hin tng t dy cp, xch nn b g v hin tng gy cc cc gi g (cc ke) lm cho g b ln, tt gy mt an ton. Hin tng sp cn bc, t cp nng ti khi ang bc, hin tng ri ti vo my mc, thit b v ngi khi ang lm cng vic bc d g. Hin tng u cc b g x, va vo thit b v con ngi trong tm vn ca cc thit b bc gy mt an ton cho ngi v thit b. Cc khc g trn cc ng g xp trn bi ln vo ngi v my mc thit b khi ang thc hin cng tc bc d g. Cc khc g khi ln xung sng ng cn b mng ln vo ngi di gy mt an ton. 67 Hnh 2. Xp g ti bi bng c gii Tai nn do nc cun i trong lc iu khin b mng, tu thuyn trong vn chuyn g bng ng thu. 1.5. Trong khu kho bi (ct khc, xp ng, bo qun...) G khi ct t xung chn, cc thit b ct khc v h tr khc gy tai nn v h hng thit b. G khng c chn chc chn ln vo ngi v my mc thit b trn kho bi trong khi hot ng. Cc ng g khng c k kch v neo gi chc chn, cc khc g ln vo ngi v my mc thit b trn bi g. Ng c, d ng vi thuc bo v thc vt trong qu trnh ngm tm, bo qun g trn kho g. 1.6. Trong khu ch bin g (ch bin c gii v ho hc...) Tai nn do cc b phn v c cu sn xut trong cc phn xng c kh, phn xng ch bin g gy nn nh cc c cu chuyn ng trc, khp ni chuyn ng, g, cc b phn chuyn ng tnh tin. Cc mnh dng c, vt liu gia cng vng bn ra nh cc dng c ct kim loi ct g, dng c mi nh bng g, mi, mn ca, dm g khi bm, cc thanh g, u g, phi g khi gia cng vng ra gy tai nn. Tai nn do in git khi tip xc vi cc my mc thit b b d r ra v khng ni mt bo v. Tai nn do bng nh bng do in, bng do tip xc vi cc thit b nng chy, cc ngun hi nc nng, kh nng ca cc thit b hn, cc thit b c, cc thit b sy g, cc thit b ni hi khi vn hnh v s dng chng. Tai nn do cc cht c cng nghip c s dng vi cc mc ch khc nhau c th xm nhp vo c th do qu trnh thao tc v tip xc nh trong cc khu s dng keo dn g trong sn xut vn nhn to (vn dm, vn dn, giy...), cc ha cht v cht c s dng trong khu ngm tm bo qun g v lm sn. Cc tai nn v bnh ngh nghip do bi cng nghip trong cc xng c kh, xng ch bin g c gii, xng ch bin ha hc gy nn gy cc tn thng c hc, cc loi bi c gy nhim c. Bi c th gy chy n hoc m in gy ngn mch in. Tai nn do cc thit b nng, cc thit b vn chuyn ni b cc phn xng gy nn nh do cu trc, ng gong, ng cp...khi vn chuyn nguyn liu, thnh phm, ph liu vo hoc ra khi phn xng sn xut. 68 Cc tai nn khc do chy, do n, do trn trt, vp ng khi i li... 1.7. Trong cng tc qun l, bo v rng Cc tai nn do b (ngi) lm tc tn cng trong khi lm nhim v bo v rng trong cc khu rng qun l. Tai nn do trn, trt ng khi tham gia vo cc hot ng bo v rng khi i li trn tuyn ng trn, dc. Tai nn khi cng nhn tham gia vo cng tc cha chy rng (thng b bng hoc ngt th...). Tai nn do cc loi cn trng, rn rt cn, cc loi sinh vt khc gy thng tch cho cn b, cng nhn trc tip tham gia vo cng tc tun tra bo v rng v cc hot ng chm sc rng khc. Tai nn do khi s dng cc loi thuc bo v thc vt vo cng tc chm sc bo v rng (pha thuc, phun thuc, bo qun v vn chuyn thuc bo v thc vt c hi). 2. Nguyn nhn, cch khc phc 2.1. Nguyn nhn Cng nhn tham gia cng tc trng, chm sc, v sinh rng khng c trang b y cc trang b bo h cn thit khi lm vic nh qun o bo h lao ng, giy tt, gang tay bo h, m bo h lao ng. Cng nhn hot ng trong lnh vc lm nghip khng c o to y cc quy trnh k thut an ton trong sn xut, quy trnh s dng cc thit b sn xut mt cch an ton. K thut cht h khng ng k thut nh k thut m ming, k thut ct gy, iu khin cy , v k thut cht h nhng cy c bit. Do tc ng ca cc iu kin t nhin khc nh dy leo pht cha ht, do tc ng ca gi lm cho cy khng ng hng, do cy khc vo... Khng tun th cc quy trnh an ton lao ng c quy nh cho tng khu sn xut trong rng. Do khng nm chc cc quy trnh s dng an ton cc loi my mc thit b dng trong cc khu sn xut lm nghip. Do tnh ch quan ca con ngi trong khi lm vic. Do cc iu kin khch quan khc em li trong qu trnh sn xut nh s thay i nhit , m, ma nng, gi bo v cc iu kin ngoi cnh khc. S dng, vn chuyn v bo qun thuc bo v thc vt, thuc kch thch khng tun theo cc ch dn v cc khuyn co ca nh sn xut cng nh cc quy trnh s dng an ton cc loi thuc bo v thc vt. My mc, thit b trong phn xng khng c kim tra thng xuyn tnh trng k thut nhm pht hin kp thi cc h hng sa cha hoc cc b phn bo v an ton cho cc chi tit trong qu trnh chuyn ng khng c kim tra thng xuyn, cc thit b khng c ni mt bo v dn n r r in. B tr mt bng sn xut trn kho bi, trong cc xng ch bin v cc dy truyn sn xut cha hp l cng d sinh ra mt an ton lao ng. 69 2.2. Cch khc phc - Phi tin hnh cng tc pht dn cy bi, dy leo xung quanh gc cy, to ng trnh khi cy ng yu cu k thut, cng nhn khai thc g phi c m bo him chc chn cng vi cc trang b bo h lao ng khc theo quy nh. - Cc hot ng khai thc, vn xut, vn chuyn, kho bi, ch bin l nhng cng vic ht sc nng nhc d sinh ra mt an ton lao ng, cng nhn hot ng trong nhng lnh vc ny phi c sc kho tt, c k nng ngh nghip cao, lun chp hnh tt k lut lao ng trong sn xut. - Thng xuyn trang b v cp nht cc kin thc v an ton lao ng cho ngi lao ng. Gio dc thc chp hnh k lut an ton lao ng, lun tun th cc quy trnh sn xut v cc ch dn ra trong khi s dng my mc thit b trong sn xut. - Cng nhn hot ng trong lnh vc lm nghip phi c trang b y cc trang b bo h lao ng cn thit theo quy nh c th trong tng loi cng vic. - B tr cc quy trnh sn xut phi nhp nhng v cn i trong mi khu cng vic, trnh chng cho, nh hng ln nhau. 3. S khc bit gia cc ma v ngnh 3.1. Trong khu lm sinh 3.1.1. Trong vic to cy con Tu theo phng php to cy con khc nhau nn khi lng cng vic v v s khc bit mang tnh thi v cng rt khc nhau. To cy con t ht: y l phng php ch yu hin nay c p dng trong ngnh lm nghip. Thi v x l v to cy con t ht thng bt u vo ma xun. Vo thi k ny thng nhit khng cao rt thch hp cho vic x l ht v gieo cy, tuy nhin thi im ny trong nm m rt cao, tri nhiu my m nn phn no cng nh hng n cng vic v an ton lao ng. Trong vic to cy con t ht khu x l ht cng nhn phi thng xuyn tip xc vi nc si, mt s cht axit nh axist Sunfuarit khi x l mt s loi ht (nh ht my...) do m cao li thng xuyn tip xc vi mi trng nc, axit d b mc mt s bnh v da. Hoc phi s dng mt s dng c th cng nh dao, ba v mt s loi my mc nh my mi x l tch v mt s loi ht cng (ht lim, ht trm) nn nguy c b in git do m cao d in qua v my mc hoc ti nn do chnh cc dng c th cng gy nn. To cy con bng cch gim hom: Thi v chnh ch yu trong 2 v, v xun thng thng 2, 3; v thu thng vo thng 6, 7. Cng vic trong cng on ny do cng nhn s dng cc cng c th cng nh dao ct, ko sc d gy tai nn; trong qu trnh ghp cng nhn phi tip xc vi cc loa ho cht kch thc ra r nh 2,4D, IAA, IBA d gy c hi nu khng c trang b bi cc trang bo h cn thit. To cy con t chit, ghp: Chit cy thng thc hin vo ma xun v ma thu; cn ghp cy ch yu thc hin vo ma xun. Trong qu trnh thc hin vic chit, ghp cy phi tip xc vi cc dng c sc bn nguy c gy tai nn rt cao nu khng thc hin ng yu cu k thut. To cy con t nui cy m: Cc dng c th cng nh dao, ko; cc my mc thit b khc phc v cho nui cy m. Cng vic nui cy m c thc hin quanh nm trong mi trng m bo c m v nhit v thng xuyn tip xc vi cc cht c hi nh hng n sc kho con ngi. 70 3.1.2. Trong cng tc trng rng T khu dn thc b n lm t bn phn v trng cy u c thc hin 2 v trong nm. V xun thi v ny nhit thp, m t d sinh m au, trong qu trnh i li v vn chuyn trn a hnh dc thc b phc tp d gy trn trt cho ngi v thit b. m cao to iu kin cho vic pht trin cc loi nm, cn trng tc ng n con ngi trong khi lm vic. V thu nhit cao, nng gt, d ma bo trong rng nh hng n sc kho con ngi nguy c mt an ton lao ng cao. Ngoi ra trong qu trnh lm t cuc h trng cy trn a hnh dc, trn trt d sinh tai nn. Nu p dng cc my mc thit b vo lm t trn a hnh dc nu khng chp hnh tt cc quy nh an ton k thut khi s dng my mc s rt nguy him. 3.1.3. Trong cng tc chm sc, nui dng rng Thng thc hin theo quy trnh chm sc ring t khu xi t vun gc n pht dy leo, ta tha, cht nui dng, phun thuc bo v phi thc hin theo ng quy trnh. Trong mi khu cng vic nu khng ch s dn n mt an ton lao ng do cc cng c th cng, my mc thit b khi s dng, cc iu kin ngoi cnh v nhim c khi phu thuc bo v thc vt. 3.1.4. Trong cng tc bo v rng Thng cng tc bo v s ph hoi ca ng vt v con ngi c thc hin quanh nm; cng tc phun thuc bo v thc hin theo tng thi im nht nh; cng tc phng chng chy rng lun c cao hng u; cn cng tc chng chy rng ch din ra tu tng lc, tng ni do con ngi hoc thin nhin em n v tp trung nht thi k hanh kh. Nguy c mt an ton lao ng do ngi, sc vt tn cng, do nhim c vi thuc bo v thc vt v do chy rng nhit cao. 3.2. Trong khu khai thc, vn xut, vn chuyn Khi lng cng vic khai thc g tp trung ch yu vo ma kh thng cui nm. K hoch khai thc thng tp trung vo thi k ny l ch yu. Vo thi im ny iu kin kh hu v thi tit rt thun tin cho tt c cc khu t khai thc, vn xut, kho bi v vn chuyn. Thi k ny cng l lc tp trung mt khi lng my mc thit b v nhn lc ln hot ng trong rng, trn kho bi v trn cc tuyn ng vn chuyn, v vy nguy c mt an ton lao ng trong cc khu khai thc, vn xut v vn chuyn l rt cao nu khng ch thc hin cc nguyn tc, quy nh v an ton lao ng trong tng khu sn xut. 3.3. Trong khu ch bin Cng vic thng din ra quanh nm, tu thuc vo khi lng, k hoch sn xut my mc thit b, mi trng lm vic v dy chuyn cng ngh sn xut, kh nng nhn thc v k thut an ton lao ng ca cng nhn trong cc x nghip, nh my khc nhau m nguy c mt an ton lao ng s khc nhau. Nhn chung mi trng lm vic trong cc x nghip, nh my ch bin chu nh hng ca nhiu yu t nh nhit , c hi, bui, ting n... cng l mt trong cc nguy c mang tnh ngh nghip v mt an ton lao ng cao. 71 Phn 7: An Ton V Hng Dn An Ton Lao ng Trong Lm Nghip 1. Cc yu t nguy him Ty tng loi cng vic v iu kin lm vic c th, bao gi cng xut hin cc yu t vt cht c nh hng xu, nguy him c nguy c gy tai nn hoc bnh ngh nghip cho ngi lao ng, ngi ta thng gi chng l cc yu t nguy him v c hi. Cc yu t l: - Cc yu t vt l: Nhit , m, vi kh hu, ting n, dung ng, dao ng, cc bc x c hi, cc loi bi xut hin trong sn xut... Vi kh hu l tng hp cc yu t nhit , m, bc x nhit, vn tc gi. Vi kh hu nng l ni c nhit bng v ln hn 320 C (i vi lao ng nh: 340 C; lao ng nng: 300 C). Vi kh hu lnh l ni c nhit bng v nh hn 180 C (i vi lao ng nh: 200 C; lao ng nng: 160 C) Ngun