Mang Truyen Thong Cong Nghiep (3)

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<p>Chng 4. Gii thiu h thng SIMATIC PCS 7</p> <p>CHNG 4 GII THIU H THNG SIMATIC PCS 74.1 Cc thut ng c bn: 4.1.1 Truyn thng (communications): Truyn thng ch s truyn d liu gia hai hoc nhiu thnh phn truyn thng vi nhau, trong truyn thng ngi ta c th gi y l cng s (communications partner). Trao i y c th l ly hoc gi thng tin, trng thi, tn hiu Qa trnh truyn thng c th xy ra nhiu ng truyn khc nahu nh: cng truyn thng c tch hp cng vi CPU; b x l truyn thng ring cn gi l CP (communications processor); ngoi ra ngi ta cn hay s dng t Node thay th cho cc thnh phn ny. Xem v d hnh bn di:</p> <p>Hnh 4.1 Cc thnh phn trong truyn thng 4.1.2 H thng truyn thng c d phng (Redundant Communication System): L h thng c d tr c th tng ln gp i i khi c th gp ba ln ti mt s CPU, ngun cung cp cho h thng iu khin hoc mi trng truyn thng (cc bus truyn).</p> <p>Nguyn Kim Anh &amp; Nguyn Manh Ha - T ng hoa - BKN</p> <p>44</p> <p>Chng 4. Gii thiu h thng SIMATIC PCS 7</p> <p>Cc c ch gim st v ng b ha s c m bo nu c mt thnh phn b li th s c mt thnh phn khc thay th ngay (ty theo mc d phng) m khng nht thit phi dng</p> <p>a. D phng CPU v bus truyn thng trong kt ni ca S7 400H</p> <p>b. D phng Server, CPU AC800 v cc bus truyn thng trong kt ni ca ABB</p> <p>h thng x l, ch cn tch ra v khc phc thnh phn b li sau y a h thng tr li hot ng nh qu trnh ci t ban u (v d cc S7 400H ca Siemens hay AC800M ca ABB c c ch ny). Vic d phng ny cc cp khc nhau ty thuc vo mc quan trng ca h thng, thc t ngi ta c th chia ra cc cp nh sau: - d phng nng (Host Standby): thi gian chuyn mch &lt; 10 ms. - d phng m: 10 ms &lt; thi gian chuyn mch &lt; 100 ms. - d phng lnh (ngui): d phng dng ny phi ngng h thng trong khong thi gian ngn thay th thit b. Truyn thng c tnh kh dng (sn sng) cao (High - Availability communication) S7 400H l v d minh ha trong kt ni truyn thng kiu ny. Truyn thng ny mang li tin cy, tng nng sut trong sn xut, gim thi gian dng my khi bo dng hai khc phc s c Ngc li gi thnh u t rt cao. 4.1.3 Cc nt (node) d tr: Ngoi cc vn d phng v ngun (PS), CPU, bus, CP cn c d phng v nt. Kiu d phng ny c thc hin trong nhng h thng c d phng rt cao phc v cho vic thay th hoc nng cp. Khi s c nt mng no th khng lm nh hng n cc nt khc trong mng. 4.1.4 Trm (Station): Trm l mt thit b kt ni vo trong mt subnet no hay l s lin kt gia cc subnet vi nhau (Gateway s dng PLC hoc PC), n phi c ring mtNguyn Kim Anh &amp; Nguyn Manh Ha - T ng hoa - BKN 45</p> <p>Chng 4. Gii thiu h thng SIMATIC PCS 7</p> <p>a ch khi kt ni vo trong mng. V d trm y c th l: PC, PLC, PG, OP, TD, CP 4.1.5 Mng con (subnet): Subnet l ton b cc thnh phn vt l, chun, giao thc, dch v ng nht thc hin mt kt ni thng nht phc v cho vic trao i v qun l d liu. Cc kt ni gia cc trm ni vo subnet khng i qua gateway. Mt subnet c coi l mt mi trng truyn thng. V d nh subnet l: MPI, Profibus, Ethernet, Modbus . . . Mi subnet c mt subnetID duy nht.