Lecutre 9 Pre Disaster Management

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  • Preparedness for Natural

    Disasters

  • Total Disaster Management

    (TDM)

    Pre disaster Management

    Syn-disaster Management

    Post disaster Management

  • Pre disaster phase

    Risk identification

    Mitigation

    Risk transfer

    Preparedness

  • Risk Identification

    Hazard Assessment

    (discussed already in previous lectures)

    Vulnerability Assessment

    (discussed already in previous lectures)

  • HAZARD ASSESSMENT

    HAZARD ASSESSMENT& PROBABILITY-

    Hazard wise

    Frequency

    Magnitude

    Location

  • HISTORY OF DISASTER IN THE PAST

    10 YEARS

    Type of Hazard Year of Occurrence Effect

    Drought 2004 Villages affected-61, Villages (crop

    loss between 50%-74%-59, Crop

    loss more than 75%-2)

    Cyclone 2005 Villages affected -88, Population

    affected-69,000,Crop area affected-

    Boats-802, Nets-1371, Crop area

    affected 3089 Hectares, Human life

    lost-2, Houses collapsed-

  • SEASONALITY OF DISASTER

    Type of Month of occurrence

    hazard Jan Feb Mar Apr May June July Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec

    Flood

    Cyclone

    Drought

    Earthquake

  • VULNERABILITY& RISK ASSESSMENT

    Type of

    hazard

    Potential Impact Vulnerable Areas

    Cyclone Loss of crop, infrastructure, human

    and bovine (cattles ) life, livelihoods,

    houses, Pvt & Public property etc

    Coastal Areas,

    Villages,

    Habitations

    Drought Loss of crop, livelihoods, scarcity of

    food,fodder,water, etc

    Villages,

    Habitations

  • Mitigation

    Physical/structural mitigation works

    Land-use planning and building codes

    Education, training and awareness about risks and prevention

  • MITIGATION PLAN

    SECTOR WISE VULNERABILITY REDUCTION MEASURES

    Type of

    sectorSub Sector Mitigation

    measures

    Respo

    nsible

    dept

    Time

    frame

    Responsi

    ble

    officer

    Health 1.IEC

    2.Vaccination

    3.Training

    1.Distribution of

    leaflets, posters

    wall painting,

    2Procurement &

    stock piling of

    vaccines.

    3Impart trg on

    sanitation

    practice, first Aid

    to Staff,

    Volunteers &

    NGO

    Health Normal

    Period

    Check

    lists

  • Risk Transfer

    Insurance (Individual, Family, Group) Insurance of public infrastructure and

    private assets

    Privatization of public services with safety regulation (energy, water and transportation)

    Calamity Funds A) Calamity Relief Fund

    75% central govt & 25% State govt

    B) National Calamity Contingency Fund

  • Preparedness

    Disaster preparedness defined as actions taken in advance of a disaster to ensure

    adequate response to its impacts, and the

    relief and recovery from its consequences is performed to eliminate the need for any last

    minute actions.

    Goals of disaster preparedness are knowing what to do in as disaster aftermath, knowing

    how to do it, and being equipped with the

    right tools to do it effectively.

  • Preparedness Actions and

    Activities Preparedness actions and activities can be

    divided to recipients.

    Government Component

    Administration

    Emergency management

    Public Health

    Other services

    Individual and Business is another Group

    Follow instructions

    Organize in time of emergency

    Share the facilities etc.

  • Government Action

    The diverse range of Government preparedness can be grouped into five

    general categories:-

    Planning

    Exercise

    Training

    Equipment

    Statutory Authority

  • Planning

    The most comprehensive methodology used to plan against disaster is the

    Emergency Operation Plan (EOP).

    This plan can be scaled up or down depending upon the needs of the

    community and the particular disaster,

    and are able to accommodate the

    complex and diverse needs of a full

    range of disaster impact reduction

    activities.

  • EOP

    Main Contents of EOP are:-

    Community facing risk

    Agencies involved in response in hazard event

    Responsibilities of agencies involved

    How structure and community will be protected in emergency event

    Catalogue the resources available within and outside the jurisdiction

    EOP also referred as contingency plan, counter disaster plan, continuity of operation

    plan, emergency response plan.

  • Who will Prepare EOP? EOPs are required at every level of

    government, from local to national level. They

    can be created for individual entities, such as

    schools, hospitals, prisons, or utilities.

    Plans can be integrated which improves thecoordination among agencies and

    community.

    EOP not only define what is done at eachorganizational level, but also address under

    what circumstances each organizational level

    interacts, and how they will do so.