pht sinh ra vi kh hu: L t, l sy, cc ni hi; nh nng mt tri ma h; thi tit lnh ma ng. nh hng n sc kho ngi lao ng: Gy say nng, say nng, chut rt, kit sc (mt l), mt mui, mt nc. Ma lnh gy vim ng h hp, cc. Vim da, chy da do tip xc vi nh nng mt tri. Vim khp, cc loi bnh v da liu.... - Bi l cc ht rn, nh c kch thc di 100 m m, trong ng lu l bi h hp c kch thc di 5 mm c th vo ti ph nang, ng li gy ra cc bnh bi phi ngh nghip. Trong cc hot ng lm nghip ch yu tip xc vi cc bi ca cc hn hp ho cht dng trong ch bin, trong bo qun lm sn v trong cng tc bo v rng. Cc loi bi khc nh bi hu c v bi sinh hc. Ngun gc, cc ngh hoc cng vic c nhiu bi: Bi trong qu trnh lm t trng rng, thi cng ng vn xut v vn chuyn g. Bi pht sinh khi lm v sinh my mc trong khai thc, ch bin, trng rng. Bi pht sinh trong cc nh xng ch bin g v lm sn, kho tng bo qun g v lm sn. Bi xut hin trong khi s dng thuc bo v thc vt, phn bn. Bi tho mc v hu c nh bi xut hin khi thu hi ht cy v cc loi dc liu... Bi sinh hc sinh nh vi sinh vt, nha bo, nm mc trong trng rng, nui cy m, ghp cy, trong khi chm sc v bo v rng.. - Cc yu t ha hc: Cc cht c hi trong sn xut (thuc ngm tm bo qun g, cc loi ha cht s dng trong sn xut vn nhn to, cc loi dung mi...), cc loi hi, cc loi kh c thi ra trong qu trnh sn xut, cc loi bi c, cc cht phng x... Ho cht lm nghip xm nhp vo c th bng con ng: ng h hp do khi ht th, ho cht theo khng kh vo mi hoc ming, qua hng, xung kh qun, vo ti phi v lng ng ti phi hoc qua thnh mch mu vo mu. ng da do ho cht dy dnh ln da, thm nhp qua da v tc thm nhp s nhanh hn qua ch da b tn thng. ng tiu ho do ho cht thm nhp vo c th qua ng tiu ho qua vic n ung hoc ht thuc khi tay b nhim bn; do n ung thc phm b nhim c bi hoc hi ho cht trong khng kh; do ht th phi cc ht bi ho cht vo hng v nut n; do n ung nhm phi ho cht... nh hng ca ho cht lm nghip n sc khe di cc dng Nhim c cp tnh: Tip xc vi cc cht c c tnh mnh, nng cao trong mt thi gian ngn l c th b nhim c cp tnh. 72 Nhim c mn tnh: Tip xc vi cc cht c c tnh nh, nng thp trong mt thi gian di c th b nhim c mn tnh. - Do cc b phn truyn ng v chuyn ng thiu thit b che chn nh ai dy chuyn, trc my ca my ko, my bm dm, my nghin dm, my trn dm, my ca vng, ca sc, ca a, my bo, my khoan, ca xng, ti cp, cn trc... - Tip xc vi cc b phn lm vic ca my trong qu trnh lm vic nh li ca a, li ca vng, mi khoan, li bo, li phay, li san... - Ting n do cc loi my mc dng trong khai thc, ch bin, bc xp v vn chuyn lm sn...tc hi ti h thn kinh gy mt mi, suy nhc thn kinh, lm nng thm mt s bnh, gim nng sut lao ng v tng t l tai nn lao ng. Ting n c th gy tai hoc ic ngi tip xc. - Cc ngun rung c th hai dng sau: Rung cc b do cc my mc dng trong lm nghip iu khin bng tay nh ca xng, my mi, my khoan, my nh bng, my o h trng rng, my phun thuc tr su bnh hi cy rng... Rung ton thn: Li my ko vn xut g, my bc xp, cc loi thit b vn chuyn g v lm sn... Tip xc vi rung tn s cao c th mc bnh rung ngh nghip. Tip xc vi rung tn s thp mc bnh c tnh ngh nghip, giai on nh c th hi phc. giai on nng sinh cc bnh ngh nghip. - in git do dy dn in h hoc cc b phn ca my, thit b b d in hoc do khng c ni t, ni khng ng qui nh hoc do tu tin s dng in vo mc ch by chut, bt c... - Cc yu t vi sinh vt, vi sinh vt: Nh cc loi vi khun, siu vi khun, k sinh trng, cn trng, nm c, rn, rt, cc loi ng vt hoang d c hi. Trong iu kin sn xut lm nghip cc yu t ny thng xuyn xut hin gy nguy hi cho ngi lao ng. Trong mi trng lao ng lm nghip v mi trng sng rng ni, ngi lao ng c th tip xc vi sinh vt c hi nh cn trng, k sinh trng, vi khun, vi trng trong khi lm t trng rng, chm sc rng, lm v sinh rng, trong cng tc bo v rng, trong khai thc lm sn v c th mc cc bnh nguy Hnh 8 . T- th lao ng bt li trong rng 73 him nh t, l, thng hn, vim phi, st rt, cc bnh do ly t sinh vt, bnh da liu do vi khun hoc nm, rn rt cn, ong t, tn cng ca ng vt hoang d... - Cc yu t bt li v t th lao ng, khng tin nghi do iu kin lao ng trong rng c iu kin m v nhit thay i, cng vic lao ng nng nhc hoc do iu kin lm vic trong cc xng ch bin cht hp, khng tin nghi do khng gian ch lm vic-phn xng hn ch mt v sinh. - Cc yu t tm l khng thun li nht l ngh rng thng khng c coi trng, nng sut lao ng thp, thu nhp thp, iu kin i li, lm vic kh khn vt v, kh nng mt an ton lao ng cao. Ngh nghip c sc thu ht thp li i hi c sc lao ng hn cc ngnh ngh khc. y cng l nhng yu t gy nh hng ln v mt tm l i vi ngi lao ng. - i tng cng vic ngh nghip cng l mt trong nhng yu t gy nguy him nh loi hng ha sn xut c nhng c trng khc vi cc ngnh sn xut khc trong iu kin sn xut bt li v trong mt s loi cng vic li ph thuc nhiu vo iu kin t nhin, iu kin khch quan. - Cng ngh, k thut p dng trong ngnh lm nghip cha ci thin ng k iu kin lm vic cho ngi lao ng cng l mt trong cc yu t nguy hi n ngi lao ng. 2. Cc bin php v phng tin k thut an ton 2.1. Cc bin php m bo an ton lao ng trong sn xut 2.1.1. Bin php v k thut cng ngh Cn p dng nhng cng ngh v k thut tin tin vo cc hot ng sn xut lm nghip nh c gii ha v t ng ha dn tng khu cng vic, trong tng lai s c gii ha v t ng ha cc khu cng vic nng nhc gim dn s lao ng th cng. Ngoi ra, trong cc khu cng vic lin quan n c hi nn s dng nhng cht khng c hi hoc t c hi thay dn cho nhng cht c tnh c cao. - Trong khu trng rng, chm sc, bo v rng: Tng bc c gii ho cc khu cuc h trng cy (cc loi my dn thc b, my o gc cy, my o h...) nu iu kin a hnh cho php gim bt khi lng cng vic nng nhc, c gii ho vn m trong khu ng bu, vn chuyn cy con. Trong khu v sinh rng, pht lung, ta tha s dng cc thit b c gii vo c gii ho khu ny (my pht quang, my pht cy bi, my mc ta tha...). - Trong khu khai thc, vn chuyn lm sn: C gii ho trong cc khu cht h, ct cnh ngn, ct khc (s dng ca xng, my khai thc lin hp...). C gii ho cc khu vn xut cho nng sut lao ng cao gim thiu tc ng mi trng v gim thiu cc tai nn c th xy ra. C gii ho cc khu bc xp, khu vn chuyn (s dng cc thit b bc xp v vn chuyn chuyn dng), b tr t chc iu hnh vn chuyn hp l, cng tc chm sc bo dng thit b v ng vn chuyn thng xuyn m bo an ton trong vn chuyn. - Trong khu ch bin lm sn: B tr mt bng sn xut hp l - Trong khu bo qun lm sn: 2.1.2. Bin php k thut v sinh Cc bin php k thut c nhn nh ci tin h thng thng gi, ci tin h thng chiu sng, b tr ca lm vic hp l, b tr mt bng v khng gian lm vic hp l l nhng bin php gp phn ci thin iu kin lm vic cho cng nhn lm nghip. 74 Hnh 9. Trang b bo h lao ng trong khai thc g 2.1.3. Bin php phng h c nhn y l bin php h tr, nhng trong nhiu trng hp, khi p dng cc bin php ci tin cng ngh, bin php k thut v sinh thc hin cha c th n ng vai tr ch yu trong vic m bo an ton cho cng nhn trong sn xut lm nghip v phng cc bnh ngh nghip. Ty theo tng loi v tng khu cng vic trong sn xut lm nghip, mi ngi cng nhn s c trang b cc dng c trang b bo h thch hp m bo an ton trong sn xut. - Trong khu trng rng, chm sc, bo v rng. - Trong khu khai thc, vn chuyn lm sn. - Trong khu ch bin lm sn. - Trong khu bo qun lm sn. 2.1.4. Bin php t chc lao ng khoa hc Thc hin vic phn cng lao ng hp l theo iu kin sc khe v c im sinh l ca cng nhn v theo c im ca tng loi cng vic. Tm ra nhng nhng bin php ci tin lm cho lao ng bt nng nhc, tiu hao nng lng t hn, hoc lm cho lao ng thch nghi c vi con ngi v con ngi thch nghi c vi cng c sn xut mi va c nng sut lao ng cao li va an ton lao ng. Mt s khu cng vic c th trong sn xut lm nghip nn t chc sn xut theo hng chuyn mn ha cao va gp phn tng nng sut lao ng li mang tnh chuyn nghip cao gim thiu nhng tai nn ng tic c th xy ra (nh cc khu khai thc g, khu vn xut g, khu vn chuyn bc xp g, khu ch bin bo qun lm sn). 2.1.5. Bin php y t bo v sc khe Bao gm vic kim tra sc khe cng nhn, khm tuyn khng chn ngi mc mt s bnh no vo lm vic trong nhng khu cng vic v nhng ni c nhng yu t bt li cho sc khe v s lm cho bnh nng thm d dn n mc bnh ngh nghip. i vi cc cng vic lin quan n c hi, cng vic nng nhc cn tin hnh khm bnh nh k cho cng nhn nhm pht hin sm cc bnh ngh nghip v nhng bnh mn tnh khc kp thi c nhng bin php gii quyt. 75 Vic theo di sc khe cho cng nhn mt cch lin tc nh vy mi qun l, bo v c sc lao ng, ko di tui i v tui ngh cho cng nhn. Ngoi ra, phi tin hnh gim nh kh nng lao ng v hng dn phc hi kh nng lao ng cho cng nhn mc tai nn lao ng, bnh ngh nghip v cc bnh mn tnh khc. Thng xuyn kim tra v sinh an ton lao ng v cung cp y thc n, nc ung m bo cht lng cho cng nhn lm vic vi cc cht c hi. 2.2. Bin php tng cng cng tc gio dc, hun luyn v an ton lao ng Tai nn lao ng xy ra nc ta hin nay cng nh trong ngnh lm nghip thng trn 70% s v tai nn lao ng l do nguyn nhn khng chp hnh nghim chnh cc quy trnh an ton v v sinh lao ng. iu ny cng l do ngi lao ng hoc ngi s dng lao ng khng c hun luyn y , theo ng quy nh v an ton v v sinh lao ng, khng thng xuyn cp nht, t chc qun trit, gic ng cc nguyn tc, cc quy nh v an ton lao ng cho ngi lao ng. Hun luyn an ton lao ng v v sinh lao ng l mt trong nhng bin php phng trnh cc tai nn lao ng v bnh ngh nghip c hiu qu rt cao nhng rt kinh t, khng i hi nhiu kinh ph nht l i vi lao ng lm nghip do iu kin lm vic v loi hnh cng vic c tnh c th nn s c tc dng thit thc hn. Cng tc hun luyn an ton lao ng cn t c cc yu cu c bn sau y: - Tt c mi ngi tham gia qu trnh lao ng sn xut u phi c hun luyn y v an ton lao ng v v sinh lao ng. Trong , ngi lao ng mi tuyn dng phi c hun luyn chung doanh nghip, x nghip, lm trng, phi c hun luyn an ton theo ngh nghip ti cc phn xng v t sn xut ni ngi lao ng trc tip tham gia sn xut. - i vi nhng ngi lao ng v ang lm vic ti doanh nghip, x nghip, lm trng... hng nm (6 thng ty theo yu cu nghim ngt v an ton ca ngh nghip) phi c hun luyn nh k nhm cng c nhng kin thc v an ton lao ng. - Phi c k hoch hun luyn hng nm trong nu r thi gian hun luyn, s ngi hun luyn ln u, s ngi hun luyn li. - Phi c y h s hun luyn theo ng quy nh nh s ng k hun luyn, bin bn hun luyn, danh sch kt qu hun luyn... - Phi m bo hun luyn y cc ni dung quy nh nh mc ch, ngha ca cng tc an ton v sinh lao ng, cc ni dung c bn php lut ch chnh sch bo h lao ng, cc quy trnh quy phm an ton, cc bin php t chc qun l sn xut, lm vic an ton v sinh... - Phi m bo cht lng hun luyn nh t chc qun l cht ch, b tr ging vin c cht lng, cung cp y ti liu p ng yu cu hun luyn, t chc kim tra, st hch nghim tc, cp chng ch hoc ghi kt qu vo s theo di hun luyn i vi nhng ngi kim tra t yu cu. 3. Thit lp h thng kim sot an ton lao ng Mc tiu chnh ca vic thit lp h thng kim sot an ton lao ng l vic kim sot cc mi nguy him ln l m bo ngi s dng lao ng thc hin ton b cc bin php kim tra, kim sot cn thit sau khi nh gi cc yu t nguy him v ri ro ca h thng thit b v cng vic. Phi thu thp mt cch c h thng v lp h s lu tr v thit b v cc mi nguy him ca chng, cc bin php cn thc hin trong mi loi cng vic thc hin trong ngnh lm nghip m bo an ton lao ng. 76 1. Nn c mt b phn (c quan hoc ban) an ton lao ng ca B: son tho ra cc chnh sch, cc quy nh nhm thc hin h thng kim sot cc mi nguy him. B phn ny c trch nhim gii quyt tt c cc cng vic c lin quan n sc khe, bo v ngi lao ng trong lm nghip, c lin quan n cc c quan khc nh cc B: Lao ng-Thng binh v X hi, Y t, Ti nguyn v Mi trng, Cng nghip... 