Mekong Ecology 8Dec2009

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<p>Upper Mekong</p> <p>Lower Mekong</p> <p>Mekong Basin Catchments area: 795,000 sq.km. Mainstream length: 4,800 km. Annual discharge: 475,000 million cm. Population: 250 million people</p> <p>( ) </p> <p> 18% </p> <p> 90% </p> <p> 95% </p> <p>Mekong in Tibet and China</p> <p>Dams in Upper Mekong</p> <p>Mekong</p> <p>Dams in Upper Mekong, China</p> <p>Nuozhadu Jinghong</p> <p>Manwan Dam</p> <p>Manwan Dam</p> <p>Manwan Dam</p> <p>Construction started: 1986 Operate: 1993</p> <p>Dachaoshan Dam</p> <p>Dachaoshan Dam Construction started: 1996 Operate: 2003</p> <p>Jinghong DamConstruction started: 2003 Operate: 2008</p> <p>Dams in Lower Mekong</p> <p>One of 11 proposed hydropower dams on lower Mekong mainstream. There are proposed 7 dams in Laos, 2 dams on the boundary between Thailand and Laos and 2 dams in Cambodia. The original plan has developed in 1970 by Mekong Committee and reproposed again in 1994. In September 2008, the Mekong River Commission (MRC) organized Regional Multi-Stakeholder Consultation on the MRC Hydropower Program to promote the idea of sustainable Mekong hydropower dams.</p> <p>Source: TERRA</p> <p>Lower Mekong mainstream dams350 +340 300 +310</p> <p>Pak beng 1,350 MW Luang Prabang 1,410 MW Xayabouri 1,260 MW +265 Pak Lay 1,320 MW+240</p> <p>250</p> <p>200</p> <p>masl</p> <p>+192</p> <p>Pak Chom 1,079 MW Tha Uthein 1,596 MW+145</p> <p>150</p> <p>Ban Koum 1,872 MW100 +115 +72 50</p> <p>Don Sahong 240 MW Stung Treng</p> <p>+55 +30</p> <p>0</p> <p>Sambor 3,300 MW</p> <p>-50 2,400 2,200 2,000 1,800 1,600 1,400 1,200 1,000 800 600 400</p> <p>Distance from Delta (Km)</p> <p>Lower Mekong mainstream dams, September 2008Project 1. Pak Beng (Laos) Status MoU for construction: GoL - Datang International Power Generation Co.Ltd, 29 Aug ust 2007, US$ 1.88 billion Install Capacity (MW) 1,350 Likely market Thai Construction plan 2008-2013</p> <p>2. Luang Prabang (Laos) MoU for construction: Gol PVPower Engineering Consulting Joint Stock Company , Moscow Irrigation and Construction Design Institute, 14 October 2007, US$ 1.828 billion (PVPower is PetroVietnam Power Corporation)</p> <p>1,410</p> <p>Vietnam</p> <p>2007-2014</p> <p>3. Xayabouri (Laos) 4. Pak Lay (Laos)</p> <p>MoU for feasibility study: Gol CK, 4 May 2007, US$ 1.7 billion MoU for feasibility study: Gol China Electronics I&amp;E Corp. of China , Sinohydro Corp . of China, 11 June 2007, US$ 1.7 billion</p> <p>1,260 1,320</p> <p>Thai Thai</p> <p>2011-2015 -</p> <p>5. Pak Chom (Laos-Thai) Thai: Pre-feasibility study finished by May 2008. 