LỜI CẢM ƠN - ??I CẢM ƠN -

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  • i

    LI CM N

    Do mi bc u lm quen vi nhng bo co khoa hc, bn thn ti

    gp khng t nhng kh khn v b ng nhng c s ch bo tn tnh ca

    qu thy c v cc anh ch trong c s sn xut tm ging Nhn Anh, s

    ng vin ca gia nh v bn b ti c gng n lc thc hin tt ti

    ca mnh: Tm hiu quy trnh k thut ng nui u trng tm he chn trng

    Litopenaeus vannamei (Boon,1931), qua y ti xin gi li cm n chn

    thnh n:

    TS Lu Th Dung v ThS. Phm B V Tng tn tnh hng

    dn ti trong sut thi gian thc hin ti.

    Ks Bi Qy Anh cng cc cn b k thut ca c s sn xut tm

    ging tn tnh hng dn v gip ti trong thi gian thc tp.

    Khoa nui trng thy sn - trng i Hc Nha Trang v c s

    sn xut tm ging Nhn Anh to iu kin cho ti thc tp v hon

    thnh lun vn ny.

    Cui cng ti xin gi li cm n n tt c bn b trong lp

    47NT3 v gia nh thn yu ca ti lun st cnh cng ti vt qua mi

    kh khn.

    Sinh vin thc hin

    Phm Vn Nam

  • ii

    DANH MC CC T VIT TT

    N : Naupius

    Z : Zoea

    M : Mysis

    PL : Postlarvae

    Ar : Artemia

    TLS : T l sng

    VTM C : Vitamin C

    VSV : Vi sinh vat

    WSSV : Bnh Virus m trng tm he White Spot Syndrome Virus

    IHHN : Bnh hoi t c quan to mu Infectious Hypodermal and

    Hematopoietic Necrosis.

    TSV : Virus gy hi chng Taura Taura Syndrome Virus.

    YHV : Virus u vng Yellow Head Virus

    TNHH : Cng ty trch nhim hu hn

  • iii

    MC LC

    M U .....................................................................................................................1

    PHN 1: TNG QUAN...............................................................................................3

    1. Mt s c im sinh hc ca tm he chn trng .......................................................... 3

    1.1. c im phn loi................................................................................................ 3

    1.2. c im phn b.................................................................................................. 3

    1.3. c im hnh thi ................................................................................................ 4

    1.4. Tp tnh sng ......................................................................................................... 5

    1.5. Tnh n ca loi ..................................................................................................... 6

    1.6. c im sinh sn.................................................................................................. 6

    2. Cc nghin cu trong sn xut ging tm he Chn Trng............................................. 7

    2.1. c im hnh thi ca cc giai on u trng tm he Chn Trng .................. 7

    2.2. Nghin cu v sn xut ging ............................................................................ 11

    2.3. Mt s bnh thng gp ..................................................................................... 12

    2.4. Nghin cu to n tm sch bnh v ci thin cht lng di truyn ............. 14

    3. Tnh hnh nui tm he chn trng trn th gii v Vit Nam.................................. 15

    3.1. Trn th gii......................................................................................................... 15

    3.2. Tnh hnh nui tm he chn trng Vit Nam ................................................... 19

    PHN 2: PHNG PHP NGHIN CU ...............................................................23

    1. i tng v thi gian nghin cu................................................................................ 23

    1.1. i tng nghin cu.......................................................................................... 23

    1.2. Thi gian v a im nghin cu....................................................................... 23

    1.2.1. Thi gian nghin cu........................................................................................ 23

    1.2.2. a im nghin cu ........................................................................................ 23

    2. Phng php thu thp v x l s liu.......................................................................... 27

    2.1. Phng php thu thp s liu ............................................................................. 27

    2.1.1. Phng php thu gin tip ............................................................................. 27

  • iv

    2.1.2. Phng php thu trc tip .............................................................................. 27

    2.2. Phng php x l s liu ........................................................................................ 28

    2.2.1. Mt s cng thc tnh ton............................................................................. 28

    2.2.2. Phng php x l s liu.............................................................................. 29

    PHN 3: KT QU NGHIN CU V THO LUN............................................30

    1. Cc hng mc cng trnh phc v cho qu trnh sn xut ........................................... 30

    1.1. H thng cung cp nc: gm cc ng ng dn nc, b cha

    lng v x l, b lc v b cha nc sau khi lc .................................................... 30

    1.2. H thng thot nc ............................................................................................ 31

    1.3. Cc loi b phc v cho qu trnh sn xut ....................................................... 31

    2. Cc thit b cn thit....................................................................................................... 33