2. Xc nh cc c quan u mi: C quan u mi s thc hin cc bc khi u trong vic thnh lp h thng kim sot cc mi nguy him ln. C quan ny s cng phi hp vi c quan cp trn son tho cc ni quy, quy nh, t chc ly kin ca cc cng ty, lm trng, x nghip, cc t chc cng nhn khc c lin quan v theo di cc xut ti khi ban hnh. 3. Xem xt nh gi c s h tng: Ban (c quan) an ton ca B s xem xt v nh gi c s h tng v cc hot ng lm nghip c nguy hi v kh nng kim sot chng. Cn xem xt trn cc mt: Cc loi nguy hi v mc nguy hi ca cc ngnh ngh trong lm nghip; cc mi nguy him chnh v ph bin; cc iu kin v an ton v v sinh; c s h tng phc v cho cng tc an ton (cc c quan thanh tra, cc c quan chc nng, cc b phn v sinh an ton...); phm vi v s qun l ca cc c quan doanh nghip, lm trng, x nghip... c cam kt v an ton v sinh; cc tai nn v bnh ngh nghip... 4. Xem xt nh gi cc quy nh ca Nh nc: C quan u mi s xut vic xem xt v nh gi cc iu lut v cc quy nh ca Quc gia v an ton v sinh cng nghip ni chung cng nh an ton v sinh lao ng trong lm nghip ni ring, v an ton ca cc loi my mc, thit b, vt t, cc cht c mi nguy him ln. Vic xem xt s bao gm c cng tc thanh tra ca cc c quan chc nng. 5. Thnh lp nhm chuyn gia v t t vn: Nhm chuyn gia c thnh lp v c ti tr bi mt hoc nhiu c quan chc nng. Nhm chuyn gia s c vn v cc vn c th v son tho cc hng dn, quy tc thc hnh v cc ti liu khc v thc hin kim sot cc mi nguy him. Cng cn c mt n v t vn cung cp v gip v k thut v cung cp cc thng tin c bit. n v ny s t vn cho cc thanh tra, cc nh qun l v cng nhn thc hin vic kim sot cc mi nguy him trong cc cng vic hng ngy trong cc lnh vc hot ng lm nghip. 6. Nng cao nhn thc: Cc yu t nguy him trong cc hot ng lm nghip ch c th kim sot khi ton b nhng ngi c lin quan phi c nhn thc y v chng, c yu cu kim sot chng v cch thc thc hin. Cc nh qun l v cng nhn sinh sng v lm vic trong cc hot ng ny phi nhn thc c nhng tai nn lao ng trong lnh vc cng vic ca h c th c phng trnh thng qua cc thng tin chnh xc, ch th, vic hun luyn v cc quy trnh chnh xc v h phi tun theo cc quy nh v an ton. 7. T chc cc chng trnh hun luyn: Cc c quan, n v phi t chc cc chng trnh, cc kho hun luyn v h thng kim sot cc mi nguy hi vi cc ngnh c lin quan, vi cc t chc ca ngi s dng lao ng (lm trng, cng ty, x nghip...). 8. Ban hnh cc hng dn: Khi c nhng quy nh v h thng cc mi nguy him trong lao ng lm nghip, cc c quan chc nng phi son tho cc hng dn v nhn din v thng bo v cc h thng thit b, cng vic c mi nguy him ln, vit cc bo co an ton, nh gi cc mi nguy him v chun b cc k hoch khn cp. 9. Tng cng kh nng thanh tra: Cc cng vic, cc my mc thit b c mi nguy him ln phi c thanh tra nh k hng nm vi ln tu theo tng loi cng vic v my 77 mc lm c s cho vic nh gi cc mi nguy hi v mt an ton trong cng vic, gip cho vic kim sot an ton lao ng v v sinh ngh nghip c tt hn. 10. Thc y hot ng ti c s (doanh nghip, x nghip, lm trng, cng ty...): Ngi s dng lao ng phi thit lp mt h thng h s kim sot cc mi nguy him, cc nguy c mt an ton trong lao ng lm nghip ca h, ghi chp tt c cc bin php an ton ca h, m bo rng cc thng tin c lin quan c th c ly ra khi cn thit. Thng tin t h thng h s s c tng hp a vo h s bo co an ton. 11. Thm tra bo co an ton: Bo co an ton phi c cc c quan chc nng thm tra, tt nht l c cc thanh tra chuyn ngnh thc hin, nhng ngi c hiu bit v my mc thit b v lnh vc cng vic lm nghip s c nhng nh gi mt cch chnh xc hn. Cc kt lun trong qu trnh thanh tra mi c s nh gi vic thc hin quy nh an ton ti c s ng hay cha, nhng kt lun v tn ti v kin ngh i vi c s. 12. Lp k hoch cp cu khn cp bn ngoi: K hoch cp cu khn cp bn ngoi l nhn t mu cht ca h thng kim sot cc mi nguy him ln trong lao ng ngh nghip lm nghip v my mc thit b s dng trong lm nghip. K hoch ny c xc lp trn c s c xc nh ca cc nh qun l my mc, thit b v cc cng vic nh trong cc ti liu v kim sot, m t, nh gi cc mi nguy him trong bo co an ton. K hoch ny phi c cp nht thng xuyn cho ph hp vi tnh cht v s thay i ca cng vic. 13. Thit lp h thng gim st: Vic thit lp h thng gim st an ton lao ng gip cho vic pht hin nhanh cc nguyn nhn mt an ton lao ng v cc mi nguy hi c th xy ra kp thi c k hoch x l, ng ph mi tnh hung bt trc, nhm gim thiu nhng thit hi v nguy c mt an ton lao ng cng nh cc thit hi vt cht khc. 14. Bo co v iu tra tai nn: Nhm tng kt, c rt kinh nghim t c k hoch cng nh phng n phng trnh v kp thi c nhng bin php gim st ngn nga cc thit hi v vt cht v ngi c th em li. Cc bo co v tai nn phi trung thc, y v r rng. 4. Hng dn an ton lao ng trong khai thc, vn xut, vn chuyn g v lm sn 4.1. An ton lao ng trong cht h g, tre, na m bo an ton lao ng cho ngi v my mc thit b dng trong cht h g v lm sn, m bo iu kin cho sn xut c lin tc v nng cao nng sut cn phi chp hnh ni quy an ton di y: - Cc hot ng khai thc ch c bt u khi m bo rng khng cn ngi no trong vng nguy him ca khu vc khai thc. - Cy v hng cy phi c thng bo trc cho mi ngi lm vic trong khu vc khai thc g bit c bin php phng trnh an ton khi cy . Khi cy bt u di chuyn v , cng nhn iu khin ca xng phi dng ca v quan st xem mi ngi ng v tr an ton cha mi tip tc iu khin cy ng hng. Khi cy cng nhn iu khin ca cng phi quan st khu vc ngoi vng hng cy xem cc nguy him do cnh cy, thn cy b gy v ri xung. Phi dng ca v di chuyn n v tr an ton v ch r cy b tch, gy v t khi cy gy mt an ton. 78 Hnh 10. Hng dn k thut trong khai thc g bng ca xng - Khi s dng ca xng vo cht h g, cng nhn khai thc g khng c php lm vic mt mnh, phi c ngi gip vic h tr trong vic dn gc cy, pht ng trnh, ct dy leo, quan st v thng bo cho ngi h cy cc tnh hung xu c th xy ra kp thi x l. - Dng c cht h nh ru, ba, dao, ca phi c chun b y v kim tra k cng v cc yu cu k thut ri mi a vo cht h. Tuyt i khng ngi khc (tr cn b k thut) s dng dng c ca mnh, nht l cc cc cng c, my mc c gii. - Khi hai hay nhiu nhm (t) khai thc g cng hot ng ng thi ti mt khu khai thc th cc nhm (t) phi lm vic trn cng iu kin a hnh. Khong cch lm vic an ton gia cc nhm (t) khai thc g phi cch nhau t nht 3 ln chiu cao trung bnh ca ca cy cht h trong khu khai thc. - Cc khu rng cht h phi c bin bo cm ca rng cnh bo cho ngi khc khi i qua cc khu vc khai thc. Trc khi cy khong 3 n 5 pht phi bo hiu bng kng, ci hay h to 3 ln cy mi ngi xung quanh bit trnh. - C ly cht h gia cc nhm, t cn gi khong cch l 100 mt a hnh bng v 150 mt a hnh tng i dc. Cm khng mt t, nhm cht h cy chn dc v mt t, nhm cht h cy nh dc d c ly cht h nu trn m bo. - Khi cht cy no, khu vc no phi cht xong cy y, khu vc y mi c di chuyn sang cht cy khc, khu vc khc. - Khng c cht h cy trong lc tri ma to, gi trn cp 4, tri ma mi tnh, tri ma bo hoc tri nhiu my m. Khng c i li trong rng khi ma to gi ln phng cnh cy, thn cy gy ri vo ngi. - Khi tin hnh cht h g cn tun th yu cu k thut v cht h cy nh pht dn xung quanh gc cy, pht dy leo bi rm, lm ng trnh, chn hng cy , cht m ming, ct gy v iu khin cy ng hng, gim thiu tc ng n mi trng v cy con trong rng. Nhng cy c bit (cy cong, cy c tt, cy lch tn, cy rng rut, cy nhiu bnh v, cy nghing nhiu, cy nhiu nhnh to, cht h cy trn sn ni qu dc trn 15 , cy cht ng,...) phi tun th theo k thut cht h ring. - Khi ct cnh, ngn cng nhn phi ch ng v tr trnh cnh v ngn cng nh thn cy c th gy nguy him cho thit b v chn ngi; phi ng mi dc pha trn ct. - Ch c tin hnh ct khc khi c dn sch cnh ngn, cy bi v khng cn mi nguy him no i vi ngi khi ct. phng g ln khi ct khc trn a hnh dc, ngi ct khc phi ng pha trn mi dc. Ct khc cho cc thn cy dng c bit phi 79 Hnh 11. Hng dn an ton lao ng trong khai thc g tun th theo quy trnh ct khc cho nhng cy c bit. Khng c chn di khc g ang ct. - Khi cy b chng chy cm khng c cht cy th hai gii quyt. Nn bo ngay vi cn b k thut bit cng bn bc tm bin php gii quyt. Khi ct cnh, ct ngn, ct khc phi ch thc hin theo ng quy trnh k thut v khu chun b phi y , tht tt trnh g bt, toc hay ln ngi v my mc thit b. Khi ct ngn, ct khc trn a hnh dc phi ng trn pha dc m bo an ton cho my mc v ngi. - i vi cc thit b cht h g phi lun trong trng thi k thut tt. Phi thng xuyn chm sc, bo dng theo quy trnh hng dn s dng. Khi khi ng ca khng xch ca tip xc vi t, , cnh cy... va bo v xch ca, va m bo an ton cho ngi s dng. - Khi di chuyn ca xng t cy ny sang cy khc cht h tip, nu c ly di chuyn ngn ca c th ch khng ti khng cn phi tt ca nhng xch ca phi c kha an ton, nu c ly di chuyn t cy ny n cy khc xa m bo an ton tt nht tt ng c v khi ng li. - Cng nhn tham gia cc hot ng khai thc g phi c trang b y cc trang b bo h lao ng nh qun o bo h, giy tt bo h, m bo h v cc trang b bo h lao ng khc theo yu cu v k thut cht h g. - Trc khi tin hnh khai thc g phi t chc hc tp cho mi ngi v k thut an ton lao ng v cc quy nh chung v an ton lao ng ca c khu khai thc do B ban hnh. 4.2. An ton lao ng trong vn xut g v lm sn 4.2.1. An ton lao ng trong lao g Trc khi lao g cn thit phi kim tra dc tuyn lao pht hin nhng h hng ca y v thnh mng lao. Nu thy h hng phi nh ch vic lao