</p> <p>Hnh 4.2 V d minh v cc subnet v cc lin kt gia chng Hnh x.x c ba subnet (1 subnet MPI, 2 subnet Profibus DP), cc S7 400 lm nhim v iu khin v qun l hai subnet Profibus DP va lm nhim v ca gateway lin kt ba subnet li vi nhau. 4.1.6 Mng (Network): Mng bao gm mt hoc nhiu subnet (cng loi hoc khc loi) lin kt li vi nhau. V d trn cc hnh 4.1, 4.2 gi l mng. 4.1.7 Gateway: Gateway l thit b s dng kt ni cc subnet li vi nhau. N c th lin kt cc subnet ging hoc khc nhau. Nh vy mng c nhiu hn mt subnet th cn phi c gateway. V d nhng gateway sau y thng c s dng: - Modul E/P c s dng lin kt hai subnet khc nhau l Ethernet v Profibus DP.Nguyn Kim Anh &amp; Nguyn Manh Ha - T ng hoa - BKN 46</p> <p>Chng 4. Gii thiu h thng SIMATIC PCS 7</p> <p>- Modul IM 157 s dng lin kt hai subnet khc nhau l Profibus DP v Profibus PA. - DP/AS-i Link s dng lin kt IM 157 s dng lin kt hai subnet khc nhau l Profibus DP v AS-i. - Gateway 3WN6 thit b s dng chuyn mch trong Profibus DP. - ET 200U DP/FMS s dng lin kt hai subnet khc nhau l Profibus DP v Profibus FMS. Ngoi ra cc modul CP, PLC v PC i khi cng ng vai tr ca mt gateway. Xem hnh v d bn di:</p> <p>Hnh 4.3 Ln kt gia Profibus DP v Profibus PA s modul IM 157 4.1.8 B nh tuyn (Routing ): Nhng gateway cn c thng tin xc nh ng i qua cc kt ni t subnet ny sang cc subnet khc. Trong khung truyn y l mt bng ch ng (routing table) xc nh a ch ch l cc cng s truyn thng (communications partners). Chnh c ch ny ca n m ngi ta gi n l routing (nh tuyn). C hai loi routing l routing tnh v routing ng (routing thch nghi). i vi cc routing tnh th cc thng tin trong bng (routing table) l khng i, n lm nhim v ch dn i n cc subnet k. i vi routing ng th cc tham s trong s thay i nu c s tham gia vo hoc ct bt cng s truyn thng trong mng mt cch t ng. Tnh nng ny rt quan trng i vi mt s nh my sn xut c tnh cht lin tc hn ch ti a thi gian v s ln dng h thng, v d nh nh my thp; nh my in; nh my xi mng; nh my lc du 4.1.9 Khch/ch (Client/server): Khi nin v Khch/ch a ra nhm xc nh chc nng s dng hay qun l d liu. Vic ny gip cho vic phn nh cng vic mt cch r rng, d tch hp, bo dng v nng cp hn. Tng c hiu sut cng vic, gim gi thnh tch hp v ti u ha thi gian thc thi cng vic, iu ny cng c ngha l tnh nng thi gian thc (real-time) cng s c ci thin hn.Nguyn Kim Anh &amp; Nguyn Manh Ha - T ng hoa - BKN 47</p> <p>Chng 4. Gii thiu h thng SIMATIC PCS 7</p> <p>Server: Trch nhim ca Server l qun l, lu tr d liu, m bo cc dch v truyn thng, cu trc v s lng kt ni. Nng cao tin cy trong h thng (tnh kh dng). Client: Chc nng ch yu ca client l s dng thng tin, ngoi ra cn c x l thng tin gim bt gnh nng cho Server (tnh nng ny l hu ht trong cc mng TTCN). Gip cho Server d dng hn trong vic truy cp h thng m khng cn phi phn b chi tit thi gian, d liu 4.1.10 Ch/t (Master/Slave): Khi nim ch t thng rt hay gp khi tin hnh tch hp mng TTCN. Chng ta c th lin tng n quan h gia Cleint/Server trn nhng khi nim Master/Slave cp nh hn nhiu. V d trong kt ni gia PLC S7300 hoc S7 400 vi cc m un phn tn ET 200 thng qua subnet Profibus DP th CPU ca PLC ng vai tr l Master cn cc m un phn tn ET 200 l cc Slave. 