  • Component of EOP

    Hazard Risk Analysis (discussed)

    It provide information hazard result and consequences, as we are preparing response

    mechanism thus need to know the consequences

    of previous hazard impact.

    The basic plan

    Functional annexes

  • The basic plan It is the main body of the document that

    describe the emergency operations within the

    community and country.

    The main purpose is to introduce and describe various concepts and policies, clarify

    individual and agency responsibilities, and

    delineate authority.

  • Sections of basic plans

    Introductory material

    Purpose

    Situation and assumption

    Concept of operation

    Organization and assignments of responsibilities

    Administration and logistics section

    Plan development and logistics

    The basic plan (2)

  • Functional Annexes

    EOP base plan also often supplemented by functional annexes that provide much more

    highly detailed information about the

    operational needs of specific response

    mechanisms.

    Annexes that may provide detail information for activities like

    Notification and warning

    Evacuation

    Communication

    Public works

  • Functional Annexes (2) Annexes that my provide detail information

    for activities like

    Public information

    Fire suppression

    Search and rescue

    Emergency medical services and mass care

    Mortuary services

    Security and perimeter control

    Inclusion of military resources

    Transportation

    Traffic control

    Financial management

    Volunteer management

    Donations management

  • Exercise

    Its purpose is to practice the roles and responsibilities before an actual event occur

    for those, involved in disaster response.

    This is not only help to ensure their efficiency during emergency situation but also help to

    find the problems in plans while practicing in

    non-emergency situation.

  • Type of Disaster Preparedness

    Exercise

    Drill

    Tabletop Exercise

    Functional Exercise

    Full Scale Exercise

  • Training

    Training is the component of government preparedness. Disaster

    response officials are more effective if

    they are trained to do their job.

    First response officials like police, fire and emergency medical services are

    likely to have some basic standard of

    introductory training.

  • List of training Evacuation

    Mass care

    Mass fatalities management

    Debris management

    Flood fighting operations

    Warning coordination

    Spontaneous volunteer management

    Weapons of mass destruction

    Cyclonic storm response

    Urban search and rescue

    Crowd control

    Response to terrorist attack

  • Example for Flood Hazard

    Preparedness Setting of Control Room

    Setting of Wireless Station

    Constitution of Flood Zones

    Deployment of Country Boats

    Storage and Stock Piling of Emergency Relief

    Identification of Weak and Vulnerable Points

    Awareness Generation

    Mock Drill

    Selection of Flood type

    Alternative Communication and Road Net Works

    Transport

    Liaison other departments

    Provision of rescue kits

  • Arrangement of vehicle for relief and rescue operation

    To watch and ward belongings of evacuees and maintenance of law and order

    Post flood assessment Restoration of electrical installation Escort for supply of relief materials Opening of fair price shops Arrangement materials for temporary shelter Free Kitchen Food for Work programme Cattle camps Relief

  • Agriculture

    Crop weather watch group formation

    Functioning of control room

    Receive information from the field and place before higher authority

    Pre-positioning of seeds/pesticides

    Public information centers

  • Irrigation Closure of past breaches in river and canal

    embankments

    Round the clock guarding of weak points

    Gauge reading of different river points

    Squad to watch and ward the weak points

    Pre-positioning of sandbags and other equipments.

    Preparation of list of weak and vulnerable points

    Removal of obstruction from all the channels

    Legal action against the obstructers

    Keeping the drainage clear

    Removal of old and dead trees before onset of monsoon in order to avoid road blockage during calamities

  • Evacuation

    To warn people about the impending danger

    To leave for safer places

    Arrangement of boats/vehicles etc. for evacuation

    Evacuate people of marooned (isloated) areas and administer emergent relief

    Deployment of police for peace keeping while evacuation

    Mobilize people to go to identified/safer shelters

    Propositioning of food stuff and adequate drinking water at the

    shelter places

  • Search & Rescue

    Deployment of police/fire brigade for search and rescue

    Transportation of the injured to the hospital

    Pre-positioning of life saving drugs and medicines

    Co-ordination with the PDMA/Civil Defense etc. for rescue operation

  • Medical Aid

    Deployment of the staff in the cut-off areas with medicine Stock pilling of required medicines/ORS packets/Chlorine tablets Treatment of the wounded Transportation of the injured to hospitals Awareness messages to stop the outbreak of epidemics Disease surveillance and transmission of reports to the higher

    authorities on a daily basis.

    Vaccination Constitute mobile teams and visit the worst affected areas Dis-infection of water sources Identification of site operation camps To obtain/transmit information on natural calamities to field

    functionaries

    Advance inoculation programme in the flood prone areas Arrangement of fodder/medicines for the animals Vaccination Site operation camps Carcasses disposal