g sa cha. Khu vc cui mng lao phi c c hiu hay bin bo t ti nhng ni c kh nng c ngi hay sc vt qua li. 80 Trc khi lao g phi c hiu lnh r rng, kt thc mi t lao g cng phi c hiu lnh r rng cho nhng ngi lm vic cui mng lao ch ng c cng vic ca mnh. Khi g b tc nghn trong lng mng phi c bin php x l kp thi bng cch xeo bn cho khc g thot khi v tr nguy him, cm khng c lao khc g khc gii quyt trng hp tc nghn dc ng v lm nh vy c th gy h hng thnh v y lng mng hoc gy tc nghn thm. Khi thy tc ca cy g lao khng bnh thng mt on mng no th cn thit phi xem xt k nguyn nhn v tm bin php x l kp thi. Cc khc g cn c o ht u bnh v cc mt g cho phng m bo cho cy g c chuyn ng m thun, n nh trong lng mng trnh b lc v b dng li dc ng. Cng nhn tham gia vo hot ng lao g phi lun thc hin ng quy trnh k thut an ton lao ng, phi thng nht cc k hiu hiu lnh v phi c trang b y cc trang b bo h nh m, giy, tt, qun o bo h m bo an ton lao ng. 4.2.2. An ton lao ng trong vn xut g bng my ko Vn xut g bng my ko l mt trong nhng cng vic d xy ra tai nn, v vy ngi tham gia cng vic vn xut bng my ko ngoi vic tun th cc iu l an ton chung trong sn xut cn phi chp hnh nhng quy nh an ton di y: - Cng nhn vn hnh my v cng nhn phc v phi c o to qua cc trng lp chuyn mn c nghip v k thut v vn xut g, s dng my ko, c bng li v cp bc k thut. - Khi tin hnh vn hnh my ko vn xut g, cng nhn phi c trang b y cc trang b bo h cn thit nh: Qun o bo h lao ng, giy tt, gng tay bo h cng nh cc trang b cn thit khc m bo an ton lao ng trong qu trnh vn xut g. - Khng c tin hnh cng vic vn xut g khu vc cn ang cht h, nht l cc khu vc c a hnh dc. - Khi buc, tho g, ko g phi thc hin theo ng yu cu k thut v phi c hiu lnh thng nht nhm hn ch thp nht nhng ri ro c th xy ra. - nhng khu vc vn xut c a hnh phc tp, dc cao, nhiu khe sui, my ko vn xut v cc thit b ph tr phi y cc tnh nng k thut, phi tuyt i an ton. Khi s dng my ko nng nghip vo vn xut g phi c kt cu an ton cho ngi li v thit b khi vn xut trong iu kin rng ni. - Phi chp hnh y ni quy, ch kim tra, chm sc bo dng, sa cha thng xuyn v nh k. Nu my ko khng t tiu chun k thut cm khng c a vo vn xut g. - Cng nhn tham gia vo hot ng vn xut g bng my ko phi lun thc hin ng quy trnh k thut an ton lao ng, phi thng nht cc k hiu hiu lnh m bo an ton lao ng. 4.2.3. An ton lao ng trong vn xut g bng ng cp - ng cp vn xut g l thit b hon ton t trn cao, v vy khi s dng cn tun theo mt s nguyn tc v an ton lao ng di y: 81 - Phi thng xuyn kim tra sc cng ca cp , nu thy c hin tng xe chuyn ng chm v lc ngang tc l sc cng ca cp b gim, cn thit phi tin hnh cng li. - Phi tin hnh chm sc thng xuyn v nh k dy cp v cc b phn khc ca ng cp theo yu cu k thut ca ng cp trnh h hng t xut c th xy ra trong qu trnh ko g v c th gy tai nn. - Cm khng c cho ngi u bm trn xe ch g i li trn ng cp. - Phi c y h thng thng tin lin lc gia hai im u v cui ca ng cp hn ch tai nn lao ng cho cng nhn bc d g. - Vi cc ng cp lao t do, nht thit phi c bin bo hiu khu vc cui ng lao. Trc khi lao g cn phi h hiu lnh bo cho nhng ngi pha cui ung cp trnh v ni an ton trc khi lao g. Ch khi c hiu lnh pha cui ng cp mi cho php bt u lao. - Cng nhn tham gia vo hot ng vn xut g bng ng cp phi lun thc hin ng quy trnh k thut an ton lao ng, phi thng nht cc k hiu, hiu lnh v phi c trang b y cc trang b bo h nh m, giy, tt, qun o bo h m bo an ton lao ng. 4.3. An ton lao ng trn kho g qu trnh sn xut trn kho g c cn i, nhp nhng, lin tc v an ton lao ng, em li hiu qu kinh t cao, ngoi vic t chc, sp xp, b tr qu trnh cng ngh mt cch hp l, khoa hc m cn phi m bo an ton lao ng cho ngi v my mc thit b trn kho g. Mun vy trong qu trnh t chc sn xut trn kho g cn thc hin theo cc quy nh di y: - My mc thit b s dng trn kho g phi thc hin y cc ni quy v ch s dng, bo qun, chm sc k thut v c ly lm vic an ton i vi mi loi my mc thit b. - Khi b tr cc khu sn xut trn kho g phi tun theo ng quy trnh cng ngh sn xut c la chn, tuyt i khng khu n cn tr hoc lm nh hng n sn xut ca khu kia. Phi xy dng ni quy, quy nh an ton cho tng khu sn xut v cho c kho g. - Cc cng trnh sn xut chnh, ph nh ng vn xut, phn loi, xp ng, nh xng, kho tng...khi xy dng phi m bo y cc ch tiu k thut v c ly quy nh v khong cch an ton. - Cc ng g phi c b tr, k chn chc chn trnh hin tng g ln, gy nguy him cho ngi v thit b khi lm vic trn kho g. 82 4.4. An ton lao ng trong vn chuyn g v lm sn bng ng t 4.4.1. Yu cu an ton i vi cc thit b bc d, vn chuyn t v r moc dng trong lm nghip vn chuyn g thng khng c thng xe. G hoc tre, na c bc xp ln sn xe v sn r moc. gi cho g v tre, na khng ln ra khi sn xe, xe chuyn ng n nh trn ng ngi ta lm cc cc chn thay cho thnh xe v thnh r moc (cn gi l cc ke) cc cc ny thng lm bng g c tnh cht c l cao (thng g nhm 2) v c th tho lp d dng to iu kin cho qu trnh bc, xp g ln xe cng nh d g xung xe. Trong mt s trng hp cc ke c lm bng thp c khp bn l vi sn xe c th gp li khi cn thit. Sau khi bc g ln xe, ngi ta dng dy xch hoc dy cp mm buc tng i ct tng ng hai bn thnh xe gi cho g khng b ln ra ngoi trong qu trnh vn chuyn g. i vi cc thit b bc xp, d g trn kho bi phi lun trng thi n nh. Khi bc g ln xe bng phng php bc bng ng hm phi m bo cho hm lun kh ro phng trn trt trong khi bc. Khi bc g ln xe bng cn t c nh th h thng dy chng, ct, dy buc g v dy cp ko ca ti phi c tnh ton, kim tra bn nht nh m bo an ton kho bc g. Khi dng cn bc bng g phi kim tra cht lng cn trc khi bc do t ngoi tri thng xuyn chu s tc ng ca cc iu kin t nhin nh ma, nng, m, nhit cao nh hng nhiu n tnh cht c l ca cn bc. Khi s dng cn bc t trn t v tay bc thy lc bc g ln xe cng nh d g xung xe phi m bo tm vn ca cn, tay bc cng nh phm vi lm vic an ton ca my mc thit b trnh cc tai nn ng tic c th xy ra. Khi bc g ln xe v d g xung xe phi c hiu lnh v cc k hiu thng nht. Bc xong cy no phi c k chn chc chn xong mi c bc tip cc cy khc, trnh g ln trong khi bc v d g. 4.4.2. Yu cu an ton i vi tuyn ng vn chuyn g v lm sn ng vn chuyn g v lm sn phi lun lun c duy tu v bo dng thng xuyn cho nn v mt ng lun trng thi kh ro, n nh phc v tt cho cng tc vn chuyn. 83 H thng cc bin bo trn ng phi c kim tra thng xuyn nu thy h hng v phi c thay th v sa cha ngay. Phi m bo tm nhn trn ng nht l ti v tr cc ng cong li xe kp thi x l mi bt trc c th xy ra trong qu trnh vn chuyn. Khng c tin hnh cng tc cht h, lao g v vn xut g dc hai bn tuyn ng ang vn chuyn d gy mt an ton cho ngi v thit b trong khi vn chuyn trn ng. 4.4.3. Yu cu an ton khi bc d v vn chuyn g Trong lm nghip c rt nhiu hnh thc vn chuyn c s dng nh tru, voi ko, ghe thuyn, b mng, t, tu ho. Tu theo loi hnh vn chuyn nn b tr cng ngh vn chuyn cho hp l va m bo tng nng sut lao ng, gim chi ph vn chuyn, m bo an ton trong khi vn chuyn ng thi trnh mt mt h hng hng ho vn chuyn. gim bt sc lao ng v bo m an ton trong vn chuyn cn quan tm n mt s gii php sau: - m bo ng vn chuyn lun lun trng thi sn sng k thut cao, bng phng, khng b ly, ln, trn trt, khng c chng ngi vt v rng, thng thong, kh ro. - C gng s dng cc phng tin sn c hn ch vic vn chuyn hoc mang vc th cng; kim tra phng tin vn chuyn (k c tu thuyn, b mng) m bo chc chn, cn tt. Khng vn chuyn nng qu. Tm cch rt ngn qung ng vn chuyn. - Cc cu qua sng, qua sui phi m bo chc chn, rng, bng phng, xe ch g v lm sn c th qua c an ton. - Khi vn chuyn g v tre, na l cc loi hng ho cng knh cn sp xp gn gng, k kch chc chn v chng buc cht (dng cc cc ke, cp v xch nn c nh b g trn xe vn chuyn) trnh ri vi hng vn chuyn hoc gy lt xe. - Khi xe vn chuyn g trn ng, b g phi c chng k bng dy xch hay bng dy cp mm c ng knh ti thiu l 6 milimt trnh lc ngang v lm x dch b g dc v ngang gy mt n nh cho xe v d xy ra tai nn. - Tuyt i khng c ngi ngi ln g v tre, na trong khi xe ang chy. Khi phi dng xe khng c dng ni qa dc v lun phi c chn bnh xe mang theo. - Li xe khi iu khin xe vn chuyn g phi tuyt i chp hnh cc quy nh v lut an ton giao thng ng b, khng c ung ru, bia, cht kch thch trong khi iu khin xe. - Phi chm sc, kim tra v bo dng xe thng xuyn trc khi a xe vo vn chuyn g. Phi m bo cho xe vn chuyn lun tnh trng sn sng k thut cao. - Khng vn chuyn g v lm sn nng qu ti trng cho php ca xe vn chuyn gy nguy him cho xe, d dn n h hng ng v xe c. Ti trng cht trn xe phi m bo cn i chc chn, trnh vn chuyn lnh mt bn dn n kh iu khin phng tin khi chuyn ng trn ng v gy mt an ton cho xe trong khi chuyn ng. - Cm vn chuyn thuc bo v thc vt hoc cc ho cht c hi khc cng vi hng ho lm sn, thc phm; C gng hn ch vic khun vc th cng, c bit l i vi thuc bo v thc vt. 84 Hnh 13. K thut bc g bng c gii - Khi bc g ln xe t cc ng g trn kho g phi tin hnh bc t trn xung di ca ng g. Khng cng mt lc bc g trn hai ng g s rt nguy him cho ngi v my mc, thit b trong khi bc - Khi bc g ln t bng phng php bc hm c s dng sc ngi bn by g ln xe th yu cu n xeo bn phi bng g chc nhng khng gin, kch thc n xeo phi ph hp vi tng ngi. Khng c s dng cc loi g gin, i mc lm n xeo bn by g v d gy gy n xeo, ngi xeo bn g c th ng ln pha trn ca khc g ang ln gy tai nn. - Khi bc g bng cn bc t c nh, bng t cn trc hoc tay bc thy lc cn ch khng ngi ng gn hoc pha di b g ang nng. Ch khi no b g c t ln sn xe mi c php ng gn b g li cho b g vo ng v tr quy nh. - Khi phi ko b g t xa, ngi mc buc b g phi lun i sau b g t nht l 5 mt. Khi bc g di nht thit phi buc c 2 u b g, gc ca hai nhnh dy buc khng c vt qu 120 . - Trong khi ko b g t xa, khi nng b g ln hoc d g xung xe nht thit phi c hiu lnh thng nht. Hiu lnh phi n gin, r rng, nhng tn hiu trong qu trnh thao tc phi c thng nht ch mt ngi. - Cng nhn lm cng tc bc, d, vn chuyn g v lm sn phi c trang b y cc trang b bo h lao ng cn thit v phi lun tun th cc quy nh v an ton lao ng. 4.4.4. An ton lao ng trong vn chuyn g v lm sn bng ng thy Ngi tham gia cng tc vn chuyn g bng ng thy phi c sc khe tt, phi gii bi li, c kh nng phn ng nhanh nhy v x l kp thi cc tnh hung bt trc c th xy ra trong khi vn chuyn. Ngi tham gia cng tc vn chuyn g bng ng thy phi thng tho lung lch, nm vng cc tn hiu an ton v nguy him trn ng vn chuyn. Phi qua cc kha