Lte Coverage and Capacitry Dimensioning

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<ul><li><p>Long Term Evolution (LTE) Access NetworkCoverage and Capacity Dimensioning</p><p>This thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirementsfor thedegree of high diploma in wireless telecommunicationsystem.</p><p>Submitted by</p><p> Amr Abdel-Magid Kassab Amr Mahmoud Morsy Mohammed Mahmoud Mohammed Saad Mohamed Mahmoud Mohamed Tantawy Mohamed Morsy Mohamed Hanaa Abdelmoety Kamel Walaa Abd-Elhamid Elawam</p><p>Supervised ByDr.Hamed Abdel Fatah El Shenawy</p><p>Cairo 2013</p><p>Ministry of Higher EducationNational Telecommunication InstituteElectronics and Communications Department</p></li><li><p>AcknowledgementsFirst of all, we are grateful to ALLAHALMIGHTY, the most merciful,the most beneficent, who gave us strength, guidance and abilities tocomplete this thesis in a successful manner.We are thankful to our parents and our teachers that guided us throughoutour career path especially in building up our base in education andenhance our knowledge.We are indebted to our supervisor Dr. Hamed Abd El Fattah ElShenawyfor his supervision and his co-operation and support really helped uscompleting our project.</p></li><li><p>AbstractLong Term Evolution (LTE) is set of enhancement to the current</p><p>cellular system in use. LTE is designed to have scalable channelbandwidth up to 20MHz, with low latency and packet optimized radioaccess technology. The peak data rate of LTE is 100 Mbps in downlinkand 50 Mbps in the uplink.</p><p>LTE support both FDD and TDD duplexing.LTE with OFDM technology in the down link, which provides</p><p>higher spectral efficiency and more robustness against multipath fadingLTE with SC-FDMA in the uplink LTELTE with different MIMO configurations</p><p>Dimensioning is initial phase of network planning. It provides estimateof the network elements count as well as the capacity of those elements.The purpose of our project to estimate the required number ofeNodeBs needed to support users with certain traffic load with adesired level of quality of service (QOS) and cover the area ofinterest.This estimate fulfills coverage requirements and verified for capacityrequirements .Coverage dimensioning occurs via radio link budget (RLB), maximumallowable propagation path loss (MAPL) is obtained. MAPL is convertedinto cell radius by using appropriate propagation models. The radius ofthe cell is used to calculate the number of sites required to cover the areaof interest. The cell size and the site count are obtained.Capacity planning deals with the ability of the network to provideservices to certain numbers of users with a desired level of quality ofservice (QOS).Capacity based site count is compared with coverage based site count.The greater one is selected as the final site count.</p></li><li><p>Project objectives Overview of LTE system architecture and specifications Dimensioning of LTE Network Coverage dimensioning via radio link budget and propagation</p><p>models Capacity dimensioning Numerical results using Visual Studio and basic language Conclusions and suggestions for future work.</p></li><li><p>iList of ContentsItem Page</p><p>1.0 Chapter One: Overview of LTE 1-11.1 Introduction 1-22.2 IMT-Advanced 1-21.3 LTE specifications 1-4</p><p>LTE Architecture 1-152.0 Chapter Two: LTE network dimensioning 2-12.1 Introduction 2-22.2 LTE network dimensioning 2-22.3 LTE network dimensioning inputs 2-62.4 Coverage planning inputs 2-72.5 Capacity planning inputs 2-82.6 LTE network dimensioning outputs 2-82.7 Comparison among dimensioning, planning, optimization 2-93.0 Chapter Three: Coverage dimensioning 3-13.1 Introduction 3-23.2 Concepts and Terminology 3-43.3 Link Budget Definition 3-53.4 Why we use Link Budget? 3-63.5 What are the types of Link Budget? 