6. Ban Koum (Laos-Thai) 7. Lat Seua (Laos) MoU for feasibility study: Gol Thai, 25 March 2008, US$ 2.22 billion MoU for feasibility study: Gol Thailand's Charoen Energy and Water Asia Company, April 2008 MoU for developing project: GoL Mega First Berhad Consortium of Malaysia, February 2008, US$ 300 million MoU for feasibility study: GoCam - Guangxi Grid Company (subsidiary of China Southern Po wer Grid), 31 October 2007</p> <p>1,482 1,872 +800 MW</p> <p>Thai Thai Thai</p> <p>-</p> <p>8. Don Sahong (Laos)</p> <p>240</p> <p>Vietnam, Cambodia</p> <p>2009</p> <p>9. Sambor (Cambodia)</p> <p>465 to 3,300</p> <p>Vietnam, Thai</p> <p>-</p> <p>Pak Beng dam site</p> <p>MoU for construction: GoL - Datang International Power Generation Co.Ltd, 29 August 2007, US$ 1. 88 billion Photo: TERRA</p> <p>Pak Beng dam site</p> <p>Photo: TERRA</p> <p>Luang Prabang dam site</p> <p>MoU for construction: Gol PVPower Engineering Consulting Joint Stock Company , Moscow Irrigation a nd Construction Design Institute, 14 October 2007, U S$ 1.828 billion (PVPower is PetroVietnam Power Cor poration)</p> <p>Photo: TERRA</p> <p>Luang Prabang dam site: Vietnamese camp</p> <p>Photo: TERRA</p> <p>Xayabouri dam siteMoU for feasibility study: Gol CK, 4 May 2007, US $ 1.7 billion, 1,260 MW</p> <p>Photo: TERRA</p> <p>Xayabouri dam site</p> <p>Photo: TERRA</p> <p>Pak Lay dam site</p> <p>MoU for feasibility study: Gol China Electronics I&amp;E Corp. of China , Sinohydr o Corp. of China, 11 June 2007, US$ 1.7 billion 1,320 MWPhoto: TERRA</p> <p>Pak Lay dam site: Chinese survey boat</p> <p>Photo: TERRA</p> <p>Pak Lay dam site:</p> <p>Photo: TERRA</p> <p>Pak Chom modelThai: Pre-feasibility study finished by May 2008., 1,482 MW</p> <p>Pak Chom dam site</p> <p>Photo: TERRA</p> <p>Agriculture on the small island above Pak Chom dam</p> <p>Photo: TERRA</p> <p>Ban Khum picture model.</p> <p>MoU for feasibility study: Gol Thai, 25 March 2008, US$ 2. 22 billion, 1,872 MW</p> <p> Ban Khum dam site</p> <p>Photo: TERRA</p> <p>Mekong above Ban Khum dam.</p> <p>Photo: TERRA</p> <p>Fishery above Ban Khum dam.</p> <p>Photo: TERRA</p> <p>Agriculture on the river bank above Ban Khum dam.</p> <p>Photo: TERRA</p> <p>DonD on Sa h ong</p> <p>Sa d</p> <p>am</p> <p>Phapheng Falls Don Pha ph e ng</p> <p>Don Sahong dam</p> <p>Hou Sahong</p> <p>Don</p> <p>Don Loppakdi</p> <p>Peuay Neua</p> <p>Don Peuay Ta</p> <p>Don Tholathi</p> <p>LaosDon Sangiat</p> <p>Don Khon Gnouak</p> <p>CambodiaDon Langa</p> <p>Don Sahong dam in Siphandon</p> <p>Don Sahong dam site at Hou Sahong Channel.MoU for developing project: GoL Mega First Berhad Consortium of Malaysia, February 2008, US$ 300 million, 340 MW</p> <p>Photo: TERRA</p> <p>Villages name around Samphin island. 1. Sambo 2. Donmeas 3. Bay Somnom 4. Svaychek 5. Chueng Peat 6. Kohchba 7. Kompong Phune 8. Ponchea 9. Kohkhgne lue 10. Kschach leav 11. Damre 12. Kompongrotes 13. Koh Dombong 14. Yeav 15. Tonsaung thleak 16. Agen 17. Ampiltuk 18. Kompong Keabei 19. Kohphdeo 20. Samphin 21. Bungchar 22. Kampongdamrei 23. Kompongrotes 24. Kohdambong</p> <p>Samphin island MoU for feasibility study: GoCam Guangxi Grid Company (subsidiary of China Southern Po wer Grid), 31 October 2007 , 3,300 MW</p> <p>Sam Bor propose dam site</p> <p>Sam Bor dam site cross the Mekong 4 kilometers.</p> <p>Photo: TERRA</p> <p>Bench mark by the Chinese company.