Linux cправочник 3-е издание

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<ul><li><p>LINUX</p><p>O'REILLY8 , &amp; . </p></li><li><p>Books Ru - Microsoft Internet FxploieiJfjaa*</p><p> |] hi p '/, boa ru/</p><p>1 , U J j Lt- 3 _, UJ^</p><p> nf-n_LTL , JF.-U-L'U</p><p>|/I- 1 T6LIM. I ;</p><p> / . t q biffi^1 </p><p> basari ^; -</p><p>=bL_*ll</p><p>Delphi. P, f</p><p> Flier </p></li><li><p>LINUXIN A NUTSHELL</p><p>Third Edition</p><p>Ellen Siever, Stephen Spainhour,Stephen Figgins &amp; Jessica P. Hekman</p><p>O'REILLY'</p></li><li><p>LINUX</p><p> , ,</p><p> . </p></li><li><p> , ,</p><p> . </p><p>Linux. .</p><p> . </p><p>. . </p><p> . </p><p> . ,</p><p>. </p><p> . </p><p> . </p><p> ., ., .</p><p>Linux. . - . . - : -, 2001. - 912 ., .ISBN 5-93286-012-</p><p> , </p><p>Linux, . - , </p><p>, . </p><p> Linux , : , bash, csh tcsh, , Emacs vi, sed gawk, , .</p><p> LILO Loadlin, RCS CVS, GNOME KDE fvwm2. - Red Hat - Debian - dpkg. .</p><p>ISBN 5-93286-012-ISBN 0-59600-025-1()</p><p> -, 2001Authorized translation of the English edition 2000 O'Reilly &amp; Associates Inc. Thistranslation is published and sold by permission of O'Reilly &amp; Associates Inc., the ownerof all rights to publish and sell the same. , -</p><p> . -</p><p>, , .</p><p> -. 193148, -, . , 4,. (812) 324-5353, edit@aymbol.ru. 000054 25.12.98.</p><p> 15.10.2001. 70xlOOV,e. .</p><p> . 57 . . 3000 . 1848. . . . </p><p> , </p><p> .</p><p>197110, -, ., 15.</p></li><li><p> 9</p><p>1. 15 Linux 16 17 Linux 18 18 21 22</p><p>2. 27 27 33 TCP/IP 35 41 NFS 43 NIS 45 NIS 46RPC XDR 47</p><p>3. Linux 48 49</p><p>4. 459 459LILO: Linux 461Loadlin: MS-DOS 473 Linux Windows NT/2000 475, 477initrd: RAM- 479</p><p>5. Red Hat Debian 481 Red Hat 482 Debian 494</p></li><li><p>6. Linux 514 514 515 516 518</p><p>7. bash: 519 519 521 523 534 539 541 544 573</p><p>8. csh tcsh 575 576 576 577 582 595 599 603 608 csh tcsh 609</p><p>9. 633 634 Linux 634 636 638</p><p>10. Emacs 641 641 641 644 Emacs 652 Emacs 657</p></li><li><p>11. vi 664 vi 665 vi 667 668 670 672 677 , </p><p> 678 681 682 vi 695</p><p>12. sed 699 sed 699 700 sed 701 sed 702 sed 704</p><p>13. gawk 713 714 714 716 gawk 718 719 720 awk 721 721</p><p>14. CVS RCS 729 729 CVS 732 CVS 733 CVS 754 RCS 782 RCS 783 RCS 783 RCS 784 RCS 789</p></li><li><p>15. GNOME 803 804 807 809 GNOME 811</p><p>16. 830 831 837 KDE 839</p><p>17. fvwmZ 857 fvwm2 858 858 859 </p><p> 860 fvwm 861 863 </p><p> 864 864 865 867 </p><p> 869 </p><p> 870 872 877FvwmWinList: 879</p><p> 882</p></li><li><p> Linux - - Unix . Linux (Linus Torvalds), -</p><p>. -</p><p> , -</p><p>. Linux , - </p><p>(Free Software Foundation, FSF) Berkley Unix (BSD), X Window (XFree86) X Consortium - , Linux.Linux - , </p><p> RAID-, , - . -</p><p> GNOME , .</p><p> -</p><p> Linux. - In a Nutshell O'Reilly, , , , </p><p> , , </p><p> . , </p><p>Linux.