4.2 Gii thiu cc phn mm thuc gi phn mm STEP 7: Trc khi bt u vi phn mm ny chng ta i tng quan v gi phn mm STEP 7. Trong c cc phn mm sau: - Configure SIMATIC Workspace - Converting S5 file - LAD, STL, FBD - Programming S7 Blocks - Memory Card Parameter Assignment - PID Control Parameter Assignment - S7 - GRAPH - Programming Sequential Control System - S7 - DIAG - Configurating Proccess Diagnotics - Setting the PG-PC Interface - TI 405 - S7 Converting TI File - TI 505 - S7 Converting TI File - NetPro - Configuring Networks 4.2.1 Configure SIMATIC Workspace: y, bn c th ci t SIMATIC STEP 7 Workstation chun b cho qu trnh lm vic vi cc d n ca STEP 7 v cc STEP 7 Workatation khc. - Workstation c hai loi: + Single Terminal: vi ci t ny, bn ch lm vic c trn duy nht mt d n STEP 7. + Multi - Terminal System: vi vic ci t ny, nhng d n ca bn c th c son tho t tp hp nhiu Workstation khc nhau. D nn thng thng nm trn File ca Server hoc trn mt nhm Workstation. Tt c cc station trong nhm (workgroup) c th truy cp vo n. - Chun giao thc c s dng thit lp mt h thng vi Multi - terminal, cc chun giao thc ny l ngn ng chung chung truyn thng gia cc Workstation vi nhau. Cc ci t vi chun giao thc nn tun theo tiu chunNguyn Kim Anh &amp; Nguyn Manh Ha - T ng hoa - BKN 48</p> <p>Chng 4. Gii thiu h thng SIMATIC PCS 7</p> <p>chung thng nht ca quc t. C cc chun sau y c thit lp cho h thng mng ca bn thng qua phn mm ny: + NetBIOS + IPX/SPX + TCP/IP (vi ci t ny s c mt cu hnh TCP/IP cho Multi - User c thit lp) - Trong h thng Multi - User (hay Multi - terminal) bao gm cc thnh phn chnh l DB server v DP client. + DB server: ch s dng a ch host Khi thit lp a ch cho DB server, phn mm mc nh cho nn bn khng cn phi to ra a ch mi hoc l a thm a ch no na. DB server s s dng tt c cc a ch IP tin li ny. Nu nhiu hn mt mng c thit lp, bn c th a a ch host cho nhng mng v lc cc DB server nn lm vic c lp. + V d cho truyn d liu vi khong cch di (long - distance): Nu DB server hot ng trong mng vi khong cch di, u tin bn phi dng DB server trc khi thc hin vic kt ni v l bn m bo rng cc kt ni phi m bo tun theo chun giao thc TCP/IP. Tt nht l cc a ch m bn n nh trong mng nn qun l trn mt file no tin cho vic qun l trnh s nhm ln v trng lp. Bn nn lu n chc nng default setting ca phn mm trong qu trnh nh a ch cho cc DB client.</p> <p>Hnh 4.4 Thit lp a ch host cho DB server Cu trc IP xem thm trang 20 trong gio trnh thit k v xy dng mng LAN v WAN. - Cu hnh ca Multi - User trong mng: Vi STEP 7, bn c th lm vic trong mi trng Windows 2000/XP v NT/2000 server. Tng ng vi mi Workstation bn c th lm vic tng ng vi cc Project nhng dng sau:</p> <p>Nguyn Kim Anh &amp; Nguyn Manh Ha - T ng hoa - BKN</p> <p>49</p> <p>Chng 4. Gii thiu h thng SIMATIC PCS 7</p> <p>+ Project trn mt Workstation no cng co th c s dng bi cc Workstation khc. Xem v d hnh 4.5, Workstation 1 v Workstation 2 truy cp vo Project A trn Workstation 1. + Cc Workstation khc v th truy cp vo Project trn server. Xem v d hnh 4.5, Workstation 1 v Workstation 2 c th truy cp vo Project C trn server ca mng . + Cc Project l c phn b ti cc Workstation hay server trong mng c mt hoc nhiu hn mt server. Xem v d hnh 4.5, Workstation 1 v Workstation 2 c th truy cp vo cc Project A, B, C.