3-63.6 Up Link Budget (Up Link coverage) 3-73.7 Up Link Budget entries 3-73.8 Morphologies Classifications 3-283.9 Down Link Budget(Down Link coverage) 3-293.10 Down Link limited Link Budget 3-35</p></li><li><p>ii</p><p>3.11 propagation models 3-373.12 Classifications of propagation models 3-393.13 Ericsson variant COST 231 Okomara-Hata wave propagation</p><p>model3-42</p><p>4.0 Chapter Four: Capacity dimensioning 4-14.1 Introduction 4-24.2 Uplink capacity 4-34.3 Downlink capacity 4-64.4 Application or service distribution model 4-135.0 Chapter Five: numerical results 5-15.1 Uplink budget 5-35.2 Effects on cell Radius (R) 5-175.3 Downlink capacity 5-216.0 Chapter Six: conclusion and suggestions for future work 6-16.1 Conclusion 6-26.2 Suggestions for future work 6-3</p></li><li><p>iii</p><p>List of figuresItems Page</p><p>Figure(1-1) Overview of IMT advanced 1-2Figure(1-2) Resource element and resource block 1-14Figure(1-3) LTE architecture 1-15Figure(1-4) Evolved Packet System 1-15Figure(2-1) LTE network planning process 2-2Figure(2-2) Dimensioning basic steps 2-3Figure(2-3) LTE network dimensioning inputs 2-6</p><p>Figure(2-4) LTE coverage planning 2-7Figure(2-5) LTE dimensioning outputs 2-9Figure(2-6) LTE optimization process stages 2-10Figure(2-7) LTE optimization process 2-11Figure(2-8) LTE optimization process 2-16Figure(3-1) LTE Dimensioning Process 3-4Figure(3-2) Resource Block Definition in Frequency</p><p>Domain.3-11</p><p>Figure(3-3) Downlink and Uplink User Scheduling in Timeand Frequency Domain.</p><p>3-12</p><p>Figure (4.1) channel bandwidth partitioning 4-22Figure (4-2) subscriber class deployment model 4-29Figure(5-1) flowchart of effective isotropic radiated power 5-3Figure(5-2) Effective Isotropic Radiated Power 5-3Figure(5-3) flowchart of sensitivity of eNodeB 5-5Figure(5-4) Sensitivity of Enhanced nodeB 5-5</p></li><li><p>iv</p><p>Figure(5-5) flowchart of Interference Margin 5-7Figure(5-6) flowchart of Log Normal Fading Margin 5-7Figure(5-7) flowchart of total margins 5-8Figure(5-8) Total margin 5-8Figure(5-9) flowchart of total gains 5-10Figure(5-10) flowchart of total losses 5-10Figure(5-11) total gains and total losses 5-11Figure(5-12) flowchart of maximum allowable path loss 5-12Figure(5-13) Max. allowable path loss 5-13Figure(5-14) flowchart of cell radius using Ericson variant</p><p>Okumara -Hata5-14</p><p>Figure(5-15) flowchart of site count 5-15Figure(5-16) cell radius and Site Count 5-15</p><p>Figure(5-17) the effect of cell Loading Factor (Q) on the cellRadius (R) Omni</p><p>5-17</p><p>Figure(5-18) the effect of cell Loading Factor (Q) on the cellRadius (R) 3 sector</p><p>5-18</p><p>Figure(5-19) the effect of morphology on the cell Radius (R)omni</p><p>5-19</p><p>Figure(5-20) the effect of morphology on the cell Radius (R) 3sector</p><p>5-20</p><p>Figure(5-21) downlink capacity 5-21</p></li><li><p>vList of tablesItem Page</p><p>Table(1-1) Improvement in downlink spectral efficiency goingfrom 2G to 4G System</p><p>1-7</p><p>Table (1-2) Targets for average spectrum efficiency 1-8Table (3-1) Bandwidths and number of physical resource</p><p>blocks3-16</p><p>Table(3-2) Channel models specifications 1 3-18Table (3-3) Channel models specifications 2 3-18Table(3-4) Channel propagation conditions 3-19Table(3-5) Maximum Doppler frequency for each channel</p><p>model3-19</p><p>Table(3-6) Semi empirical parameters for uplink 3-21Table(3-7) Examples of F for varying tilt 3-23Table(3-8) Lognormal fading margins for varying standard</p><p>deviation of log normal fading3-24</p><p>Table(3-9) Values of penetration loss on different morphologyclasses</p><p>3-26</p><p>Table(3-10) Summarizes the features of different morphologies 3-28,3-29</p><p>Table(3-11) Examples of Fc at cell edge for varying tilt 3-33Table(3-12) Semi empirical parameters for downlink 3-33Table(3-14) Fixed attenuation A in Ericsson variant COST 231</p><p>Okumara Hata propagation models3-43</p><p>Table(4-1) SINR values corresponding to each modulationcoding scheme (MCS)</p><p>4-4</p></li><li><p>vi</p><p>Table(4-2) semi- empirical parameters for up link 4-5</p><p>Table(4-3) Semi- empirical parameters for downlink 4-11</p><p>Table (4.5) applications or services