</p></li><li><p>10 </p><p> , Linux - . </p><p> (Bill McCarty), O'Reilly, - Red Hat Linux (Learning Red Hat Linux) Debian GNU/Linux (Learning Debian GNU/Linux), Linux, -. ,</p><p> (Matt Welsh), - (Matthias Kalle Dalheimer) (Lar Kaufman) - Linux1 (Running Linux), . </p><p> Linux (Linux NetworkingAdministration Guide) (Olaf Kirch) (TerryDawson). O'Reilly Linux Li-nux Unix, X Win-dow, Perl Java.</p><p> Linux . Linux(Linux Documentation Project), http://www.Unux-doc.org. , - HOWTO, . GNU, , http://www.gnu.org ( - ). (FSF), - GNU, , , - .</p><p>Linux Journal Linux MagazineLinux Journal Linux Magazine - , - Linux. - Linux. - , -</p><p>, . Linux Journal - - , S.S.C. Incorporated http://www.ssc.com. Linux Magazine http://www.linuxmagazine.com.</p><p>1 ., ., . Linux, -</p><p>, 2000.</p></li><li><p> 11</p><p> Usenet, Linux Usenet :</p><p>..os,linux.announce , </p><p> , , -</p><p> Li-nux. Linux . - linux-announce@news.ornl.gov.</p><p>comp.os.linux.help Linux.</p><p>comp.os.linux.admin , Linux.</p><p>comp.os.linux.networking Linux.</p><p>.os.linux.development , Linux .</p><p>comp.os.linux.misc , , </p><p> .</p><p> , Linux, , , , (fr.comp.os.linux) (de.comp.os.linux)1.</p><p> Linux ,</p><p>, .</p><p> IRC- OpenProjects , Open Source ( ), Open Hardware ( ). Linux. IRC (In-ternet Relay Chat) , - . -</p><p> IRC , -</p><p>1 -fido7.ru.lmux. - . .</p><p>.</p></li><li><p>12 </p><p> . , </p><p>, , .</p><p> IRC OpenProjects, 24 - , -</p><p> Linux -. IRC, IRC-, irc-II, irc.openprojects.org:6667n Jt l ihpeople 1 .</p><p> Linux Linux . -</p><p>, , , -</p><p> . -</p><p> Linux - - , . </p><p> , . </p><p>:</p><p>Groups of Linux Users Everywherehttp://www.ssc.com/glue/groups</p><p>LUG list projecthttp://www.nllgg.nl/lugww</p><p>LUG registryhttp://www.linux.org/users</p><p>, </p><p> :</p><p> , . </p><p>, , .</p><p> , -</p><p> . -</p><p> , -</p><p> .</p><p> .</p><p> ttrusunix t t u n i x . ru irc.msu.ru. - . ..</p></li><li><p> 13</p><p>, .</p><p> , </p><p> .</p><p> % $ -</p><p> tcsh (%) bash ($). [ ]</p><p> ( -). , [files]. , - (. . ). - .</p><p>EOF ( +).</p><p> | , -</p><p> .</p><p> , -</p><p> . :</p><p>, , </p><p>, .</p><p> . </p><p> . -</p><p> . , -wra ( ) , w . - .</p><p> , -</p><p> , , -</p><p> ( !). , , -</p><p> , :</p></li><li><p>14 </p><p>O'Reilly &amp; Associates, Inc.101 Morris StreetSebastopol, CA 95472800-998-9938 ( )707-829-0515 (/ )707-829-0104 ()</p><p> . -</p><p> , :</p><p>info@oreilly.com -</p><p>, :</p><p>bookquestions@oreilly.com -, , </p><p> . :</p><p>http://www.oreilly.com/catalog/linuxnut3 </p><p>O'Reilly:http://www.oreilly.com</p><p> Linux. . (Andy Oram) , (Val Quercia) - </p><p>, .</p><p> , Linux (RunningLinux) Installation and Getting Started Guide, ; (Michael . Johnson) Red Hat Software, - (Robert J. Chassell), (Phil Hughes) (LaurieLynne Tucker) Linux Journal; (Arnold Robbins), (Julian T.J. Midgley), (Doug Moreen), (Ron Passerini) (Mark Stone).