</p> <p>Hnh 4.5 Nhm server chy trn h iu hnh Window NT 4.2.2 Converting S5 file: Phn mm ny c chc nng chuyn i cc File c son tho trn STEP 5 (th h c) sang dng File khc m File hon ton c th son tho li v c th lm vic c trong mi trng STEP 7. Vi mt nhng thao tc n gin l: - Khi ng phn mm Converting S5 file - Vo File/Open - Chn File S5 m bn mun chuyn i 4.2.3 LAD, STL, FBD - Programming S7 Blocks: Trn phn mm ny chng ta c th to lp cc Project cho PLC S7 - 300 hoc S7 - 400 bng mt trong 3 ngn ng LAD, STL, FBD. Ngoi ra chng c th khi ng phn mm ny t SIMATIC Manager. 4.2.4 Memory Card Parameter Assignment: y bn c th ch nh c giao din m thit b lp ca bn c th s dng lu tr chng trnh ngi s dng trn card nh cho PLC thuc S7. 4.2.5 PID Control Parameter Assignment: Trn phn mm ny gip chng ta thit lp cc qu trnh iu khin vng kn cn gi l PID cho cc ng dng iu khin n nh. Vic thit lp chng trnh ny da vo hai khi: + OB41 c chc nng iu khin lin tc (continuou) + OB42 c chc nng iu khin mc (step)Nguyn Kim Anh &amp; Nguyn Manh Ha - T ng hoa - BKN 50</p> <p>Chng 4. Gii thiu h thng SIMATIC PCS 7</p> <p>4.2.6 S7 - GRAPH - Programming Sequential Control System Phn mm ny ng dng cho cc chng trnh m c gii thut (thut ton) di dng tun t (Sequential) vit di dng graph m chng ta thng hay gi l ngn ng grafcet (tham kho chng 1 thuc gio trnh iu khin Logic). N l mt dng ngn ng lp trnh tin li bn cnh 3 ngn ng lp trnh c bn cho PLC S7 m chng ta thng hay gp. Tin li ch l chng trnh ngn gn, hon ton bng ha, c th chuyn mt cch d dng tng ng t dng lu thut ton V d v vic quan st trng thi tn hiu ca cc a ch thuc vng nh vo, ra v cc bit nh cc vng khc:</p> <p>Hnh 4.6 M t bc chuyn trng thi ca chng trnh trn GRAPH Trong bc trn, trng thi ca tn hiu trong qu trnh hot ng ca chng trnh l c hin th. Trng thi ca tn hiu tng ng vi cc a ch (vo, ra v cc a ch nh khc) l c xc nh ti v tr nhng du chm hi (???) ca cc hot ng mt cch ring l. iu ny c ngha l khng hon ton cc hot ng ca cc bc l c hin th. c bit cc a ch dng Boolean l c hin th trong trng thi ny. Gi tr cc a ch khc c hin th chi tit trong ca s ca bng a ch. Nu c kha lin ng c gi th kha y khng hin th trng thi. Bn di l mt v d m t vic lp trnh tun th thng qua ngn ng lp trnh Graph ny. Phn ny s c trnh by k hn trong cc chuyn iu khin cc qu trnh cng ngh!</p> <p>Nguyn Kim Anh &amp; Nguyn Manh Ha - T ng hoa - BKN</p> <p>51</p> <p>Chng 4. Gii thiu h thng SIMATIC PCS 7</p> <p>4.2.7 S7 - DIAG - Configurating Proccess Diagnotics S7 PDIAG c s dng to ra nhng nh ngha li, to cho ngi s dng tin li trong qu trnh gim st h thng. Qa trnh chun on ny s xc nh kiu thng tin v li, v tr li v cc cnh bo ca li. Nhng d liu ca chun on l thng tin quan trng gip cho vic x l s c. Nhng thun li m chng trnh ny mang li: - Li qu trnh (Process errors) c th c nhn ra r rng v nhanh chng. - Gim bt thi gian dng h thng do li do s tng c nng sut. - Nhng thhng tin r rng c to ra cho qu trnh x l s c (troubleshooting) lm cho qu trnh x l s tr nn d dng hn. - Tui th ca h thng c tng ln ng k. 4.2.8 Setting the PG-PC Interface Bt c my tnh no tham gia vo mng i hi phi c mt giao din mng c thit lp. Phn mm ny s gip ngi s dng to ra nhng giao din thc hin cc kt ni tng ng vo cc mng khc nhau nh (PPI, MPI, PROFIBUS, ETHERNET). 