Mang & truyen du lieu -HCN TPHCM.PDF

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  • Trng ai Hoc Cong Nghiep Tp. Ho Ch Minh

    Giao trnh Mang va Truyen d lieu. 1

    KHAI NIEM C BAN VE MANG

    I. CAC KHAI NIEN C BAN. - Mang may tnh la gi : Mang may tnh la 1 nhom cac may tnh,

    thiet b ngoai vi c noi ket vi nhau thong qua cac phng tien truyen truyen dan nh cap, song ien t, tia hong ngoai..giup cho cac thiet b nay co the trao oi d lieu vi nhau 1 cach de dang. - Cac thanh phan c ban cau thanh mang may tnh :

    + May tnh : May tnh s dung trong mang bao gom cac loai may Mainframe, minicomputer, Laptop, Personal Computer..moi thanh phan nay la 1 iem noi vat ly lien ket tren mang.

    + Cac thiet b giao tiep dung lien ket cac thanh phan mang : Card mang ( NIC hay adapter ), HUB, SWITCH, ROUTER.

    + Moi trng truyen dan : hu tuyen ( cap ), vo tuyen ( song ien t, tia hong ngoai )

    + Cac thiet b ngoai vi : May PRINTER, FAX, MODEM, SCANER + Cac giao thc ( TCP/IP, IPX/SPX, NetBeui.) + Cac he ieu hanh mang : WinNT, Novell Netware, Unix.

    - Cac thuat ng lien quan : + Server : La may phuc vu c cai at he ieu hanh va cac phan

    mem chuyen dung lam cac chc nang quan ly va cung cap cac dch vu cho cac may tnh khac. Tuy theo dch vu cung cap ma ngi ta chia ra lam cac loai server sau: File server : dung cung cap cac dch vu ve file va folder. Print Server : Cung cap cac dch vu ve in an.. Do cac may server lam chc nang phuc vu nen cau hnh may server phai manh thng la cac may chuyen dung cua cac hang nh Intel, IBM..

    + Client : La may s dung cac dch vu ma may server cung cap. Do s ly cong viec khong ln nen thong thng cac may nay khong yeu cau cau hnh manh.

    + Host : Host la 1 diem noi tren mang. Host co the la client hay server.

    + Resource : La nhng tai nguyen tren mang gom : tap tin, th muc, may in, may Fax..

  • Trng ai Hoc Cong Nghiep Tp. Ho Ch Minh

    Giao trnh Mang va Truyen d lieu. 2

    + Share data : la tap hp cac tap tin, th muc ma cac may tnh chia se e cac may khac truy cap s dung chung thong qua mang.

    + User : la tai khoan ngi dung khi s dung may tram( client ) e truy xuat en nhng tai nguyen mang. Thong thng 1 user se co 1 username va password do nha quan tr cung cap, he thong se da vao username va password e nhan biet ban la ai va co quyen hay khong co quyen vao mang, co quyen hay khong co quyen s dung tai nguyen tren mang.

    + Administrator : La tai khoan quan tr he thong. + Phng thc gi d lieu tren he thong mang : D lieu c gi t iem nay en iem khac trong mot bo phan nho goi la: goi, khung hoac o d lieu (ATM). Goi c xac nh bang ngon ng hoac giao thc c dung trong mang.

    Header Data Footer II. MO HNH MANG MAY TNH Mang tap trung : Toan bo tien trnh x ly tai may tnh trung tam. Cac

    may tnh tram cuoi ( terminal ) c noi mang vi may tnh trung tam va hoat ongn nh nhng thiet b xuat nhap d lieu cho phep ngi dung ch xem tren man hnh va nhap d lieu t ban phm. Mo hnh x ly mang tren co the trien khai tren he thong phan cng hoac phan mem c cai tren server u iem : D lieu c bao mat an toan, de dang backup va diet virus, chi ph cho cac theit b thiet lap mang thap. Nhc iem : Kho ap ng cac yeu cau cua nhieu ng dung khac nhau, toc o truy xuat cham.

  • Trng ai Hoc Cong Nghiep Tp. Ho Ch Minh

    Giao trnh Mang va Truyen d lieu. 3

    Mang phan tan : Cac may tnh co kha nang hoat ong oc lap, cac cong viec c tach nho va giao cho nhieu loai may tnh khac nhau x ly thay v x ly tai may tnh trung tam. Tuy d lieu c x ly va lu tr tai cac ,may cuc bo nhng chung c noi mang vi nhau nen chung co the trao oi d lieu va dch vu.

    u iem : Truy xuat nhanh, phan ln khong gii han cac ng dung Nhc iem : D lieu lu tr ri rac kho ong bo, backup va rat de nhiem virus.