hc tp bi dng v k thut v ng cn u ghp b mng, iu khin b v tu thuyn vn chuyn cng nh cc quy nh v an ton giao thng ng thy. Khi xeo bn g phi ng pha sau cy g, khng c dng tay trc tip y g, khng c chy theo khc g ang ln. Khi xeo bn g nu c s dng dy buc g phi ng xa dy buc, nu s dng k trt phi ng xa k. Ch bt u xeo bn cc khc g khi bit chc pha trc khng c ngi. Nu xeo g t trn b xung bn phi c tn hiu an ton t di ln mi c xeo. 85 Khi ng cn, u ghp b khng c ngi hoc i trn cc khc g ring bit, khng c bi li hoc ng di pha h lu ng cn u ghp b. Nghim cm tm, bi ln khu vc ng cn u ghp b. Khi vn chuyn ngi iu khin b phi lun quan st pha trc x l mi tnh hung bt trc c th xy ra. Khng c ng, ngi gn u b. Khng c ng st dy chng, dy chit khi iu khin b. Nghim cm vic bi li, ln ngp gn b ang chuyn ng. m bo thng thong cho sng, sui dng vn chuyn bng ghe thuyn v b mng; b rng ca ghe thuyn v b mng phi nh hn khong cch nhp cu, chiu cao g v lm sn cht ln tu thuyn, b mng phi thp di khong khng di cu. 5. Hng dn an ton lao ng trong ch bin lm sn Cng nhn khi vn hnh cc loi my mc, thit b, dng c trong ch bin c gii phi c trang b nhng kin thc k thut cn thit v quy trnh s dng cc loi my mc, thit b cng nh cc quy nh v an ton lao ng trong sn xut. Khi thao tc trn cc thit b ch bin c gii nh ca vng, ca sc, ca a, my phay, my bo... ngi cng nhn phi c y trang b bo h lao ng (m, knh, giy, gng tay, khu trang v qun o bo h lao ng). Cc c cu bao che bo him phi m bo chc chn trong qu trnh lm vic, khng c t tho b bt k b phn bo him no. Trc khi vn hnh my phi kim tra khng gian xung quanh my trong qu trnh my chy khng b cn tr hoc xy ra tai nn. Trc khi khi ng my phi bo tn hiu cho nhng ngi xung quanh bit. Khi my chy n nh mi c x hoc gia cng. Sn phm trong khi gia cng khng c xp gn my v cao trn 2 mt trnh tai nn. Khi x g ngi cng nhn cn cn c vo ng knh khc g chn tc y cho ph hp. Li ca cn phi thay trnh trng hp vn tc y ln hn vn tc ct s lm nh hng n cht lng sn phm v gy t li ca. Khi ca sc lm vic khng c ng gn tay bin v khung ca, trnh g bn vo ngi hoc thanh nm c bn vng ra ngoi. My ca vng thng rt hay xy ra hin tng li ca b t. V vy trong lc cng ca hay my ang chy khng c ng gn hai u bnh trnh hin tng li ca b t vng vo ngi gy tai nn. Khi mun sa cha, thay li ca hay dn v sinh my phi tt my v phi i n khi my dng hn mi c tin hnh. Khi vn hnh my ca a cng nhn chnh phi b tc gn gng, phi ch cho ca n t t nht l khi ct vo nhng ch mt g hoc ch nt. Khi ct xong cho my dn dn tr v v tr c. Trnh tnh trng b tay ra t ngt lm va p my i khi theo qun tnh ngi c th ng vo my gy tai nn. 6. Hng dn an ton lao ng trong khu lm sinh Ty tng loi cng vic trong khu lm sinh m c nhng quy trnh sn xut an ton nhm trnh nhng an ton ng tic c th xy ra. Mt s ch c bn sau y c th gp phn gim thiu nhng tai nn ng tic c th xy ra: 86 - Trong khu to cy con cng nhn phi c trang b y cc trang b bo h lao ng cn thit nh qun o bo h, gng tay, m bo h. Mi trng lm vic phi y nh sng v nhit cn thit m bo duy tr sc kho, trnh gy nhng cng thng khng cn thit d gy mt an ton lao ng. - Cc dng c th cng phi lun sc, chc chn; cc my mc thit b s dng phi lun trong tnh trng sn sng k thut cao, trnh r r in gy mt an ton cho ngi lao ng. - Khi cng nhn lm vic trong mi trng c hi (nui cy m) phi m bo nh sng, nhit v thng gi tt. Phi m bo y khng gian lm vic v t th ngi thoi mi v phi c nhng trang b phng h ngn chn cc tc hi do cc loi cht c tc ng n con ngi trong khi lm vic. - Khi lm vic trn a hnh dc nh pht dn thc b, lm t, bn phn, trng cy.. cng nhn phi c trang b y cc trang b bo h lao ng cn thit (qun o, giy, tt, gang tay, m cng) chng li cc tc hi t bn ngoi gy tai nn nh cnh cy, thn cy, cn trng c hi, bi phn cy...Trong iu kin thi tit m t, tri ma hn ch di chuyn, mang vc, gng gnh d xy ra hin tng trt ng gy tai nn. - Khi s dng cc loi my mc thit b trong vic c gii ho trng rng, chm sc, bo v rng (my cuc h, my pht thc b, my ta tha ...) cng nhn s dng my mc phi c qua lp o to v s dng my mc thit b, phi lun chp hnh quy trnh k thut an ton vn hnh my v phi c trang b cc bo h lao ng cn thit theo quy nh v s dng my mc thit b. - Khi s dng thuc bo v thc vt phi lun tun th quy trnh s dng thuc bo v thc vt an ton, ng theo ch dn, khi phun phi thc hin theo ng quy trnh k thut khi phun, hng phun, thi gian phun...y l cng vic d b nhim c nn ngi cng nhn s dng my phi c trang b y qun o, gang tay, mt n chng hi c theo quy nh khi phun thuc bo qun. - Khi cht ta tha, cht nui dng phi lun tun theo k thut cht h an ton theo ng yu cu k thut (pht quang, dn ng trnh, chn hng , m ming, ct gy, iu khin cy ng hng, ct cnh, ngn...) trnh nhng tai nn ng tic c th xy ra. 7. Hng dn an ton lao ng trong qun l bo v rng 7.1. i vi cng tc phng chng ngi v gia sc ph hoi rng Cn b, kim lm vin tham gia cng tc tun tra bo v rng phi c trang b y cc trang b bo h lao ng cn thit nh qun o bo h, giy, tt m bo h, v kh (khi cn thit) v cc trang b thng tin lin lc kp thi thng bo khi cn thit. Cn b kim, kim lm vin khi thc hin cng vic trong rng phi i theo tng t, nhm kp thi pht hin v ng ph khi cn thit nh gp lc lng lm tc, gia sc ph hoi... 7.2. i vi cng tc phng tr su bnh hi rng Cng nhn s dng thuc bo v thc vt phi c qua lp hun luyn v vic s dng thuc bo v thc vt an ton, ng theo ch dn khi dng thuc phun thuc ng theo yu cu k thut. Cng nhn khi phun thuc bo v thc vt phi c trang b y qun o, gng tay, giy tt v mt n phng c trnh nhim c c th xy ra. 87 7.3. i vi cng tc phng chng chy rng Thng xuyn gio dc, gic ng cho ngi dn sng trong rng, xung quanh rng v cn b cng nhn c thc phng chng chy rng nht l vo cc thi im d xy ra chy rng. Phi thit lp c h thng cnh bo chy rng nhng v tr cn thit pht hin v kp thi x l nhanh chng khi cc m chy mi xut hin. Trong cng tc trng rng phi thit lp ngay h thng ngn la nhm ngn chn chy lan mt t v chy tn nhng cy ca rng d chy. Xy dng h thng cc h cha nc, h thng cc chi canh kp thi pht hin v thng bo khi c chy rng, cc bin php khc nh gim vt liu gy chy trong rng. Khi xy ra chy rng phi huy ng mi phng tin v nhn lc kp thi dp tt m chy. Khi m chy c tc trn lan v chiu cao ngn la vt qu mc cho php phi kp thi can thip bng phun nc dp tt ngn la. Phi ch phng la chy vo ngi, lm ngt th trong khi cha chy. Phi b tr nhn lc phng khi la chy lan, vt tm khng ch cho php. Phi trang b y bo h lao ng cn thit. Tt nht mi nhm chuc chy c t 5 n 7 ngi, mi ngi cn c bnh cha chy mang theo. 88 Phn 8: Hng Dn S Dng Lao ng Hp L 1. Mt s vn khi s dng lao ng trong lm nghip S dng lao ng hp l s gp phn tng nng sut lao ng, khuyn khch vic pht huy cc sng kin, ci tin k thut v m bo duy tr sc lao ng, phn phi sc lao ng hp l, trnh cc tai nn ng tic c th xy ra. Hng dn s dng lao ng hp l tu thuc vo tnh cht cng vic trong hot ng lm nghip m s dng lao ng cho hp l. Nhn chung vic s dng lao ng hp l c thc hin trn cc mt sau: 1.1. T chc lao ng khoa hc - Phn cng lao ng hp l: Ngi khe lm nhng vic nng; ngi yu lm nhng vic nh nhng, t tn sc. - Xp xp thi gi lao ng hp l. - B tr xen k cc cng vic nng vi cc cng vic nh v thay i t th lao ng. - Hn ch thi gi lm vic trong iu kin kh hu khng thun li nh qu nng, nng hoc qu lnh. Vo nhng ngy nng nng nn i lm vo lc sng sm cn mt, v ngh lc tri nng nng v tip tc i lm vo lc bui chiu mt trnh nng, nng. Vo nhng ngy tri rt, nn i lm mun hn vo bui sng, sm hn vo bui chiu v ngh bui chiu sm hn trnh thi tit gi lnh. - Khi i lm vic di tri nng nng cn i m rng vnh, mang khn che gy, mc qun o mu nht v tng i rng. Vo ma ng, khi i lm vic cn mc qun o sm mu, qung khn, i m cho m; khng ngm mnh hoc chn tay di nc lnh lu d b m v mc bnh t thp; v nn n thm nhng thc n c nhiu cht du, m. - i vi ngi vn chuyn lm sn bng ng thu khi tip xc vi nc lnh rt d b chng co rt v gp tai bin, do vy cn xoa nc lnh khp ngi trc khi xung nc v khng di nc qu lu; nu ln su di nc th khi ngoi ln mt nc phi ngoi ln t t trnh nhng tai bin do gim p. - Tch cc hp tc, tng tr, gip ln nhau cng tin hnh nhng cng vic nng nhc m mt ngi hoc t ngi khng th thc hin c nh: khun vc, di chuyn nhng vt nng. ng vin, gip v to iu kin cho ngi tn tt ho nhp vo cng ng qua tham gia lao ng. 1.2. Ngh ngi v gii tr - Thay v ko di thi gian lm vic lin tc hoc c lm lin tc cho n tn lc xong vic, th nn b tr thi gian ngh gii lao gia ca hoc gia bui lm vic trnh mt mi qu sc, c th c thi gian phc hi li sc kho, sau lm vic s c hiu qu tt hn. - Ti ch lm vic nn c hoc khi i lm nn mang theo nc c pha thm mt cht mui ung khi kht b li lng nc, mui mt do tot m hi; nu c iu kin c th n nh cho i; v sinh tay chn trc khi n ung. - Nn b tr mi ngi cng ngh mt lc trong thi gian gii lao mi ngi c th chuyn tr, trao i thoi mi, vui v hn v c thm s hiu bit. - Khng nn ung ru v ht thuc l vo gi gii lao. Ru v thuc l ch lm nng tm thi v gi to, khng nn coi l th gip chng lnh v v lu di rt c hi cho sc kho. 89 - C gng b tr vo ngy cui tun c nh cng c ngh ngi, i chi hoc tr chuyn vi nhau to khng kh m m, vui v trong gia nh; nhng trnh i chi qu nhiu hoc ng nhiu. 1.3. Chm sc sc kho - C t thuc x tr nhng trng hp khn cp ti ni lm vic. - i vi cc i hoc nhm ngi lm vic lu ng trn cc cng trng, lm trng cn c ngi mang theo ti thuc, bng bng x tr nhng s c; c cc bin php phng cc bnh truyn nhim cho cc nhm, i ngi lm vic lu ng nhiu ngy cc khu ln tri. - Khi phi t chc n ung ti cc ln tri, lm trng, cng trng c gng t chc t chc ba n hp v sinh, dinh dng v trnh c bnh ng rut. 2. Mt s yu cu v cng tc bo h lao ng trong sn xut lm nghip Do c th ca sn xut lm nghip v c im cng nh iu kin lao ng cc ngnh ngh trong lm nghip rt khc bit so vi cc ngnh sn xut khc. Do vy, vic s dng lao ng v an ton trong lm nghip cng khc nhau v phi m bo theo cc yu cu di y: 1. Bo m cho ngi lao ng c lm vic trong iu kin thoi mi, hp v sinh; ngi lao ng kho mnh, lnh ln, lm vic t nng sut cao. 2. T chc lm vic, ngh ngi hp l sc kho ngi lao ng c phc hi tt. 3. Khi s dng my mc thit b trong khai thc, vn xut, bc d, vn chuyn, trong ch bin lm sn, trong trng rng, trong cng tc bo v rng... phi thc hin y cc qui trnh, bin php an ton theo yu cu ca tng cng vic. 