</p></li><li><p> 1</p><p> Linux , -</p><p> . -</p><p> Unix, Linux - . -, -</p><p> Unix- Win-dows NT. , Linux ( ), Windows, , .</p><p> -</p><p> Linux . Linux (http://opensource.org), , Samba GNOME, - , -</p><p> , SourceForge (http://sourceforge.net). - , Linux GNU , , ,</p><p> , </p><p>Linux. , Linux - </p><p> .</p><p> Linux , -, , </p><p>.</p></li><li><p>16 !. </p><p> Linux , Linux - -: - -. Linux - , , </p><p> . </p><p> Linux ( In-tel, ), - - , , -</p><p> Linux, . , Linux Unix-. - Unix ( , -, , </p><p> ) , , Perl, , - </p><p> .</p><p> , AT&amp;T Unix , - .</p><p> - Linux - , , -</p><p>. , , </p><p> (, , - Linux), , , , -</p><p> -</p><p> .</p><p> Linux , - , </p><p> . -</p><p> , , (, , ). Li-nux , .</p><p> Linux Unix, - .</p><p>1 </p><p> Linux POSIX.l. Linux </p><p>1 Unix-, -</p><p> /.</p></li><li><p> 17</p><p>Unix-, , , Unix Linux. , , - , Unix.</p><p> Linux - IBM- , - . , MS-DOS MicrosoftWindows, , , Linux . Linux - .</p><p> Linux , -</p><p>: , ., -</p><p> Samba Linux , - PC-. - Apache Linux - ( ) -, -.</p><p> - , Linux, </p><p> . -</p><p> , </p><p>. 50, , , , </p><p>. CD-ROM - Linux .</p><p> Linux, . </p><p>Usenet ( ), </p><p> . -</p><p>, Linux , , , .</p><p> Linux Intel, -</p><p>., PowerPC, Alpha ( Digital Equipment Corporation, Compaq), SPARC, MIPS 64- Intel Itanium.</p></li><li><p>18 1. </p><p> Linux Linux Unix. ! , - GNU, - . GNU GNU's not Unix (GNU - Unix). . Unix, - GNU , -</p><p>, , -</p><p> .</p><p> GNU Linux - , grep, - Linux - Berkeley Software (BSD). , Linux, , , Linux. - Unix, - Linux. , -</p><p> Linux, - X Window, XFree86 - Intel. -, -</p><p> , </p><p>KDE, GNOME fvwm.</p><p> O'Reilly &amp; Associ-ates Unix in a Nutshell, , - Linux. , - ( - , -</p><p>), KDE GNOME, fvwm, , CVS bash.Linux. Linux. , , </p><p>, . </p><p> , , , </p><p>, ,</p><p> . -</p><p>, .</p></li><li><p> 19</p><p> Unix ( 70-),Linux . Linux- - ( -), Linux . , Unix in a Nutshell, .</p><p> , Linux , - , </p><p>. , -</p><p> VT100 ( xterm), . , -</p><p> , .</p><p> , -</p><p> Linux, - , - . </p><p> Unix-, -. O'Reilly, RedHat Linux (Learning Red Hat Linux), Debian GNU/Linux (Le-arning Debian GNU/Linux) Linux (Running Linux). - 2 , -</p><p> , -</p><p>; 3 Linux. -, </p><p> .</p><p> , 3, . </p><p> ( MicrosoftWindows, OS/2 - Unix), Linux . -</p><p> , . 4 </p><p> Intel, LILO (Linux Loader) Loadlin. 5 Red Hat Debian Red Hat (rpm), ,Red Hat SuSE, Debian (dpkg). - -</p><p>; - .</p><p> . -</p><p> - , </p><p> . </p><p>. Linux - - bash tcsh, . ( Linux Unix- -</p></li><li><p>20 1. </p><p> , -</p><p> .) - . , -</p><p> , , -</p><p> , ,</p><p> .