    Mang cong tac : Gom nhieu may tnh co the tng tac vi nhau e thc hien 1 cong viec. 1 may tnh co the mn nang lc cua may khac bang cach chay chng trnh tren may khac nam trong mang.

  • Trng ai Hoc Cong Nghiep Tp. Ho Ch Minh

    Giao trnh Mang va Truyen d lieu. 4

    u iem : Rat nhanh va manh, co the chay cac ng dung co cac phep toan ln. Nhc iem : Cac d lieu lu tr tren cac v tr khac nhau nen rat kho ong bo va backup, kha nang nhiem virus rat cao.

    III. CAC LOAI MANG MAY TNH. Mang cuc bo LAN ( Local Area Network )

    Mang LAN c xay dng tren c s gom 1 nhom cac may tnh va thiet b truyen thong c noi vi nhau trong 1 pham vi nho. ( trng hoc, nha cao oc.) Mang LAN thng co cac ac iem sau: + Bang thong ln, Truyen tai d lieu vi toc o cao. + Ton tai trong 1 pham vi hep, kch thc b gii han. + Chi ph cho cac thiet b ket noi mang LAN tng oi re. + Cong viec quan tr mang n gian, de dang.

    Mand dien rong WAN ( Wide Area Network )

    Mang WAN c xay dng tren c s nh 1 mang c bao phu 1 vung a ly rong ln co the la 1 quoc gia, 1 chau luc hay toan cau. Mang WAN thng c cac cong ty a quoc gia xay dng. Do pham vi mang rong ln nen thong thng WAN la tap hp bi nhng mang LAN noi lai vi nhau thong qua cac thiet b truyen thong : ve tinh, song viba, cap quang, cap ien thoai.. Mang WAN thng co ac iem sau : + Bang thong nho, truyen tai d lieu vi toc o thap. De b mat ket noi thng ch phu hp vi cac ng dung nh Email, Web, ftp. + Ton tai trong pham vi rong, kch thc khong b gii han.

  • Trng ai Hoc Cong Nghiep Tp. Ho Ch Minh

    Giao trnh Mang va Truyen d lieu. 5

    + Chi ph cho viec xay dng Wan rat at tien. + Do ket noi nhieu LAN nen mang rat phc tap va co tnh toan cau

    nen phai co to chc quoc te ng ra qui ng va quan tr. Internet : internet la mang may tnh ln nhat the gii hoac chnh xac

    hn la mang cua cac mang tc la bao gom rat nhieu .nhieu nhng may tnh noi lai vi nhau. No cho phep bat ky 1 may tnh nao trong mang co the ket noi vi bat ky may nao khac tren mang va trao oi thong tin vi nhau. 1 khi ket noi vao internet may tnh cua ban se la 1 trong hang chuc trieu thanh vien cua mang khong lo nay.

    IV. MO HNH QUAN TR MANG + Workgroup : Trong mo hnh nay cac may tnh co quyen han ngang nhau va khong co cac may chuyen dung lam nhiemvu cung cap dch vu hay quan ly dch vu. Cac may tnh lam viec che o workgroup t bao mat va quan ly tai nguyen cua rieng mnh ong thi no cung chng thc cho ngi dung cuc bo + Domain : trong mo hnh nay trong he thong co cac may tnh chuyen dung lam nhiem vu cung cap cac dch vu, quan ly va chng thc ngi dung, quan ly cac may tram. Cac tai nguyen cung c quan ly va cap quyen han cho ngi tng ngi dung. V. CAC KIEU NOI MANG :

  • Trng ai Hoc Cong Nghiep Tp. Ho Ch Minh

    Giao trnh Mang va Truyen d lieu. 6

    + Peer to Peer ( Mang ngang hang ) - Mang ngang hang bao gom 1 nhom cac may tnh c ket noi vi nhau, lam viec cung vi nhau. - Tat ca cac may trong mang eu co quyen nh nhau, khong co bat ky 1 may tnh nao ong vai tro phuc vu. Ngi dung tren tng may chu trach nhiem ieu hanh, quan ly va chia se cac tai nguyen cua chnh may tnh mnh s dung. - Lam viec tot vi cau hnh mang t hn 10 may.

    u iem : n gian, de dang cai at, to chc va quan tr, chi ph thiet b dung thiet lap mang thap

    Khuyet iem : khong quan ly tap trung nen d lieu phan tan. Kha nang bao ve rat thap, rat de b xam nhap.