4. Tch cc tm cch ci tin thit b, dng c v phng php lm vic gim nh sc lao ng v trnh nguy him. 5. T chc i sng sinh hot hp v sinh: Thc n c nu chn, ung c un si; ch thong mt, sch s; h x, h tiu, nh tm, ng i sch s, thun tin. 6. Bo v an ton cho cng ng v gi gn mi trng sng trong lnh. 90 Ch tham kho Ch 1 CM NANG V AN TON-V SINH LAO NG TRONG SN XUT LM NGHIP I. VN CHUNG Trong nhng nm qua, thc hin cng nghip ha, hin i ho nng nghip v nng thn nc ta, sn xut nng lm nghip t c thnh tu to ln, gp phn tng tng sn phm trong nc, bo m an ninh lng thc, pht trin cng nghip v xut khu, gp phn quan trng ci thin i sng nhn dn. Cng vi s n lc ca nhn dn, nh nc ginh ngun u t ng k xy dng c s h tng, u t thit b, my mc, in, thuc bo v thc vt..., ngy cng ci thin iu kin lao ng trong sn xut nng lm nghip. Tuy vy, tai nn lao ng v bnh ngh nghip i vi lao ng nng lm nghip cng xy ra v gy nn nhng hu qu nghim trng. Nguyn nhn l do lao ng trong nng lm nghip cha c tuyn truyn, hng dn, hun luyn k v tiu chun, quy trnh, quy phm k thut v cc bin php phng nga; cc B, ngnh, chnh quyn cc cp, cc t chc kinh doanh cha lm ht trch nhim theo quy nh php lut. phng nga v khc phc tai nn lao ng, bnh ngh nghip, bo m mi trng sn xut nng lm nghip ngy cng tt hn, ngy 8 thng 6 nm 2004, Th tng Chnh ph ban hnh Ch th s 20/2004/CT-TTg v vic tng cng ch o v t chc thc hin an ton-v sinh lao ng trong sn xut nng nghip, trong yu cu cc B, ngnh, on th, chnh quyn a phng cc cp cn lm tt cc vic sau: i. Tip tc hon thin cc vn bn quy phm php lut c lin quan n vic thc hin an ton-v sinh lao ng trong sn xut nng nghip. ii. Tng cng cng tc phng nga tai nn lao ng v bnh ngh nghip trong sn xut nng nghip. iii. y mnh cng tc thng tin, tuyn truyn. iv. Tng cng hp tc quc t trong lnh vc an ton-v sinh lao ng trong sn xut nng nghip. v. Tng cng cng tc thanh tra, kim tra vic chp hnh cc quy nh v an ton-v sinh lao ng trong sn xut nng nghip. II. TRCH NHIM CA NGNH NNG NGHIP V PHT TRIN NNG THN B Nng nghip v Pht trin nng thn cn tng cng ch o v t chc thc hin an ton-v sinh lao ng trong sn xut nng lm nghip, trin khai cng vic c th sau: Tng cng cng tc qun l nh nc cc hot ng an ton-v sinh lao ng trong sn xut nng lm nghip, gm phn cng nhim v v kin ton t chc: Tng cng ch o v t chc thc hin an ton-v sinh lao ng trong sn xut lm nghip Phng nga v khc phc tai nn lao ng, bnh ngh nghip 91 V Php ch c trch nhim ch tr, phi hp cc V, Cc lin quan: i. R sot, b sung, hon thin v v trnh B trng hoc trnh Chnh ph, Th tng Chnh ph ban hnh cc vn bn quy phm php lut v an ton-v sinh lao ng trong sn xut nng lm nghip. ii. R sot, sa i cc tiu chun, quy trnh, quy phm s dng thit b, my mc, vt t, ho cht trong nng lm nghip ph hp vi tnh hnh pht trin ngnh. iii. Xy dng cc vn bn hng dn cc bin php m bo an ton trong sn xut, kinh doanh v s dng thuc bo v thc vt, thuc th y, phn bn, thc n chn nui, thuc phng chng mi mt v cn trng, ch phm sinh hc phc v trng trt, chn nui, bo qun rau-hoa qu-nng lm sn. V T chc cn b ch tr, phi hp cc Cng on ngnh nng nghip v pht trin nng thn, cc V, Cc lin quan: i. Trnh B thnh lp Hi ng Bo h lao ng ca B do 01 Th trng lm Ch tch Hi ng. Ph Ch tch Hi ng thng trc l Cc trng Cc Ch bin nng lm sn v ngh mui v mt Ph Ch tch do i din lnh o Cng on ngnh nng nghip v pht trin nng thn m nhn. Cc u vin Hi ng bao gm i din lnh o ca cc Cc, V lin quan; Trung tm Khuyn nng Quc gia; Trung tm y t lao ng; Bo Nng nghip Vit Nam v Tng cng ty Lm nghip Vit Nam. Thnh vin Hi ng lm vic theo ch kim nhim, lm vc theo nguyn tc dn ch, tho lun cng khai v biu quyt theo a s v cc vn lin quan n nhim v c giao. Gip vic Hi ng c T Chuyn vin gip vic, cc thnh vin c la chn t cc n v lin quan trn y. ii. Nhim v ca Hi ng l t vn, gip B trng trong cc lnh vc: Xc nh phng hng, c ch, chnh sch lin quan n lnh vc bo h lao ng trong ton ngnh. Nhng bin php ch o, iu hnh thc hin cc ch trng, chnh sch, php lut v bo h lao ng, chng trnh quc gia, chng trnh ca B v an ton v sinh lao ng trong ton ngnh. u mi phi hp gia cc c quan chc nng, t chc on th v cng tc bo h lao ng m bo an ton lao ng, v sinh lao ng, v sinh lao ng v ci thin iu kin lao ng, mi trng lm vic cho ngi lao ng trong ton ngnh. Kim tra, gim st v kin ngh hnh thc x l i vi hnh vi vi phm quy nh v an ton v sinh lao ng-phng chng chy n-bo v mi trng trong ton ngnh. Pht hin, xut khen thng cc t chc, n v, c nhn thc hin tt cng tc bo h lao ng. iii. xut xy dng m hnh Hi ng bo h lao ng cc hp tc x nng lm nghip, cc lng ngh, cc nng lm trng, t chc sn xut nng lm nghip t qun. iv. Xy dng k hoch ch o, kim tra, n c cc n v thuc B thc hin cc quy nh ti Thng t Lin b s 14/2005/TTLB/BLTBXH-BYT-TLLVN ngy 08 thng 3 nm 2005 ca Lin tch B Lao ng-Thng binh v X hi, B Y t v Tng Lin on lao ng Vit Nam hng dn vic khai bo, iu tra, lp bin bn, thng k v bo co nh k tai nn lao ng. Cc Tng cng ty, Cng ty trc thuc B kin ton Hi ng bo h lao ng v phn cng r trch nhim cho cc thnh vin. v. Hi ng bo h lao ng cc cp xy dng Chng trnh hnh ng v an ton-v sinh lao ng-phng chng chy n thuc thm quyn v c bin php ch o nhm phng nga v 92 khc phc tai nn lao ng, bnh ngh nghip, bo m mi trng lao ng (c bit l mi trng sn xut nng lm nghip) ngy cng tt hn. vi. Ban Ch o Tun l an ton-v sinh lao ng-phng chng chy n ca B thc hin tt k hoch t chc Tun l quc gia v an ton-v sinh lao ng-phng chng chy n hng nm; t chc rt kinh nghim v c bin php duy tr cc hot ng tip theo ca Tun l v thc hin cc bin php bo m an ton-v sinh lao ng-phng chng chy n thng xuyn trong c nm. vii. Thanh tra B phi hp cht ch vi cc c quan Lao ng-Thng binh v X hi, Y t, Cng an, Cng on, Thanh tra chuyn ngnh thanh tra, kim tra chp hnh cc quy nh ca nh nc v an ton-v sinh lao ng-phng chng chy n, c bit l vic s dng cc thit b my mc, ha cht dng trong nng lm nghip, x l ng php lut nhng hnh vi vi phm nghim trng; biu dng kp thi nhng n v, c nhn lm tt cng tc bo h lao ng. viii. V Hp tc quc t ch tr, phi hp vi cc n v lin quan m rng quan h quc t, tranh th ngun vin tr ca cc T chc lao ng quc t (ILO), T chc Y t th gii (WHO), cc nc trong khu vc v th gii cho vic o to, hun luyn, trao i hc tp kinh nghim, tr gip k thut v tuyn truyn nng cao nhn thc v an ton-v sinh lao ng trong sn xut nng lm nghip, gp phn thc hin chin lc pht trin bn vng Vit Nam. ix. V Ti chnh m bo kinh ph phc v cc hot ng v an ton-v sinh lao ng-phng chng chy n cho cc n v thuc B Nng nghip v Pht trin nng thn trong tng nm theo quy nh ca Lut Ngn sch Nh nc. y mnh cng tc thng tin, tuyn truyn, ph bin nhm nng cao nhn thc cho ngi s dng lao ng v ngi lao ng trong sn xut nng lm nghip v cc quy nh ca php lut, cc tiu chun, quy trnh quy phm php lut, cc bin php phng nga tai nn lao ng khi s dng my mc, thit b, thuc bo v thc vt v cc ch phm sinh hc khc s dng trong sn xut nng nghip i. Bo Nng nghip Vit Nam, Tp ch Nng nghip v Pht trin nng thn phi hp vi cc c quan truyn thng t chc thng tin, tuyn truyn thng xuyn, nu gng nhng in hnh tt, ph bnh nhng c s v c nhn cha lm tt v an ton-v sinh lao ng trong sn xut nng lm nghip. ii. Cng on ngnh Nng nghip v Pht trin nng thn Vit Nam, S Nng nghip v Pht trin nng thn cc tnh kt hp vi cc t chc chnh tr-x hi a phng, xy dng phong tro nng dn thc hin an ton-v sinh lao ng trong sn xut, bo v mi trng v sc khe cng ng n tn huyn, x; t chc tp hun v an ton-v sinh lao ng cho nng dn, trc ht l trong cc lng ngh, cc trang tri, cc doanh nghip va v nh c nhiu lao ng hot ng trong lnh vc nng lm nghip; tham gia xy dng cc quy ch, ni quy v bo h lao ng; tham gia cc on iu tra tai nn lao ng, kim tra cng tc bo h lao ng c s, kim tra thc hin k hoch bo h lao ng v cc bin php bo m an ton cho ngi lao ng trong qu trnh sn xut v xut cc bin php khc phc. iii. Trung tm Khyn nng Quc gia ch tr, phi hp vi cc c quan lin quan kt hp cc hot ng tuyn truyn khuyn nng vi cc hot ng an ton-v sinh lao ng trong sn xut nng lm nghip. 93 III. THNG TIN, BO CO Th trng cc n v thuc B Nng nghip v Pht trin nng thn, Gim c S Nng nghip v Pht trin nng thn nh k 6 thng v hng nm bo co (tham kho theo mu di y) kt qu thc hin an ton-v sinh lao ng trong sn xut nng lm nghip v Cc Ch bin nng lm sn v ngh mui-c quan thng trc Ban Ch o Tun l an ton-v sinh lao ng-phng chng chy n ca B Nng nghip v Pht trin nng thn. cng bo co v tnh hnh trin khai ch o v t chc thc hin an ton-v sinh lao ng trong sn xut nng lm nghip 1. Tnh hnh ph bin vn bn php lut Nhng ni dung c bn: - Nhng vn bn ca n v ban hnh ph bin vn bn quy phm php lut v an ton-v sinh lao ng trong sn xut nng lm nghip (hoc ca a phng t cp tnh, huyn n x). - Cc phng tin thng tin i chng (i pht thanh, bo, truyn hnh...) m n v s dng ph bin. - Nu r l do nu n v cha ph bin vn bn trn. 2. Kt qu trin khai 2.1. Cc bin php c nhn, c s sn xut kinh doanh thc hin tt cc quy nh ca php lut v an ton-v sinh lao ng trong sn xut nng lm nghip: Nhng ni dung c bn: - Cc vn bn ban hnh thc hin ni dung ny.. - Tm tt cc bin php khuyn khch (v vt cht, v tinh thn) c xut trong vn bn hoc d kin thc hin theo tng i tng: c nhn, h gia nh, h kinh doanh c th, hp tc x, t hp tc, nng trng, lm trng... - Nhng kt qu bc u khi thc hin cc bin php ny. 2.2. Cng tc thng tin, tuyn truyn ph bin cc quy nh ca php lut, cc tiu chun, quy trnh, quy phm k thut, cc bin php phng nga tai nn lao ng khi s dng my mc, thit b, ho cht trong sn xut nng lm nghip: Nhng ni dung c bn: - S ln a tin, s bi a tin, thi lng pht sng trn cc phng tin thng tin i chng ca n v nu gng in hnh tt; ph bnh c nhn cha lm tt v cng tc an ton-v sinh lao ng trong nng lm nghip. - K hoch v kt qa nhng hot ng kt hp gia bo v ti nguyn rng v an ton-v sinh lao ng trong lm nghip (nu c). - K hoch xy dng v kt qu s b ca phong tro nng dn thc hin cng tc tc an ton-v sinh lao ng trong sn xut nng lm nghip, bo v mi trng v sc khe cng ng n huyn, x. - K hoch t chc v kt qu ca chng trnh hun luyn v an ton-v sinh lao ng cho cng nhn, nng dn t cc lng ngh, cc trang tri, cc doanh nghip va v nh n tng h gia nh. - Kinh ph n v hoc a phng d kin cho hot ng thng tin, tuyn truyn, hun luyn (t l so vi tng kinh ph d ton ca n v, a phng). 