    3. K thut ng nui u trng tm he chn trng........................................................... 35

    3.1. Ngun nc v cch x l nc......................................................................... 35

    3.1.1. Ngun nc................................................................................................. 35

    3.1.2. X l nc................................................................................................... 35

    3.2. Chun b b v th Nauplius ............................................................................... 36

    3.2.1. Chun b b ng........................................................................................ 36

    3.2.2. Th Nauplius ............................................................................................... 37

    3.3. Thc n, khu phn v ch cho n.................................................................. 38

    3.3.1. Thc n ....................................................................................................... 38

    3.3.2 Cch phi trn thc n trong ng nui u trng .................................... 44

    3.3.3 K thut cho u trng n v chm sc ....................................................... 45

    3.4. Ch Siphon thay nc ..................................................................................... 47

    3.5. Ch sc kh ...................................................................................................... 48

    3.6. Din bin cc yu t mi trng trong b ng ................................................. 51

    3.7. Quan st din bin ca u trng trong sut thi gian ng nui....................... 52

    3.7.1. Quan st hot ng ca u trng .............................................................. 52

    3.7.2. Thi gian chuyn giai on ca u trng................................................. 53

    3.7.3. T l sng ca u trng ............................................................................. 54

  • v

    3.7.4. Thu hoch, ng Postlarvae v vn chuyn............................................ 55

    4. Mt s bnh thng gp trong ng nui u trng v cch phng tr ....................... 56

    5. Tm hiu quy trnh x l nc thi, bo v mi trng bn vng .............................. 60

    PHN 4 : KT LUN V XUT KIN.........................................................62

    1. Kt lun .......................................................................................................................... 62

    1.1. Cng trnh, thit b phc v cho sn xut............................................................ 62

    1.2. K thut ng nui u trng ................................................................................ 62

    1.3. Mt s bnh thng gp v cch phng tr bnh ................................................ 64

    1.4. Tm hiu quy trnh x l nc thi, bo v ......................................................... 64

    2. xut kin ............................................................................................................... 65

    TI LIU THAM KHO ..........................................................................................66

  • vi

    DANH MC CC BNG

    Bng 1.1: Tm tt nhng u, nhc im chnh ca vic nui tm he chn trng.......17

    Bng 1.2: Sn lng c tnh ca tt c cc loi tm v tm he chn trng cc

    nc chu (ngun FAO) .........................................................................................18

    Bng 2.1: Nhit khng kh trung bnh cc thng trong nm2008 .........................24

    Bng 2.2: m khng kh trung bnh trong nm 2008..............................................24

    Bng 2.3: Tc gi trung bnh ca tnh Bnh Thun nm 2008 ................................24

    Bng 6: Cc cng trnh xy dng phc v cho qu trnh sn xut ...............................31

    Bng 7: cc trang thit b ca trai phc v cho qu trnh sn xut ...............................34

    Bng 8: Cc loi thc n tng hp c s dng trong qu trnh sn xut ..................39

    Bng 9: Chiu di, trng lng kh v nng lng ca u trng Artemia mi

    n. ..............................................................................................................................42

    Bng 10: Cc loi men tiu ha c s dng trong qu trnh sn xut. .....................43

    Bng 11: Cch phi trn cc loi thc n cho tng giai on u trng tm he

    chn trng...................................................................................................................44

    Bng 12: Quan st hot ng ca u trng tm he chn trng. ....................................53

    Bng 13: Thi gian chuyn giai on ca u trng tm he chn trng.........................54

    Bng 14: T l sng cc giai on tm he chn trng. .............................................55

    Bng 15: Cc loi bnh thng gp trong ng nui u trng tm he chn

    trng. ..........................................................................................................................58

    Bng 16: Phng bnh cho u trng theo tng thi gian v giai on c th.................59

  • vii

    DANH MC CC HNH

    Hnh 1: Hnh thi bn ngoi ca tm he chn trng (tm m thnh thc) ......................4

    Hnh 2: S vng i tm cc loi tm he ngoi t nhin..........................................5

    Hnh 3: u trng Nauplius ca tm he chn trng ........................................................8

    Hnh 4: Cc giai on bin thi ca u trng Zoea........................................................9

    Hnh 5: Cc giai on bin thi ca u trng Mysis ....................................................10

    Hnh 6: u trng Poslarvae ca tm he chn trng .....................................................10

    Hnh 7: S khi ni dung nghin cu.....................................................................26

    Hnh 8: S b tr cc loi b trong tri sn xut......................................................32

    Hnh 9: Cc loi thc n tng hp c s dng trong ng nui u trng tm

    he chn trng ..............................................................................................................39

    Hnh 10: u trng Artemia dng cho cho u trng tm he chn trng.........................40

    Hnh 11: K thut p n trng Artemia ......................................................................41

    Hnh 12: K thut Siphon b u trng tm he chn trng............................................47

    Hnh 13: Biu din bin mn trong qu trnh ng nui u trng......................50

    Hnh 14: Biu din bin pH trong ng nui u trng............................................51

    Hnh 16: Quan st hot ng ca u trng tm he chn trng .....................................53

    Hnh 17: K thut ng Poslarvae v vn chuyn.......................................................55

  • 1

    M U

    Ngnh nui trng thy sn nc ta ngy cng pht trin, tr thnh mt

    trong nhng ngnh kinh t mi nhn ca quc gia, n khng ch mang li li

    nhun v xut khu m cn gp phn ng k vo cng tc xa i gim ngho,

    tng ngun thu nhp, ci thin i sng cho ngi dn cc vng min ni v ven

    bin.