    + Client / Server ( Mang khach / chu ) - Mang Client / Server bao gom 1 nhom may phuc vu cung cap cac tai nguyen va dch vu cho ca he thong mang s dung goi la he thong may chu (server). Mot he thong gom nhieu may tnh s dung cac tai nguyen va dch vu do he thong may chu cung cap goi la may khach (Client). - Tai khoan ngi dung (USER) do may chu cung cap va c quan ly bi may chu. Ch may chu mi co quyen giai quyet cac yeu cau cua USER. - Cac may server thng co cau hnh manh ( toc o x ly nhanh, khong gian lu tr ln) thng s dung cac may tnh chuyen dung. - Da vao chc nang ta co the chia he thong SERVER ra thanh cac loai server nh sau : + File server : Cung cap dch vu phuc vu cac yeu cau ve file trong mang + Print server : Cung cap cac dch vu ve in an + Application server : Cung cap cac dch vu cho phep cac ng dung chay tr6en server va tra ket qua ve cho client. + Mail server : Cung cap cac dch vu ve gi va nhan MAIL + Web server : Cung cap cac dch vu ve WEB + Database server : Cung cap cac dch vu ve lu tr, tm kiem thong tin + Communication server : Quan ly cac ket noi t xa. u iem : D lieu c lu tr tap trung, de dang backup va ong bo vi nhau. Tai nguyen va dch vu tap trung nen de chia se quan ly va phuc vu cho nhieu ngi dung. Kha nang bao mat d lieu cao, theo nhieu lp.

  • Trng ai Hoc Cong Nghiep Tp. Ho Ch Minh

    Giao trnh Mang va Truyen d lieu. 7

    Khuyet iem : Cac server chuyen dung at tien va phai co oi ngu quan tr he thong mang. VI. CAC DCH VU MANG Dich vu mang la ly do tai sao chung ta s dung he thong mang. phan nay mo ta cac hau het cac dch vu trong he thong mang. + C s e lien ket cac dch vu mang : Tat ca cac PC trong mang phai c cai at he ieu hanh va he thong phan mem chuyen dung cho phep chung lam viec c vi nhau trong moi trng mang.

    + Redirector service : redirector la 1 chng trnh chay tren may tram lam viec kiem soat nhng yeu cau lien quan en mang. Chang han 1 ngi dung tren tram lam viec yeu cau cac tap tin noi bo th Redirector se chuyen nhng yeu cau o en HH noi bo. Neu yeu cau o nham vao nhng tap tin may tnh khac tren mang th Redirector se kiem tra cac yeu cau va sau o gi cac yeu cau chuyen tiep qua mang e en ch thong qua 1 ng truyen nh san. - Yeu cau c at trong 1 goi tin co a ch tram dch vu. - Phan mem Redirector c cai at rieng moi tram lam viec cung vi phan mem ieu khien crad mang.

    + Server service : May tnh server phai co nhng thanh phan tiep nhan nhng yeu cau t cac client trong mang va thc hien nh tuyen hoi ap nhng yeu cau thong qua he thong mang ti cac client. file service :

    + file service cho phep cac may tnh mang chia se file, thao tac tren cac tap tin nay nh : lu tr, tm kiem, di chuyen.. + file service cho phep user : oc, viet, quan ly file va data. + file service rat quan trong oi vi mang kieu noi mang client/server va peer to peer. + May tnh cung cap cac dch vu ve file goi la file server. Co 2 kieu file server : Chuyen dung va khong chuyen dung.

    - File server chuyen dung thng dung trong mang kieu client/server va ch lam 1 nhiem vu duy nhat ap ng tat ca cac yeu cau t client trong mang.

    - File server khong chuyen dung thng s dung trong mang kieu peer to peer no lam 1 luc 2 nhiem vu. Cho phep may tnh va ong vai tro la file server ap ng tat ca cac yeu cau t cac may tnh khac trong mang va ong vai tro la user yeu cau s dung file t file server khac.

  • Trng ai Hoc Cong Nghiep Tp. Ho Ch Minh

    Giao trnh Mang va Truyen d lieu. 8

    File transfer service : + Dch vu truyen tai tap tin : Cho phep truyen tai file, data t ni nay sang ni khac nhanh chong de dang. Gia s co 1 tap tin hay tai lieu muon di chuyen t v tr nay sang v tr khac th ta co cac giai phap thc hien la :

    - Dung o a di dong e sao chep, di chuyen d lieu.( Kho khan khi di chuyen d lieu en nhng ni xa. - S dung ket noi dial up e ket noi 2 may tnh lai va sao chep, di chuyen d lieu gia chung( toc o ng truyen qua cham, sao chep va di chuyen d lieu lau). - Trong ca 2 giai phap tren th eu co nhng nhc iem rat ln. Do