2.3 Hp tc quc t trong lnh vc an ton-v sinh lao ng trong sn xut nng lm nghip: Nhng ni dung c bn: 94 - Ngun vin tr quc t (cc Chnh ph, t chc phi Chnh ph) cho tng hot ng o to, hun luyn, hc tp kinh nghim, h tr k thut, tuyn truyn nng cao nhn thc... - Kt qu ca nhng hot ng hp tc ny. 2.4 Cng tc thanh tra, kim tra vic chp hnh cc quy nh v an ton-v sinh lao ng trong sn xut nng lm nghip: Nhng ni dung c bn: S n v vi phm TT Ni dung thanh tra, kim tra S lt n v c thanh tra, kim tra Cnh co Pht tin Truy cu tr.nhim hnh s S tin pht 1 Vic s dng in trong sn xut 2 Vic s dng ho cht 3 Vic s dng ch phm sinh hc khc 4 Vic s dng thit b, my mc ... ... 3. Kh khn, vng mc khi trin khai thc hin ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 4. xut thc hin tt cc quy nh v an ton-v sinh lao ng trong sn xut nng lm nghip ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. ngy......thng.....nm 200.. Th trng n v (K tn, ng du) (Su tm v trch gii thiu Ch th s 20/2004/CT-TTg ca Th tng Chnh ph v vic tng cng ch o v t chc thc hin an ton-v sinh lao ng trong sn xut nng lm nghip). 95 Ch 2 CM NANG V X PHT HNH CHNH V KHIU NI TRONG LNH VC LAO NG VI PHM V QUAN H LAO NG Hc ngh C s dy ngh vi phm v thnh lp, ng k hot ng, chia, tch, sp nhp, nh ch hot ng v gii th c s dy ngh s b cnh co hoc pht tin t 500.000 ng n mt triu ng. Nu vi phm v tr cng cho ngi ngi dy ngh, tp ngh khng ng quy nh; thu hc ph hc ngh i vi i tng c min hc ph; thu hc ph cao hn mc quy nh s b pht 1-20 triu ng. Li dng danh ngha dy ngh, truyn ngh trc li; bc lt sc lao ng hoc d d, p buc ngi hc ngh, tp ngh vo nhng hot ng tri php lut: pht 15-20 triu ng. Ngoi ra, t chc, c nhn vi phm cn c th b tc quyn s dng giy php dy ngh c thi hn hoc khng c thi hn. Vic lm Ngi s dng lao ng khng cng b danh sch ngi lao ng b thi vic, khng thng bo vi c quan lao ng cp tnh trc khi cho ngi lao ng thi vic, vi phm quy nh v th tc tuyn ngi lao ng Vit Nam vo lm vic s b pht 1-2 triu ng. Nu vi phm quy nh v tr cp mt vic lm i vi ngi lao ng, thu ph gii thiu vic lm cao hn mc quy nh, thu ph gii thiu vic lm nhng khng c bin lai s b pht 1-10 triu ng. Doanh nghip khng lp qu d phng v tr cp mt vic lm; trung tm hoc doanh nghip gii thiu vic lm khng c giy php hot ng hoc hot ng khng ng quy nh: pht 5-10 triu ng. Nu d d, ha hn v qung co gian di la gt ngi lao ng; li dng dch v vic lm lm iu tri php lut: pht 15-20 triu ng. Hnh thc pht b sung: cc trung tm gii thiu vic lm c th b tc quyn s dng giy php hot ng, nh ch hot ng c thi hn hoc khng thi hn. HP NG LAO NG Ngi s dng lao ng khng giao mt bn hp ng cho ngi lao ng sau khi k; vi phm v thu mn ngi gip vic (nh thu ngi trng coi ti sn m khng k hp ng bng vn bn, khng chm sc ngi gip vic lc h b au m...) s b cnh co hoc pht tin t 100.000 n 500.000 ng. Nu ngi s dng lao ng giao kt hp ng lao ng khng ng loi theo quy nh; hp ng lao ng khng c ch k ca mt trong hai bn: pht t 500.000 n 10 triu ng. Ngi lao ng cng c th b x pht hnh chnh nu vi phm php lut lao ng Khiu ni v lao ng c n ba cp gii quyt 96 Ngi s dng lao ng p dng thi gian th vic vi ngi lao ng di hn so vi quy nh; vi phm v thi gian tm thi chuyn lao ng sang lm vic khc, v ch tr cp thi vic...: pht 15-20 triu ng. Ngi vi phm cn c th b buc giao bn hp ng cho ngi lao ng, k hp ng ng loi, tr li tin t cc... Ngi s dng lao ng khng ng k tha c lao ng tp th vi c quan qun l nh nc s b pht t 1-2 triu ng; nu t chi thng lng k kt hoc sa i, b sung tha c lao ng tp th: pht 5-8 triu ng. TIN LNG, TIN THNG Ngi s dng lao ng khng thc hin cc nguyn tc xy dng thang lng, bng lng, nh mc lao ng theo quy nh; khu tr tin lng ca ngi lao ng m khng tho lun vi Ban Chp hnh cng on c s hoc cng on lm thi (nu c): cnh co hoc pht tin t 100.000-500.000 ng. Khng tr lng trc tip, y , ng thi hn ti ni lm vic; tr chm nhng khng n b theo quy nh; khng cng b thang lng, bng lng, nh mc lao ng, quy ch thng trong doanh nghip: pht 1-5 triu ng. Khu tr lng ca ngi lao ng m khng cho h bit l do; khng tr lng ngng vic do li ca ngi s dng lao ng; tr lng thp hn mc lng ti thiu khi ngng vic do s c in, nc hoc nguyn nhn bt kh khng; khng tr lng v ph cp cho ngi lao ng trong thi gian b tm nh ch cng vic: pht t 500.000 ng n 10 triu ng. Tr lng cho ngi lao ng thp hn mc lng ti thiu; tr bng mc lng ti thiu i vi lao ng chuyn mn k thut qua o to; khng tr hoc tr lng khng ng, khng cho ngi lao ng lm vic thm gi hoc vo ban m; pht ngi bng cch cp lng s b pht t 1-20 triu ng. Ngi s dng lao ng vi phm quy nh v thi gian lm vic theo tiu chun, ngh gia ca, hng tun, l hoc v vic ring s b pht 1-20 triu ng; nu buc ngi lao ng lm thm qu thi gian quy nh s b pht 5-20 triu ng. Ngi s dng lao ng c th b buc phi cho ngi lao ng ngh b, tr lng lm thm gi, bi thng thit hi... K LUT LAO NG V TRCH NHIM VT CHT Ngi s dng lao ng khng tham kho kin Ban Chp hnh cng on c s hoc cng on lm thi (nu c) khi xy dng ni quy lao ng: pht t 500.000 ng n mt triu ng. Vi phm thi hn nh ch cng vic i vi ngi lao ng: pht 1-5 triu ng. Ngi s dng lao ng khng xy dng ni quy lao ng; vi phm v th tc x l k lut, x l bi thng thit hi; buc ngi lao ng bi thng vt cht tri lut; khng gii quyt quyn li cho ngi lao ng khi c quan c thm quyn kt lun l mnh k lut sai: pht 5-10 triu ng. Ni c s dng lao ng n m khng c ch thay qun o, bung tm v bung v sinh n; s dng lao ng n c thai t thng th by hoc ang nui con nh di 12 thng tui lm thm gi, lm vic ban m, i cng tc xa, khng chuyn lm cng vic nh hn (hoc gim bt mt gi); s dng n, ngi cao tui, tn tt lm nhng cng vic nng nhc, nguy him, tip xc vi cc cht c hi; khng lp s theo di, kim tra sc khe nh k; lm dng sc lao ng ca ngi cha thnh nin...: pht 1-5 triu ng. Sa thi hoc n phng chm dt hp ng vi lao ng n v l do kt hn; c thai; ngh thai sn; nui con di 12 thng tui: pht 5-10 triu ng. 97 Ngi s dng lao ng khng ng y bo him x hi cho ngi lao ng s b pht 500.000 ng n 15 triu ng; khng ng bo him x hi hoc tr bo him x hi vo lng cho ngi lao ng khng b buc ng bo him s b pht 3-20 triu ng. Ngi vi phm cn b buc truy np s tin bo him x hi cn thiu v bi thng thit hi gy ra cho ngi lao ng. Ngi lao ng gian ln, gi mo h s hng cc ch bo him x hi; ngi s dng lao ng, c quan bo him x hi hoc c nhn c tnh gy kh khn, cn tr vic hng ch bo him x hi i vi ngi lao ng: pht 2-5 triu ng. GII QUYT TRANH CHP LAO NG V NH CNG Ngi lao ng tham gia nh cng sau khi c quyt nh ca Th tng Chnh ph v tm hon hoc ngng nh cng; tham gia nh cng bt hp php (nh cng khng pht sinh t tranh chp lao ng tp th; vt ra ngoi phm vi quan h lao ng; vt ra ngoi phm vi doanh nghip...); c hnh vi lm tn hi my mc, thit b, ti sn doanh nghip hoc xm phm trt t, an ton cng cng khi nh cng: cnh co hoc pht tin t 200.000 n 500.000 ng. Ngi lao ng cn tr thc hin quyn nh cng, p buc hoc kch ng ngi khc nh cng: pht 10-15 triu ng. Ngi no tr dp, tr th ngi tham gia nh cng, ngi lnh o nh cng: pht 15-20 triu ng. Ngi s dng lao ng khng lp cc s lao ng, bo him x hi; khng tr s lao ng, s bo him x hi cho ngi lao ng: pht 500.000 n mt triu ng. Cc hnh vi xc phm danh d, nhn phm ngi lao ng: pht 5-10 triu ng. XUT KHU LAO NG Doanh nghip xut khu lao ng khng thanh l hp ng vi ngi lao ng theo quy nh: cnh co hoc pht tin 200.000 n 500.000 ng. Nu khng c php ca c quan c thm quyn m doanh nghip vn tuyn chn, xut khu lao ng: pht 15-20 triu ng. VI PHM V AN TON V V SINH LAO NG Trang thit b Ngi lao ng khng tun th cc quy nh v an ton v v sinh lao ng; khng s dng cc phng tin trang b bo v c nhn do ngi s dng lao ng giao: cnh co hoc pht tin 100.000 n 500.000 ng. Ngc li, ngi s dng lao ng khng trang b y phng tin bo v c nhn cho ngi lao ng theo quy nh: pht 1-5 triu ng. Bo m an ton sc khe cho ngi lao ng Ngi s dng lao ng khng thc hin ch bi dng hin vt cho ngi lm cng vic c yu t nguy him, c hi; khng iu tr hoc khm sc khe ring cho ngi lao ng mc bnh ngh nghip: pht 500.000 ng n 10 triu ng. Khng t chc, hun luyn, hng dn, thng bo cho ngi lao ng v nhng quy nh, bin php lm vic an ton, kh nng tai nn lao ng cn phng; khng t chc khm sc khe nh k cho ngi lao ng: pht 5-10 triu ng. Tiu chun an ton lao ng 98 Ngi s dng lao ng khng bo m tiu chun v ni lm vic; khng nh k kim tra, tu sa my, thit b...: pht 5-10 triu ng. Trng hp ngi s dng lao ng khng thc hin cc bin php khc phc hoc cho ngng hot ng i vi nhng ni lm vic, my, thit b c nguy c xy ra tai nn lao ng, bnh ngh nghip: pht 15-20 triu ng. Tai nn lao ng, bnh ngh nghip Ngi s dng lao ng khng thanh ton cc khon chi ph y t (t khi s cu, cp cu n khi iu tr xong), tr cp, bi thng cho ngi b tai nn lao ng hoc bnh ngh nghip theo quy nh; khng gii quyt, b tr cng vic ph hp vi sc khe ca ngi b tai nn hoc bnh ngh nghip: pht 1-5 triu ng. THM QUYN X PHT Ch tch U ban nhn dn cp tnh v cp huyn; Chnh Thanh tra lao ng cp b v cp s: c pht cnh co, pht tin n 20 triu ng. Thanh tra vin lao ng ang thi hnh cng v c quyn pht cnh co v pht tin n 200.000 ng. Ngoi ra, nhng ngi c thm quyn nu trn cn c quyn p dng cc bin php pht b sung, buc khc phc hu qu. Chnh Thanh tra lao ng c trch nhim cng b cng khai trn cc phng tin thng tin i chng v tnh hnh vi phm php lut lao ng ca cc doanh nghip, k c vic x l nhng hnh vi vi phm theo quy nh. T chc, c nhn vi phm php lut cn c th b buc: i. Bi thng thit hi do hnh vi ca mnh gy ra. ii. Buc thc hin ng quy nh v giao kt hp ng lao ng; ng k tha c lao ng; cc nguyn tc v xy dng thang lng, bng lng, nh mc lao ng, quy ch thng; ni quy lao ng... iii. Tr li tin t cc v li sut tit kim cho ngi lao ng. iv. Buc truy np tin bo him x hi. v. Kin ngh vi c quan c thm quyn phong ta ti khon, trch np bo him x hi hoc rt giy php hot ng... Thi hiu x pht l mt nm tnh t ngy hnh vi vi phm xy ra. Nu qu thi hn trn th s khng b x pht nhng c quan chc nng vn c quyn buc thc hin cc bin php khc phc hu qu do vi phm gy ra. Sau khi chp hnh xong quyt nh x pht hoc qu thi hiu x pht mt nm m khng ti phm, ngi vi phm c coi nh cha tng b x pht hnh chnh. KHIU NI, T CO Ngi lao ng, tp th lao ng