4.2.9 TI 405 - S7 Converting TI File Chng trnh TISOFT405 c lu tr mt hoc nhiu file. Nhng fileNguyn Kim Anh &amp; Nguyn Manh Ha - T ng hoa - BKN 52</p> <p>Chng 4. Gii thiu h thng SIMATIC PCS 7</p> <p>ny c nh dng trong mt th vin ca DOS. Chng khng phi l nhng file vn bn. Vic lu tr NAME ca chng trnh TISOFT405 l c lin kt vi mt file NAME.VPU. Nhng file khc nh l NAME.CMT cng c lin kt vi chng trnh NAME. Qa trnh chuyn i i hi phi c thng tin t cc file lin kt v to ra nhng file text tng ng vi nhng lnh ca STEP 7. Nh vy u ra ca cc file text l u vo ca STEP 7 Program Editor. Ban u sau khi chuyn, chng trnh ny dng statementlist, sau chng ta c th chuyn sang dng LAD hoc FBD nu c th. Nh vy chng trnh ny ch c ngha khi cc bn mun chuyn file c thit lp trn nhng PLC qu c ti cc nh my m s dng thit b ca hng Siemens (c th xem nh l i STEP 4) sang ngn ng lp trnh STEP 7 c th thao tc trc tip nh: thay i a ch, nng cp chng trnh hay nng cp CPU 4.2.10 TI 505 - S7 Converting TI File Chng trnh ny cng c mc ch ging nh chng trnh c trnh by mc 4.2.1.9 nhng i vi i STEP 5. 4.2.11 NetPro - Configuring Networks Chng trnh ny l chng trnh quan trng nht trong tt c cc chng trnh c nu ra trn y. N gip cho chng ta c th thit lp cu hnh ca mng truyn thng (SCADA hoc DCS) s dng cc th vin thit b v chun giao thc c xy dng sn trn . Phn ny s trnh by k trong chng 5. 4.3 M hnh h thng PCS 7: C th ni PCS 7 l mt trit l v mt h thng iu khin, n to ra nhng ng dng cho b iu khin logic lp trnh c (PLC), ng dng cho h thng x l qu trnh. N l h c bn ca SIMATIC S7. PCS 7 l mt h thng chun v cu trc do c th xy dng mt h thng c gii php t ng cp thp, trung bnh hoc cp cao. T cp n gin n cp phc tp nht m cc nh my yu cu. Ni chung PCS 7 l h thng t ng ha qu trnh mm do, cung cp gii php mt cch ty chn cho ngi s dng. iu ny s mang li nhng u im ni bt nh: - Cng mt phn cng s dng trong nh my v PLC v iu khin qu trnh. - SIMATIC 7 cp n s kt hp to nn mt h thng T ng ha din rng. - S phn b ca h SIMATIC 7 trn ton th gii l mt minh chng cho vic lp t, dch v v bo dng ca n. - Tnh an ton cao v ng b.</p> <p>Nguyn Kim Anh &amp; Nguyn Manh Ha - T ng hoa - BKN</p> <p>53</p> <p>Chng 4. Gii thiu h thng SIMATIC PCS 7</p> <p>Hnh 4.7 M hnh mu ca h thng PCS 7 4.3.1 Trm Engineering System (ES): T trm ES ny, ngi s dng c th thit lp, thay i cc thng s ca cc trm c kt ni vo trong mng. Thng trong cc nh my c trung bnh v ln u c cc trm ES ny. Ngoi nhng chc nng trn, trm ES cn c th chy cc gi phn mm cu thnh nn trm OS. SIMATIC PCS 7 cung cp mt gii php ES ton din cho vic thit lp cu hnh cho ti gim st h thng PCS, h tr cho vic x l cc d n nh my v mng din rng.</p> <p>Nguyn Kim Anh &amp; Nguyn Manh Ha - T ng hoa - BKN</p> <p>54</p> <p>Chng 4. Gii thiu h thng SIMATIC PCS 7</p> <p>Hnh 4.8 Gii hn m trm ES c th qun l c 4.3.2 H thng giao din vn hnh OS (Operator Interface System): Trong h thng PCS 7, giao din vn hnh hay cn gi l HMI (Human Mechain Interface) c bn l trn WinCC (Windows Control Center). H thng c nhng kiu sau: - Stand-alone-system -...</p>