</p><p> , -</p><p> : , -. , Linux, - vi Emacs. - Unix, : sed gawk (GNU-- awk). O'Reilly , - . , -</p><p> . Emacs, , - , , </p><p> +, ( tutorial - ). - CVS (Concurrent Versions System) RCS(Revision Control System) - - -</p><p> . RCS CVS - -</p><p> , -</p><p> , , </p><p> . CVS - RCS . CVS RCS 14CVSnRCS. Linux , , -, , , </p><p> . -</p><p> , , -</p><p> . </p><p>, . </p><p> , X Window, ( , Linux ), -, Perl, Tcl/Tk Python, - . -</p><p> , -</p><p> .</p><p> , -</p><p> . , , </p><p> , 95% -, .</p></li><li><p> 21</p><p> Linux, . Linux ( , - -</p><p>). , . -</p><p> Linux , , -</p><p> ' </p><p> . -</p><p> General Public License, GPL copyleft (- copyright), (FSF)., (Richard Stallman), , </p><p> , . ( Linux: , </p><p> ?) - Unix - GNU Emacs, gcc g++ ( C++), - . GNU - GNOME, - , . -</p><p> GNOME , - , </p><p>, .</p><p> , FSF , , -</p><p> , . FSF - Linux- Debian. FSF , </p><p> GPL. - . , </p><p> , - -</p><p> , . .</p><p> . FSF -. GPL , - , http://www.gnu.org/copy-left/gpl.html. , Linux BSD, GNU. BSD . - BSD GPL, </p></li><li><p>22 1. </p><p> . BSD - -</p><p>, GNU.</p><p> Linux, -. , , </p><p> .</p><p>ftp File Transfer Protocol ( ).login .rlogin .rsh .talk </p><p>.</p><p>telnet .tftp Trivial File Transfer Protocol ( </p><p>).uudecode , </p><p> uuencode.uuencode , , -</p><p> .</p><p>vacation .</p><p> .</p><p> .</p><p>diff .diffS .</p><p>cat .chfn , </p><p>finger, . .cksum .chmod .chsh , . .</p></li><li><p> 23</p><p>csplit ,dd .file .head .less .In .Is .merge .mkdir . .</p><p>mv .</p><p>newgrp .pwd . .</p><p> .</p><p>rmdir .split .tail .we , .</p><p>Ipq .1 .Iprm .Ipstat . .</p><p> .</p><p>as .</p><p>bison . .</p><p>flex .g++ GNU C++.gcc GNU .Id .4 .make .</p></li><li><p>24 1. </p><p>ranlib .rpcgen RPC . .</p><p>cvs .</p><p>etags Emacs.gctags vi.gdb GNU.gprof .imake make.make , </p><p> .</p><p> .</p><p>patch .res .</p><p>size .strace .strip .</p><p>apropos .egrep grep.fgrep .find .grep .strings .whereis .</p><p>echo . .</p><p>printf .sleep .test .</p></li><li><p> 25</p><p>bzip2 .cpio .gunzip (.gz .Z) ().gzip .shar .tar .zcat .</p><p>at .atq , </p><p> at.atrm at.chgrp .chown .crontab .date .df .du .env .</p><p>finger .kill .printenv .ps ,stty .who , .</p><p>col .cut . , vi.expand .fmt .fold .gawk .ghostscript PostScript PDF.groff troff.</p></li><li><p>26 1. </p><p>ispell .join .paste .rev .</p><p>sed .sort .tac .tr () .uniq .vi .xargs .</p><p>banner .be .cal .clear .man .</p><p>nice .nohup </p><p> .</p><p>passwd .script .su .</p><p>tee .which .</p></li><li><p> 2</p><p> -</p><p>.</p><p>hwclock .netdate (host).rdate .zdump .zic .</p><p>apmd .bootpd .fingerd finger.ftpd (FTP).gated .identd , TCP/IP.imapd .inetd -.kerneld , .klogd syslogd.</p></li><li><p>28 2. </p><p>Ipd .mountd , </p><p> NFS.named .nfsd NFS.pop2d POP-.pop3d POP-.powerd .pppd (- -</p><p>point-to-point protocol).rdistd .rexecd .rlogind rlogin.routed .rshd .rwhod who.syslogd , , .talkd , talk,tcpd TCP.tftpd .update .ypbind NIS.yppasswdd NIS.ypserv NIS-.