nu khng khiu kin v n lao ng ra ta th c quyn khiu ni theo Ngh nh 04/2005/N-CP. i tng c gii quyt khiu ni, t co theo Ngh nh ny l: ngi lao ng, tp th lao ng lm vic trong cc t chc: doanh nghip nh nc, t nhn, c vn u t nc ngoi hoc ca t chc chnh tr x hi; hp tc x; c quan nh nc, n v s nghip, t chc chnh tr, chnh tr-x hi, chnh tr-ngh nghip, x hi ngh nghip; n v, t chc kinh t thuc lc lng qun i; trang tri, c nhn, h gia nh c s dng lao ng; c s bn cng, dn lp, t nhn... Nhng trng hp khiu ni sau s khng c th l gii quyt: 99 i. Ni dung quyt nh, hnh vi ca ngi s dng lao ng khng thuc phm vi iu chnh ca php lut lao ng v khng lin quan trc tip n quyn, li ch hp php ca ngi lao ng. ii. Ngi lao ng khng c nng lc hnh vi dn s y v khng c ngi i din hp php. iii. Ngi i din khiu ni thay khng hp php. iv. Ht thi hiu khiu ni ln u hoc khiu ni tip. v. c quyt nh gii quyt khiu ni cui cng. vi. V vic ang hoc c ta n th l gii quyt. H S GII QUYT KHIU NI H s gm n khiu ni, bin bn thm tra, xc minh, kt lun, kt qu gim nh, cc ti liu khc, quyt nh gii quyt khiu ni. H s phi c nh s trang theo th t ti liu v c lu tr theo quy nh ca php lut. Cp gii quyt ln u L ngi s dng lao ng hoc thanh tra vin ang thanh tra. Ngi lao ng phi lm n ghi r ngy, thng, nm khiu ni; h tn, a ch ca bn thn; ni dung khiu ni; tn, a ch ca t chc, c nhn s dng lao ng b khiu ni; yu cu ca ngi lao ng. Nu ngi i din i khiu kin thay ngi lao ng th phi c giy t u quyn hoc i din hp php. n khiu ni ln u c th np cho ngi s dng lao ng hoc thanh tra vin lao ng ang tin hnh thanh tra. Thi hiu khiu ni ln u l 90 ngy k t ngy ngi lao ng nhn c quyt nh lao ng hoc bit c hnh vi lao ng ca ch s dng lao ng. Thi gian ngi lao ng m au, i cng tc, x hoc c nguyn nhn khch quan khc th khng tnh vo thi gian khiu ni ln u. Trong thi hn 10 ngy k t ngy nhn n, ngi gi quyt khiu ni ln u phi th l v thng bo bng vn bn cho ngi lao ng bit. Thi hn gii quyt khiu ni ln u khng qu 30 ngy k t ngy th l; i vi v vic phc tp th c ko di khng qu 45 ngy. Ngi gii quyt khiu ni ln u phi gp g, i thoi trc tip vi ngi lao ng. i vi khiu ni ca tp th lao ng th phi c s tham gia ca i din cng on c s. Trong quyt nh gii quyt khiu ni ln u phi ghi r cn c php lut gii quyt khiu ni; ni dung khiu ni l ng, ng mt phn hoc sai ton b; gi nguyn, sa i hoc hu b mt phn hay ton b quyt nh, chm dt hnh vi b khiu ni, gii quyt cc vn c th trong ni dung khiu ni v bi thng (nu c); quyn khiu ni tip... Quyt nh khiu ni ln u phi gi cho ngi lao ng, ch s dng lao ng (nu ngi gii quyt khiu ni l thanh tra vin), Chnh Thanh tra S Lao ng-Thng binh v X hi, Lin on lao ng cp tnh, cc n v, t chc v c nhn c lin quan. Cp gii quyt th hai L Chnh Thanh tra S Lao ng-Thng binh v X hi. Trong thi hn 30 ngy k t ngy ht hn gii quyt ln u m khiu ni khng c gii quyt hoc c gii quyt nhng ngi lao ng khng ng th c quyn gi n khiu ni tip n Chnh Thanh tra S Lao ng-Thng binh v X hi. Thi hn gii quyt khiu ni tip khng qu 45 ngy; i vi v vic phc tp khng qu 60 ngy. 100 Chnh Thanh tra s c quyn gp g, i thoi trc tip vi hai bn; yu cu hai bn cung cp thng tin, ti liu, xc minh ti ch; trng cu gim nh...trong qu trnh gii quyt khiu ni. Nu xt quyt nh, hnh vi lao ng b khiu ni c th gy thit hi n tnh mng, sc khe ca ngi lao ng hoc gy thit hi nghim trng n li ch nh nc, Chnh Thanh tra S Lao ng-Thng binh v X hi c quyn yu cu ngi s dng lao ng tm nh ch thc hin quyt nh, hnh vi lao ng cho n khi c quyt nh ca c quan c thm quyn. Cp gii quyt th ba L Chnh Thanh tra B Lao ng-Thng binh v X hi. Trong thi hn 30 ngy k t ngy nhn c quyt nh gii quyt khiu ni ca Chnh Thanh tra S Lao ng-Thng binh v X hi m ngi lao ng, ch s dng lao ng khng ng th c quyn khiu ni tip n Chnh Thanh tra B Lao ng-Thng binh v X hi. Chnh Thanh tra b s xem xt li gii quyt ca Chnh Thanh tra s khi c mt trong cc cn c sau: i. C tnh tit mi lm thay i ni dung ca quyt nh gii quyt khiu ni cp th hai. ii. Ni dung quyt nh gii quyt khiu ni cp th hai khng ph hp vi nhng tnh tit khch quan ca v vic. iii. C vi phm nghim trng v trnh t, th tc khi xc minh, kt lun v ra quyt nh gii quyt khiu ni cp th hai gy thit hi ti li ch hp php ca cc bn. iv. C sai lm nghim trng trong vic p dng php lut. Thi hiu xem xt li quyt nh gii quyt khiu ni ca cp th hai l 24 thng k t ngy quyt nh c hiu lc. (Su tm v trch gii thiu Ngh nh 113/2004/N-CP ngy 16/4/2004 ca Chnh ph quy nh x pht hnh chnh v hnh vi vi phm lut Lao ng; Ngh nh 04/2005/N-CP ngy 11/1/2005 ca Chnh ph quy nh chi tit v hn dn thi hnh mt s iu ca B lut Lao ng v khiu ni, t co v lao ng; Thng t s 12/2005/TT-BLTBXH ngy 28/1/2005 hng dn Ngh nh 113/2004/N-CP). 101 Ti liu tham kho 1. Ch th s 20/2004/CT-TTg ca Th tng Chnh ph v vic tng cng ch o v t chc thc hin an ton-v sinh lao ng trong sn xut nng nghip. 2. Ngh nh s 113/2004/N-CP ngy 16/4/2004 ca Chnh ph quy nh x pht hnh chnh v hnh vi vi phm php lut Lao ng. 3. Ngh nh s 206/2004/N-CP ngy 14/12/2004 ca Chnh ph quy nh qun l lao ng, tin lng v thu nhp trong cc cng ty nh nc. 4. Thng t s 06/2005/TT-BLDDTBXH ngy 05/01/2005 B Lao ng Thng binh v X hi hng dn Phng php xy dng nh mc lao ng trong cc cng ty nh nc theo Ngh nh s 206/2004/N-CP ngy 14/12/2004 ca Chnh ph quy nh qun l lao ng, tin lng v thu nhp trong cc cng ty nh nc. 5. Ngh nh s 04/2005/N-CP ngy 11/1/2005 ca Chnh ph quy nh chi tit v hng dn thi hnh mt s iu ca B lut Lao ng v khiu ni, t co v lao ng. 6. Thng t s12/2005/TT-BLTBXH ngy 28/1/2005 ca B Lao ng-Thng binh v X hi hng dn thi hnh Ngh nh s 113/2004/N-CP ngy 16/4/2004 ca Chnh ph quy nh x pht hnh chnh v hnh vi vi phm php lut Lao ng. Ti liu nh: Trn Vit Hng, i hc Lm nghip cung cp. Ti liu hnh: F.J.Staudt: Ergonomic/Labour (bn ting anh). CHNG TRNH H TR NGNH LM NGHIP & I TC CM NANG Chng Gii Thiu Phn 1: Mt S Vn Bn Php Lut V Lao ng 1. Lut Lao ng (2002) 1.1 Mt s quy nh v vic lm, hp ng lao ng, tha c lao ng tp th 1.2. Mt s quy nh v thi gi lm vic v ngh ngi; k lut lao ng, trch nhim vt cht; an ton lao ng, v sinh lao ng, tai nn lao ng v bnh ngh nghip 1.3. Mt s quy nh v tin lng-bo him x hi 1.4. Mt s quy nh v gii quyt tranh chp lao ng v x pht vi phm php lut lao ng 1.5. Mt s quy nh ring v sp xp lao ng ti doanh nghip nh nc khi thc hin vic sp xp, i mi v pht trin doanh nghip nh nc Phn 2: Tiu Hao Nng Lng V Nhu Cu Dinh Dng Ca Lao ng Lm Nghip 1. Tiu hao nng lng theo loi lao ng 2. Dinh dng v cn bng nng lng theo loi lao ng Phn 3: nh Mc, Phng Php Xy Dng nh Mc Lao ng V T Chc Lao ng Khoa Hc 1. nh mc lao ng 1.1. Khi nim mc lao ng 1.2. Phn loi nh mc lao ng 1.3. Tiu chun k thut nh mc lao ng 1.3.1. Khi nim 1.3.2. Cc loi tiu chun 2. Phng php xy dng nh mc lao ng trong cc cng ty nh nc 2.1. Phm vi v i tng p dng 2.2. Nguyn tc 2.3. Phng php 2.3.1 Phng php xy dng nh mc lao ng cho n v sn phm 2.3.2. Phng php xy dng nh mc lao ng tng hp theo nh bin 3. T chc lao ng khoa hc 3.1. Phn cng v hip tc 3.2. T chc ni lm vic Phn 4: c im V Yu T nh Hng n Lao ng Lm Nghip 1. c im lao ng lm nghip 1.1. c im t chc sn xut lm nghip 1.1.1. Khon vic 1.1.2. Khon theo cng on 1.1.3. Khon hng nm 1.1.4. Khon n nh lu di c u t 1.1.5. Khon n nh lu di khng c u t ca lm trng 1.2. Tnh cht lao ng v yu cu v th lc v tay ngh 2. Yu t nh hng n lao ng lm nghip 2.1. Ting n 2.2. rung 2.3. Nhit 2.4. nh sng v mu sc 2.5. m 2.6. Bi 2.7. T th lm vic 2.8. cng thng 2.9. Sc kho v sinh 2.9.1. Nhng vn chung 2.9.2.iu kin sng 2.9.3. iu kin lm vic 2.10. an ton v tai nn lao ng Phn 5: Khi Lng Cng Vic v Kh Nng Lao ng 1. Trong khu k thut lm sinh 1.1. Khu sn xut cy con 1.2. Trong khu trng rng 1.3. Trong khu chm sc rng 2. Trong khu khai thc rng, vn xut, vn chuyn g 3. Trong khu ch bin g 4. Trong cng tc qun l, bo v rng Phn 6: Thng K Tai Nn Lao ng Lm Nghip Thng Gp Vit Nam 1. Cc tai nn thng xy ra trong lm nghip 1.1. Trong khu k thut lm sinh (v sinh rng, chm sc rng, trng rng.) 1.2. Trong khu khai thc rng ( cht h, ct khc, ct cnh...) 1.3. Trong khu vn xut g (ng cp, my ko, mng lao...) 1.4. Trong khu vn chuyn g (bc xp, d g ln xe v xung sng...) 1.5. Trong khu kho bi (ct khc, xp ng, bo qun...) 1.6. Trong khu ch bin g (ch bin c gii v ho hc...) 1.7. Trong cng tc qun l, bo v rng 2. Nguyn nhn, cch khc phc 2.1. Nguyn nhn 2.2. Cch khc phc 3. S khc bit gia cc ma v ngnh 3.1. Trong khu lm sinh 3.1.1. Trong vic to cy con 3.1.2. Trong cng tc trng rng 3.1.3. Trong cng tc chm sc, nui dng rng 3.1.4. Trong cng tc bo v rng 3.2. Trong khu khai thc, vn xut, vn chuyn 3.3. Trong khu ch bin Phn 7: An Ton V Hng Dn An Ton Lao ng Trong Lm Nghip 1. Cc yu t nguy him 2. Cc bin php v phng tin k thut an ton 2.1. Cc bin php m bo an ton lao ng trong sn xut 2.1.1. Bin php v k thut cng ngh 2.1.2. Bin php k thut v sinh 2.1.3. Bin php phng h c nhn 2.1.4. Bin php t chc lao ng khoa hc 2.1.5. Bin php y t bo v sc khe 2.2. Bin php tng cng cng tc gio dc, hun luyn v an ton lao ng 3. Thit lp h thng kim sot an ton lao ng 4. Hng dn an ton lao ng trong khai thc, vn xut, vn chuyn g v lm sn 4.1. An ton lao ng trong cht h g, tre, na 4.2. An ton lao ng trong vn xut g v lm sn 4.2.1. An ton lao ng trong lao g 4.2.2. An ton lao ng trong vn xut g bng my ko 4.2.3. An ton lao ng trong vn xut g bng ng cp 4.3. An ton lao ng trn kho g 4.4. An ton lao ng trong vn chuyn g v lm sn bng ng t 4.4.1. Yu cu an ton i vi cc thit b bc d, vn chuyn 4.4.2. Yu cu an ton i vi tuyn ng vn chuyn g v lm sn 4.4.3. Yu cu an ton khi bc d v vn chuyn g 4.4.4. An ton lao ng trong vn chuyn g v lm sn bng ng thy 5. Hng dn an ton lao ng trong ch bin lm sn 7. Hng dn an ton lao ng trong qun l bo v rng 7.1. i vi cng tc phng chng ngi v gia sc ph hoi rng 7.2. i vi cng tc phng tr su bnh hi rng 7.3. i vi cng tc phng chng chy rng Phn 8: Hng Dn S Dng Lao ng Hp L 1. Mt s vn khi s dng lao ng trong lm nghip 1.1. T chc lao ng khoa hc 1.2. Ngh ngi v gii tr 1.3. Chm sc sc kho 2. Mt s yu cu v cng tc bo h lao ng trong sn xut lm nghip Ch tham kho Ch 1 Ch 2 Ti liu tham kho

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