    Trong ngh nui trng thy sn th con tm vn l i tng chnh

    mang li hiu qu kinh t cao. Cng vi hiu qu ca ngh nui tm s, s tin

    b vt bc ca khoa hc k thut y nhanh cng ngh nui theo hng

    thm canh v cng nghip. Tuy nhin bn cnh nhng hiu qu kinh t m n

    mang li th nui tm s nc ta hin nay ang gp khng t kh khn v mi

    trng nui: s suy gim cht lng nc, cht lng con ging v vy nhiu

    vng nui thng xy ra dch bnh.

    ng trc nhng thch thc to ln , cu hi c t ra l lm th no

    pht trin bn vng ngh nui tm trc nhng t dch bnh nghim trng

    ny? Mt gii php c nhiu quc gia s dng hin nay l a dng ha loi

    nui, i km vi vic ng dng cc ci tin khoa hc k thut vo cc khu trong

    qu trnh sn xut nhm to ra n tm ging sch bnh, nng cao cht lng di

    truyn.

    Tm he chn trng c xem l gii php la chn a dng ha i tng

    nui. y l i tng c di nhp vo Vit Nam nm 2001 t nhiu quc

    gia khc nhau (Trung Quc, M, i Loan) cho sn xut ging v nui thng

    phm. Tm he chn trng c nhiu u im nh: tc tng trng nhanh, chu

    k nui ngn v c sc chng chu tt vi cc yu t mi trng cc cng

  • 2

    trnh nghin cu to ra n ging cht lng ca i tng ny cha nhiu v

    th pht trin ngh nui tm he chn trng ti Vit Nam th phi cn c nhng

    nghin cu nh gi c tnh khoa hc v i tng nui ny, c bit l nghin

    cu xy dng mt quy trnh tht hon chnh v k thut sn xut ging v nui

    thng phm i tng tm he Chn Trng.

    Xut pht t vn trn, nhm tm hiu su hn v quy trnh sn xut

    ging tm he chn trng, ti c khoa Nui Trng Thy Sn trng i Hc

    Nha Trang phn cng ti Tm hiu quy trnh k thut ng nui u trng

    tm he chn trng Litopenaeus vannamei Boon, 1931 ti c s sn xut tm

    ging NhnAnh Xm 7Vnh TnTuy PhongBnh Thun.

    Ni dung thc hin ti gm 4 phn:

    1. Tm hiu cng trnh thit b sn xut ging tm he chn trng

    2. Tm hiu k thut ng nui u trng

    3. Tm hiu mt s bnh thng gp v cch phng tr bnh

    4. Tm hiu quy trnh x l nc thi, bo v mi trng bn vng

    Mc d trong qu trnh thc tp bn thn ti rt c gng tuy nhin do

    trnh cn hn ch v thi gian thc tp khng di nn bi bo co khng th

    trnh c nhng thiu st. Rt mong nhn c s gp chn tnh ca qu

    thy c v cc bn bi bo co c hon chnh hn.

    Nha Trang, Ngy 12 thng 6 nm 2009

    Sinh vin thc hin

    Phm Vn Nam

  • 3

    PHN 1: TNG QUAN

    1. Mt s c im sinh hc ca tm he chn trng 1.1. c im phn loi

    Ngnh: Arthropoda

    Lp: Crustacea

    B: Decapoda

    H : Pennaeidea

    Ging: Penaeus/ Litopenaeus

    Loi: P. vannamei Boone,1931

    L. vannamei Boone,1931

    Tn Vit Nam l tm chn trng, tm he chn trng trong bo co ny xin

    gi l tm he chn trng.

    1.2. c im phn b

    Tm he chn trng (Litopenaeus vannamei Boon,1931), chng phn b

    vng bin Ty Thi Bnh Dng, chu M - t ven bin Mexeco n min trung

    Peru. Nhiu nht l vng bin gn Ecuado, ti ven bin Esmieraldes quanh

    nm u bt c tm ci mang trng. y l loi tm c nui ph bin nht

    (chim hn 70 % cc loi tm he Nam M) ty bn cu. Tm he chn trng

    thch nghi vi bin rng mui 0 - 40 chng c th sinh trng c trong

    nc ngt, l v mn. Dy bin nhit ca tm he chn trng cng kh rng v rt

    linh hot khi c n...

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