Lesson Plan Review New Words and Phrases Reading and Translating—Unit Twelve Classroom Exercises

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  • Lesson Plan

    Review New Words and Phrases Reading and TranslatingUnit Twelve Classroom Exercises

  • Review

  • Unit Twelve Load of High-rise Building 12

  • Dead Loads Dead loads are defined as fixed, nonmovable loads of a permanent nature which can be divided into two categories: self weight of the structure superimposed dead loads.

  • Dead Loads Dead loads are defined as fixed, nonmovable loads of a permanent nature which can be divided into two categories: self weight of the structuresuperimposed dead loads.

  • The self-weight of the structure includes all beams, girders, columns, slabs, walls, bracing, and any other structural elements. Concrete framing systems are typically heavier than steel framing systems, which can sometimes be an advantage from a wind overturning standpoint but can also be a disadvantage in terms of seismic and foundation considerations.

  • The self-weight of the structure includes all beams, girders, columns, slabs, walls, bracing, and any other structural elements. Concrete framing systems are typically heavier than steel framing systems, which can sometimes be an advantage from a wind overturning standpoint but can also be a disadvantage in terms of seismic and foundation considerations.

  • Superimposed dead loads consist of partitions, ceilings, hung mechanical/electrical loads (e.g., sprinklers, lights, etc.), special floor fills and finishes, facade weight, and any other dead load which acts in addition to the weight of the structural elements.

  • Superimposed dead loads consist of partitions, ceilings, hung mechanical/electrical loads (e.g., sprinklers, lights, etc.), special floor fills and finishes, facade weight, and any other dead load which acts in addition to the weight of the structural elements. ( )

  • The lightweight partition types that are utilized in modern high-rise buildings usually result in an equivalent uniform superimposed dead load ranging between 400 and 600N/m2. For preliminary design, however, it is prudent to include a 1kN/m2 allowance for partitions since the actual partition types, weights, and locations are often not defined at this stage.

  • The lightweight partition types that are utilized in modern high-rise buildings usually result in an equivalent uniform superimposed dead load ranging between 400 and 600N/m2. For preliminary design, however, it is prudent to include a 1kN/m2 allowance for partitions since the actual partition types, weights, and locations are often not defined at this stage. 400~600N/m2 1kN/m2

  • Suspended ceiling weights and mechanical/ electrical loadings vary from project to project, depending upon the type of occupancy and the type of structural system utilized, and usually range between 100 and 500N/m2.

  • Suspended ceiling weights and mechanical/ electrical loadings vary from project to project, depending upon the type of occupancy and the type of structural system utilized, and usually range between 100 and 500N/m2. 100~500N/m2

  • Floor fills or other special floor finishes can result in significant dead loads. Examples are brick or stone pavers in lobby areas, concrete fill over a waterproofing membrane for mechanical room floors.

  • Floor fills or other special floor finishes can result in significant dead loads. Examples are brick or stone pavers in lobby areas, concrete fill over a waterproofing membrane for mechanical room floors.

  • The facade weight can vary significantly, depending upon the type of facade to be used, for example, glass curtain wall, precast concrete, masonry, or stone. The weight of glass curtain wall systems usually ranges between 400 and 600N/m2, but the weight of precast or masonry facades can be 2~4KN/m2 or more.

  • The facade weight can vary significantly, depending upon the type of facade to be used, for example, glass curtain wall, precast concrete, masonry, or stone. The weight of glass curtain wall systems usually ranges between 400 and 600N/m2, but the weight of precast or masonry facades can be 2~4KN/m2 or more. 400~600N/m22~4kN/m2

  • Live Loads Live loads are nonpermanent in nature and vary depending upon the usage of the building floor area. For example, most building codes specify a minimum design live load of 2.5KN/m2 for typical office areas.

  • Live Loads Live loads are nonpermanent in nature and vary depending upon the usage of the building floor area. For example, most building codes specify a minimum design live load of 2.5KN/m2 for typical office areas. 2.5kN/m2

  • Increased live loads for special usage areas that are known at the time of preliminary design should be taken into account, such as lobbies, restaurants, mechanical equipment rooms, cooling towers, landscaped planting areas, computer rooms, and places of assembly.

  • Increased live loads for special usage areas that are known at the time of preliminary design should be taken into account, such as lobbies, restaurants, mechanical equipment rooms, cooling towers, landscaped planting areas, computer rooms, and places of assembly.

  • Localized areas to be used for storage or heavy filing loads are often unknown at the time of preliminary design and, therefore, must be taken into account during final design or, as sometimes is necessary, during or after construction.

  • Localized areas to be used for storage or heavy filing loads are often unknown at the time of preliminary design and, therefore, must be taken into account during final design or, as sometimes is necessary, during or after construction.

  • Roof live loads, which will be a very small portion of total gravity load, include snow loads with due consideration given to drifting, for example, at vertical surfaces of parapets, awning, and adjacent structures. Allowable reductions of live load in accordance with applicable building code provisions should be applied during the preliminary design phase.

  • Roof live loads, which will be a very small portion of total gravity load, include snow loads with due consideration given to drifting, for example, at vertical surfaces of parapets, awning, and adjacent structures. Allowable reductions of live load in accordance with applicable building code provisions should be applied during the preliminary design phase.

  • Wind Loads Outside of high-risk seismic zoneswind is the force that most affects the design of high-rise buildings. For this reason, a brief summary of current approaches for determining wind force is presented here.

  • Wind Loads Outside of high-risk seismic zoneswind is the force that most affects the design of high-rise buildings. For this reason, a brief summary of current approaches for determining wind force is presented here.

  • For preliminary design, wind loads are usually derived from the wind pressures specified in the governing building codes. The wind loads acting on the overall structure are generally given as stepped increments of wind pressure along the height of the building, with the pressures increasing in magnitude as the height above ground level increases.

  • For preliminary design, wind loads are usually derived from the wind pressures specified in the governing building codes. The wind loads acting on the overall structure are generally given as stepped increments of wind pressure along the height of the building, with the pressures increasing in magnitude as the height above ground level increases.

  • These wind loads are taken to act normal to the vertical surfaces of the building with consideration also given to the effect of lateral wind loads. For certain configurations of the structural bracing system, lateral wind loads can be much more severe than normal wind loads.

  • These wind loads are taken to act normal to the vertical surfaces of the building with consideration also given to the effect of lateral wind loads. For certain configurations of the structural bracing system, lateral wind loads can be much more severe than normal wind loads.