</p><p>agetty . ARP.cardctl PCMCIA-.cardmgr PCMCIA-.cfdisk ( ).fdisk .getty .kbdrate </p><p>.</p><p>ramsi/e RAM-.setserial .slattach .</p></li><li><p> 29</p><p>arch .dnsdomainname DNS- .domainname NIS- .free .host .hostname .nslookup .uname .</p><p>cpio .install .rdist .tar </p><p> .</p><p>fetchmail .formail .mailq .makemap sendmail.rmail uucp.sendmail .</p><p> Unix ( - , -), . , , -</p><p>- , -</p><p> .</p><p> ; , -</p><p> . Linux - Se-cond Extended Filesystem, ext2fs, , , . (Second Ex-tended Filesystem), Linux, 256 , - - . ( , </p></li><li><p>30 2. </p><p> .) </p><p>MS-DOS, Linux , DOS- , ISO 9660, - -.</p><p>debugfsdosfsckdumpe2fse2fsckfdformatfsckfsck.minixfusermke2fsmkfsmkfs.ext2mkfs.minixmklost+foundmkraidmkswapmountraidstartraidstoprdevrootflags</p><p>showmountswapdevswapoffswaponsynctune2fsumount</p><p> ext2fs. DOS VFAT. .</p><p> ext2fs. .</p><p> .</p><p> MINIX. , .</p><p> ext2fs. .</p><p> mke2fs. MINIX. lost+found. RAID-. .</p><p> .</p><p> RAID-. RAID-. .</p><p>, .</p><p> .</p><p> .</p><p> .</p><p> .</p><p> .</p><p> ext2fs. .</p><p>depmod .insmod .Ismod .</p></li><li><p> 31</p><p>modprobe</p><p>rmmod</p><p> , </p><p>.</p><p> .</p><p>dip dial-up IP-.gdc gated.ifconfig .ipchains ( 2.2).iptables ( 2.4).named IP- ( ).netstat .portmap . RARP.route .routed .rpcinfo RPC.ruptime .rwho , .systat .traceroute .</p><p> NISdomainname NIS-.makedbm NIS.ypbind NIS-.ypcat NIS.ypchfn ( finger, -</p><p> . .) NIS.ypchsh ( -</p><p>) NIS.ypinit NIS.ypmatch NIS.yppasswd NIS.yppasswdd NIS yppasswd.yppoll NIS NIS-.yppush NIS.ypserv NIS-.</p></li><li><p>32 2. </p><p>ypsetypwhichypxfr</p><p>Ipctunelp</p><p> ypbind . NIS- . NIS .</p><p> .</p><p> .</p><p>badblocks .chroot .</p><p>bootpd .bootpgw .bootptest bootpd.halt .init .reboot .runlevel (runlevel) .shutdown .telinit .uptime .</p><p> , 3 Li-nux, -. , kill, killall, killallS, pidof, ps who.</p><p>fuser , .</p><p>psupdate /boot/psupdate.renice .top .</p><p>chpasswd .groupadd .</p></li><li><p> 33</p><p>groupdel .groupmod .grpck .grpconv .lastlog .newusers .</p><p>pwck .pwconv .rusers ( ,</p><p> who).rwall .useradd .userdel .usermod .w , </p><p>.</p><p>wall .whoami .</p><p> .</p><p>dmesg , .Idconfig .logger .logrotate .rstat ^.run-parts .</p><p> , </p><p> . Unix - , </p><p> , ,</p><p> , , </p><p> . .</p><p> , </p><p> , -</p><p> . . </p><p>, Linux-:</p></li><li><p>34 2. </p><p>named ( IP- -, - ), Ipd ( , , ), ftpd ( ftp). Unix (Internet Protocols, IP). - . -</p><p> ( ) - ( ). , -</p><p> -, TCP/IP (, ). Unix-, Linux. -Unix-, TCP/IP - .</p><p> , NFS NIS, , </p><p>sendmail.</p><p> /1-ftpd .gated .host .ifconfig .named IP- ( ).netstat .nslookup .ping , .pppd -.rdate .route .routed .slattach </p><p>.</p><p>telnetd Telnet- .tfptd .</p><p>...</p></li></ul>

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