    vay neu co mang va s dung dch vu truyen tai file se cho chung ta kha nang truyen tai d lieu de dang vi toc o cao. + Hau het cac he thong mang eu co 1 vai trung tam lu tr file e lu tr nhng file quan trong trong nhieu nam. File, data thng c lu tr theo cac cach sau : - Lu tr trc tuyen (online storage) : D lieu c lu tr trong a cng nen truy xuat de dang nhanh chong bat ke thi gian. Nhng phng phap nay co 1 nhc iem la chung khong the thao ri e trao oi hoac lu tr tach ri ong thi chi ph cho 1 MB d lieu online tng o cao. - Lu tr ngoai tuyen (offline storage) : Thng ap dung cho nhng d lieu t khi can truy xuat. Cac thiet b pho bien dun cho phng phap nay la Bang t va a quang. Phng phap nay khi truy xuat kha cham. - Lu tr can tuyen (Near-line storage): Thng dung thiet b jukebox e t ong quan ly cac bang t, a quang. Cho toc o truy xuat nhanh hn lu tr ngoai tuyen nhng chi ph khong cao. + Chuyen di d lieu (data migration) : La cong nghe t ong di cac d lieu t dung t kho lu tr trc tuyen sang kho lu tr can tuyen hay ngoai tuyen. Noi cach khac la qua trnh chuyen cac file, data t dang lu tr nay sang dang lu tr khac.

  • Trng ai Hoc Cong Nghiep Tp. Ho Ch Minh

    Giao trnh Mang va Truyen d lieu. 9

    + Sao lu d phong (File archive) : La qua trnh sao chep va lu tr 1 ban sao d lieu t thet b lu tr chnh. Khi thet b lu tr chnh co s co th chung ta dung dung ban sao d phong e phuc hoi lai d lieu. + ong bo hoa viec cap nhat d lieu (File-update Synchronization) : Theo doi cac thay oi khac nhau len cung 1 tap tin, e am bao rang tat ca moi ngi dung eu co ban sao mi nhat cua tap tin va tap tin khong b hong.

    Printer service : Dch vu in an la 1 ng dung mang ieu khien va quan ly viec s dung cac may in trong mang. Cac li ch cua dch vu in an : - Nhieu ngi cung s dung chung may PRINTER lam giam chi ph. - May in co the at tai bat ky ni au trong he thong mang. - Dung c che hang i in cho phep an nh mc o u tien cua cac tai lieu can in.

    Application service :

  • Trng ai Hoc Cong Nghiep Tp. Ho Ch Minh

    Giao trnh Mang va Truyen d lieu. 10

    Dch vu nay cho phep cac ng dung co the huy ong nang lc cua cac may tnh chuyen dung khac tren mang. VD : Khi may client thc hien 1 phep toan can kha nang x ly manh. No s dung nang lc cua may chuyen dung khac tren mang x ly phep toan cho no roi tra ket qua ve lai cho client.

    Database service :

    Dch vu c s d lieu cho phep cac ng dung c thiet ke chay ng dung tai client va c s d lieu c lu tr, quan ly bi server. Dch vu c s d lieu thc hien cac chc nang sau :

    - Bao mat c s d lieu. - Toi u hoa tien trnh thc hien cac tac vu c s d lieu. - Xac nh v tr tot nhat e lu tr d lieu (khong bat buoc client phai biet vi tr cua d lieu). - Phuc vu so lng ngi dung ln, truy cap nhanh vao c s d lieu. - Phan phoi d lieu qua nhieu he phuc vu c s d lieu.

    + Cac phng phap cap nhat d lieu sao lu d phong - Master-driven updates : May phuc vu chnh nhan tat ca nhng thong tin cap nhat va khi he thong m no cap nhat tat ca nhng thong tin mi len ban lu tr d phong trc o. - Locally driven updates : Bat ky v tr may phuc vu nao nhan c ban cap nhat mi nhat va no chu trach nhiem phan phoi s thay oi en nhng ban lu tr d phong trc o.

  • Trng ai Hoc Cong Nghiep Tp. Ho Ch Minh

    Giao trnh Mang va Truyen d lieu. 11

    Message / Communication service :

    La dch vu cho phep gi va nhan thong tin t ni nay sang ni khac. Thong thng bao gom 3 dang sau : Mail, Voicemail, Fax Mail : La he thong th ien t cho phep gi va nhan trong LAN hay nhan thong qua internet.

    - 1 so he thong Email phc tap co ho tr them ve sound, graphics va videoe2

    - 1 vai loai Email server chyen nghiep : Microsoft Exchange Server, Novells Group Wise, Lotus Notes. Voice mail : Cho phep ket noi may tnh en he thong ien thoai va nha cung cap cac dch vu ve truyen cac ban tin nhan dang tieng thong qua may tnh. No ket hp he thong truyen tieng noi tren may tnh vi tieng noi tao ra voice mail truyen en may tnh khac thong qua mang. Fax service : Cho phep gi nhan FAX thong qua he thong mang. Thong thng may FAX trong he thong mang c quan ly bi fax serve[r.

    Diectory service : Dch vu nay cho phep tch hp moi thong tin ve cac oi tng tren mang thanh 1 cau truc dang th...