distribution model 4-14</p><p>Table (4.6) mobile service flows and QoS parameters 4-19</p><p>Table (4.7) subscriber class distribution model 4-28</p><p>Table (4.8) subscriber class traffic model 4-30</p><p>Table (5-1) Default values of User Equipment EffectiveIsotropic Radiated Power(EIRP)</p><p>5-4</p><p>Table(5-2) Default values of Enhanced NodeB sensitivity 5-6Table(5-3) Default values of total margin 5-9Table(5-4) Default values of total Gain and losses 5-12Table(5-5) Default values of Maximum allowable path loss</p><p>(MAPL)5-14</p><p>Table(5-6) values of Cell Radius and Site count withdifference Base stations heights</p><p>5-16</p><p>Table(5-7) The effect of cell Loading Factor (Q) on the cellRadius (R) Omni</p><p>5-17</p><p>Table(5-8) The effect of cell Loading Factor (Q) on the cellRadius (R) 3 sector</p><p>5-18</p><p>Table(5-9) the effect of morphology on the cell Radius (R)omni</p><p>5-19</p><p>Table(5-10) the effect of morphology on the cell Radius (R) 3sector</p><p>5-20</p></li><li><p>vii</p><p>List of Acronyms and Abbreviations</p><p>16QAM: 16 point quadrature amplitude modulation</p><p>3GPP: Third Generation Partnership</p><p>QAM: 64 point quadrature amplitude modulation</p><p>3G: third generation</p><p>4G: fourth generationAACK: AcknowledgementAGC: Automatic Gain ControlAP: Access PointARQ: Automatic Repeater RequestAUC: Authentication centerA/D: Analog to digitalADSL: Assymetric Digital Subscriber LineAMPS: Advanced Mobile Phone ServicesAWGN: Additive White Gaussian NoiseBBCH: Broadcast ChannelBPSK: Binary Phase Shift KeyingBSC: Base Station ControllerBTS: Base Transceiver StationBW: BandwidthBER: Bit Error Rate</p></li><li><p>viii</p><p>CCDMA: Code Division Multiple AccessCW: Continuous WaveCPL: Car Penetration LossCOST: Community Collaborative studies in the areas of science andtechnologyDDL: DownlinkDSL: Digital Subscriber LineD/A: Digital to analogDU: Dense UrbanEEDGE: Enhanced Data Rate for GSM EvolutionEIR: Equipment Identity RegisterEIRP: Effective Isotropic Radiated PowereNodeB: Enhanced NodeB (enhanced base station)EPA: extended pedestrianETU: extended terrestrialEVA: extended vehicularEPC: Evolved Packet CoreEPS: Evoved Packet SystemFFDD: Frequency Division DuplexFDMA: Frequency Division Multiple AccessFTT: Fast Fourier TransformFM: Frequency ModulationFWLL: Fixed Wireless Local Loop</p></li><li><p>ix</p><p>FFM: Fast Fading MarginGGGSN: Gateway GPRS Serving NodeGMSC: Gateway Mobile Switching CenterGMSK: Gaussian Minimum Shift KeyingGSM: Global System for MobileGPRS: General Packet Radio ServiceGUI: Graphical User InterfaceHHARQ: Hybrid Automatic Repeater RequestHLR: Home Location RegisterHSCSD: High Speed Circuit Switched DataHSDPA: High Speed Downlink Packet AccessHSS: Home Subscriber ServerHSUPA: High Speed Uplink Packet AccessIIMS: IP Multimedia SubsystemIM: Interference MarginIP: Internet ProtocolKKPI: Key Performance IndicatorLLTE: Long Term EvolutionMMBMS: Multimedia broadcast multicast servicesMB-SFN: Multicast/broadcast-single frequency network</p></li><li><p>xMIMO: Multi Input Multi OutputMME: Mobile Mobility Management EntityMRC: Maximal ratio combiningMS: mobile StationMSC: Mobile Switching CenterMAPL: Maximum Allowable Path LossOOFDM: Orthogonal Frequency Division MultiplexingOMC: Operation and Maintenance CenterPPAPR: Peak -to-average power ratioPCRF: Policy and Charging Rules FunctionPDCCH: Physical downlink control channelPDN: Public Data NetworkPLMN: Public land Mobile NetworkPRB: Physical Resource BlockPSK: Phase Shift KeyingPSTN: Public Switched Telephone NetworkP-GW: PDN GatewayPUCCH: Physical Uplink Control ChannelPDCCH: Physical Downlink Control Channel</p><p>QQAM: Quadrature Amplitude ModulationQPSK: Quadrature phase shift KeyingQOS: Quality Of Service</p></li><li><p>xi</p><p>RRFPA: Radio Frequency Power AmplifierRNC: Radio Network ControllerRLB: Radio Link BudgetSSC-FDMA: Single Carrier-Frequency Division Multiple AccessSGSN: Serving GPRS Support NodeSIM: Subscriber Identity ModuleSINR: Signal Interference -to-noise ratioS-GW: Serving GatewaySRVCC: Single Radio Voice Call ContinuitySMS: Short Message ServiceSU: Sub UrbanTTDD: Time Division DuplexingTDMA: Time Division Multiple AccessTMA: Tower Mounted AmplifierUUE: User EquipmentUL: UplinkUMTS: Universal Mobile Telecommunication systemUTRAN: UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access NetworkVVLR: Visitor Location RegisterVOIP: Voice over IP</p></li><li><p>xii</p><p>WWCDMA: Wideband Code Division Multiple AccessWIMAX: Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access</p></li><li><p>Chapter OneOverview of Long Term Evolution (LTE)</p></li><li><p>Chapter 1: Overview of Long Term Evolution (LTE)</p><p>1 - 2</p><p>Chapter oneOverview of Long Term Evolution (LTE)</p><p>1.1. IntroductionLTE is designed to meet users need for high speed data and media</p><p>transport as well as high-capacity voice support .The LTE PHY employssome advanced Technologies that are new to mobile applications theseinclude OFDMA -SC-FDMA MIMO. The LTE PHY uses OFDMA indownlink and SC-FDMA on up link.</p><p>Figure (1-1) Overview of IMT Advanced</p><p>1.2. IMT-AdvancedInternational Mobile Telecommunications Advanced (IMT-</p><p>Advanced) is requirements issued by the ITU-R of the InternationalTelecommunication Union (ITU) in 2008 for what is marketed as 4Gmobile phone and Internet access service.</p></li><li><p>Chapter 1: Overview of Long Term Evolution (LTE)</p><p>1 - 3</p><p>1.2.1 IMT ADVANCED RequirementsSpecific requirements of the IMT-Advanced report included:</p><p>1- Based on an all-Internet Protocol (IP) packet switched network2- Interoperability with existing wireless standards3- A nominal data rate of 100 Mbit/s while the client physically</p><p>moves at high speeds relative to the station,50 Mbit /s in the uplinkand 1 Gbit/s while client and station are in relatively fixedpositions.</p><p>4- Dynamically share and use the network resources to support moresimultaneous users per cell.</p><p>5- Scalable channel bandwidth 1.4 MHz, 3 MHz, 5 MHz, 15 MHzand 20 MHz optionally up to 40</p><p>6- Peak link spectral efficiency of 15 bit/s/Hz in the downlink, and6.25bit/s/Hz in the uplink (meaning that 1 Gbit/s in the downlinkshould be possible over less than 67 MHz bandwidth)</p><p>7- System spectral efficiency of up to 3 bit/s/Hz/cell in the downlinkand 2.25 bit/s/Hz/cell for indoor usage</p><p>8- Seamless connectivity and global roaming across multiplenetworks with smooth handovers</p><p>9- Ability to offer high quality of service for multimedia support10- support antenna configurations</p><p>a- Downlink 42, 22, 12, 11b- Uplink 12, 11</p><p>11- coveragea- full performance up to 5 kmb-slight degradation 5 km-30 kmc-operation up to 100 km should not be precluded by standard</p></li><li><p>Chapter 1: Overview of Long Term Evolution (LTE)</p><p>1 - 4</p><p>12- mobilitya- optimized for low speed less than 15 km per hourb-high performance at speeds up to 120 km per hourc-maintain link at speeds up to 350 km per hour</p><p>13- LTE support efficient broadcast mode performance :multicast andbroadcast</p><p>14- broadcast spectral efficiency 1bit /sec/Hz15- LTE support paired and unpaired frequency band16- It support FDD and TDD, half duplex TDD17- Support adaptive modulation technique: High level and low level</p><p>modulation18- Support scalable FFT size19- It support turbo code20- It support low complexity low cost terminal21- Support VOIP 60 session /Hz/cell22- Support of cell sizes from tens of meters of radius (femto and Pico</p><p>cells) up to over 100 km radius microcells23- Simplified architecture: The network side of EUTRAN is</p><p>composed only by the enodeBs.24- Low data transfer latencies (sub-5ms latency for small IP packets</p><p>in optimal conditions), lower latencies for handover and connectionsetup time.</p><p>1.3 LTE specifications1.3.1 Peak Rates and Peak Spectral EfficiencyFor Data rate many services with lower data rates such as voice</p><p>services are important and still occup...</p></li></ul>