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<p>States of Consciousness</p> <p>Levels of consciousness, Sleep &amp; dreaming, Sleep Disorders, Hypnosis and Drugs States of ConsciousnessLevels of Consciousness Clearing up the languageConsciousness Your awareness of the outside world, yourself, and your thoughts, feelings and perceptionsPreconscious Memories and feelings that are outside of our awareness, but easily accessible Ex. What happened in the football games this weekend?Unconscious/Subconscious Psychodynamic concept All of the thoughts, feelings and desires that are not available to our conscious mind too inappropriateNon-Conscious Bodily processes that occur totally outside of our conscious awareness, such as blood flow and hormonal activityGetting your zzzzzzsSleep and DreamingSleep is a combination of different states of consciousnessThe amount of sleep we get varies Newborns average about 16-18 hours per day, most adults average about 7AP Exam Review - What portions of the brain control our levels of wakefulness, arousal and attention?The Reticular Formation, Thalamus and HypothalamusCircadian Rhythm - physical, mental and behavioral changes that follow a roughly 24-hour cycleStages of SleepBrain Waves are measured with Electroencephalograms (EEGs)Awake Beta WavesRelaxed Wakefulness (Hypnagogic State) Alpha WavesTwo types of sleep REM and NREM NREM is divided into 4 stagesStage 1 Theta WavesStage 2 Sleep Spindles High frequency bursts of brain activityStage 3 Transition stage. Beginning of Delta WavesStage 4 Deep sleep.Delta (D Deep) Heart rate, temperature, blood flow to the brain are all reducedThen, the countdown 3,2,1REM sleep Paradoxical Sleep Eyes move, breathing is irregular, heart rate increase, etc. but muscles are relaxed.DreamsFreud believed dreams revealed the secrets of the unconscious a safety valve for our desiresManifest Content The story that we rememberedLatent Content The underlying meaningActivation-Synthesis Theory Pons generates action potentials, and then the dreamer creates a story lineKey Question Are dreams psychological (Psychoanalysts) or physiological (A-S Theory)?Sleep DisordersREM-Rebound More time is spent in REM sleep the night after a bad sleepInsomnia The inability to fall asleep or stay sleepingNarcolepsy An awake person falls asleep Sudden and uncontrollable Usually directly into REM sleepSleep Apnea Temporary cessation of breathingNight Terrors Childhood sleep disruption from Stage 4 sleepSleepwalking/ Somnambulism - Childhood sleep disruption from Stage 4 sleep In both cases, usually nothing is remembered in the morningHypnosisHypnosis an altered state of consciousness deep relaxation and heightened suggestibilityWhen I ring this bell, you will begin to cluck like a chickenMay smell, taste, see or hear things that are not really thereHighly vivid and intenseHigh levels of focusManage pain, quit certain unwanted behaviors, relaxation, etc.DrugsPsychoactive Drugs Substances that can pass through the blood/brain barrier to alter perception Ex. CoffeeDepressants Reduce the activity of the Central Nervous System and induce relaxation Barbiturates, tranquilizers &amp; alcohol Valium, Xanax, roofiesNarcotics CNS depressants Opiates Morphine, opium, heroin Relieve pain and induce sleepStimulants Reduce inhibitions and increase motivational centers of the brain Caffeine, cocaine and EcstasyHallucinogens alter mood and distort perceptions LSD, PCP, Marijuana</p>