</p> <p>Photo: TERRA</p> <p>Mekong fishes</p> <p>The Mekong has the worlds largest inland fishery1.5-3 million tonnes per annum (calculation in 2000 was 2.6 million tonnes)Lower Mekong 1-1.3million tonnes Lower Mekong system Middle Mekong 0.9-1.2 million tonnesMiddle Mekong system</p> <p>Upper Mekong 60,000 Mekong system Upper tonnes</p> <p>Source: MRC</p> <p>Mekong fisheries are valuableEconomic value Estimated at US$ 2-3,000 million per annum Tonle Sap - 80% of people fish Lao PDR &gt; 50% fish; 80% in south (20% household income) Fish main source of animal protein (49-82%), Vit A and calciumSource: MRC</p> <p>Employment and Income </p> <p>Nutrition </p> <p>Migration is a key feature of the life history of many Mekong speciesBetween 40-70% of total fish catch in the lower Mekong basin is dependent on long distance migrants(upper end, &gt; 1.3 million tonnes worth &gt;US$2 billion)</p> <p>Source: MRC</p> <p>Mekong Deep Pools</p> <p>Transboundary impacts on deep poolsBan Koum Dam will change the ecosystem of deep pools in the Mekong mainstream by increasing the depth of pool, blocking water flow system. MRCs study about deep pools states that; Deep pools in the mainstream of Mekong are important habi tats in the life cycle of many c ommercially important fishes. In addition to supporting a sed entary fauna of their own, the pools offer a dry season refug e for many of the migratory s pecies that provide the recruit ment for the large-scale fishe ries further downstream.</p> <p>Ban Koum dam</p> <p>Source: MRC</p> <p>There are 12 deep pools that has depth more 20 meters located upstream from Ban Koum dam site, some part of Mekong river between Ban Pha-chan and Ban Dong-na Ubon Ratchathani province. The deepest pool in that area is 84 meters depth. The villagers call this area Vern Rua Khang or Hanging boat deep pool.</p> <p> In dry season, every deep pools are the very important fishing ground for the villagers</p> <p>Photo: TERRA</p> <p>rapid</p> <p>Chiang Rai, Thailand</p> <p>Photo: TERRA</p> <p>Chiang Rai, Thailand</p> <p>Photo: TERRA</p> <p>Chiang Rai, Thailand</p> <p>Photo: TERRA</p> <p> ..</p> <p>Ubon Ratchathani, Thailand</p> <p>Photo: TERRA</p> <p>Ubon Ratchathani, Thailand</p> <p>Photo: TERRA</p> <p>Ubon Ratchathani, Thailand</p> <p>Photo: TERRA</p> <p>Lao PDR</p> <p>Photo: TERRA</p> <p>Cambodia</p> <p>Photo: TERRA</p> <p>Cambodia</p> <p>Photo: TERRA</p> <p> , </p> <p>Cambodia</p> <p>Photo: TERRA</p> <p>Cambodia</p> <p>rapidPhoto: TERRA</p> <p>Cambodia</p> <p>Photo: TERRA</p> <p>Tole Sap</p> <p>Tolesap river</p> <p>Cambodia</p> <p>Photo: TERRA</p> <p>CambodiaTolesap river</p> <p>Photo: TERRA</p> <p>Tolesap river</p> <p>Cambodia</p> <p>Photo: TERRA</p> <p>Tolesap river</p> <p>Cambodia</p> <p>Photo: TERRA</p> <p>Tolesap</p> <p>Cambodia</p> <p>Tolesap river</p> <p>Cambodia</p> <p>Tolesap river</p> <p>Cambodia</p> <p>Mekong Delta</p> <p>Vietnam</p> <p>Photo: TERRA</p> <p>Vietnam</p> <p>Photo: TERRA</p> <p>Vietnam</p> <p>Photo: TERRA</p> <p>Vietnam</p> <p>Photo: TERRA</p> <p>Vietnam</p> <p>Photo: TERRA</p> <p>Vietnam</p> <p>Photo: TERRA</p> <p>Vietnam</p> <p>Photo: TERRA</p> <p>Vietnam</p> <p>Photo: TERRA</p> <p>Vietnam</p> <p>Photo: TERRA</p> <p>Vietnam</p> <p>Photo: TERRA</p> <p>Vietnam</p> <p>Photo: TERRA</p> <p>Vietnam</p> <p>Photo: TERRA</p> <p>Vietnam</p> <p>Photo: TERRA</p> <p>Vietnam</p> <p>Photo: TERRA</p> <p>Vietnam</p> <p>Photo: TERRA</p> <p>Vietnam</p> <p>Photo: TERRA</p> <p>Vietnam</p> <p>Photo: TERRA</p> <p>Vietnam</p> <p>Photo: TERRA</p> <p>Vietnam</p> <p>Photo: TERRA</p> <p>Vietnam</p> <p>Photo: TERRA</p> <p>Siphandone</p> <p>Don</p> <p>Don Loppakdi</p> <p>Peuay Neua</p> <p>Don Peuay Ta</p> <p>Don Tholathi</p> <p>LaosDon Sangiat</p> <p>Don Khon Gnouak</p> <p>CambodiaDon Langa</p> <p>Don Sahong dam in Siphandon</p> <p>Lao PDR</p> <p>Photo: TERRA</p> <p>Lao PDR</p> <p>Photo: TERRA</p> <p>Lao PDR</p> <p>Photo: TERRA</p> <p>Lao PDR</p> <p>Lao PDR</p> <p>Lao PDR</p> <p>Lao PDR</p> <p>Photo: TERRA</p> <p>Lao PDR</p> <p>Photo: TERRA</p> <p>Flooded forest</p> <p>Cambodia</p> <p>Photo: TERRA</p> <p>Cambodia</p> <p>Photo: TERRA</p> <p>Cambodia</p> <p>Photo: TERRA</p> <p>Cambodia</p> <p>Photo: TERRA</p> <p>Cambodia</p> <p>Photo: TERRA</p> <p>Cambodia</p> <p>Photo: TERRA</p> <p>Cambodia</p> <p>Photo: TERRA</p> <p>Villagers along the Mekong have earn good incomes from fish sellingFrom the 2007 account book of Ban Pha-chan fishing group, Ubon Ratchathani, Thailand, the villagers have recorded around 398,000 bath or 11,370 U$ from selling fish. Usually there is at least 1 place for buying fish in each village so in 30 villages in Thai side the minimum incomes from selling fish is 12 million bath or 342,850 U$.</p> <p>Photo: TERRA</p> <p>Knowledge and wisdom of the villagers</p> <p>Research study by faculty of Arts, Ubon Ratchathani university (July-August 2008) found that at least 150 species fish species were known to villagers in the 2 villages as fishes they caught in daily life.Photo: TERRA</p> <p>Chiang Rai, Thailand</p> <p>Photo: TERRA</p> <p>Chiang Rai, Thailand</p> <p>Photo: TERRA</p> <p>Chiang Rai, Thailand</p> <p>Photo: TERRA</p> <p>Chiang Rai, Thailand</p> <p>Photo: TERRA</p> <p>Chiang Rai, Thailand</p> <p>Photo: TERRA</p> <p>Photo: TERRA</p> <p>Lao PDR</p> <p>Lao PDR</p> <p>Mekong in Cambodia</p> <p>Photo: TERRA</p> <p>Mekong in Cambodia</p> <p>Photo: TERRA</p> <p>Stung treng market</p> <p>Cambodia</p> <p>Photo: TERRA</p> <p>Cambodia</p> <p>Photo: TERRA</p> <p>Cambodia</p> <p>Price 3 us/kg.</p> <p>Photo: TERRA</p> <p>Cambodia</p> <p>Photo: TERRA</p> <p>Cambodia</p> <p>Photo: TERRA</p> <p>Cambodia</p> <p>Photo: TERRA</p> <p>Cambodia</p> <p>Photo: TERRA</p> <p> Research study in 6 villages in 2008 by Nature Care Foundation in Ubon Ratchathani province, Thailand, found that villagers used more than 25 types of fishing gears, depended on 20 sub-ecology types.</p> <p>Photo: TERRA</p> <p>Chiang Rai, Thailand</p> <p>Photo: TERRA</p> <p>Chiang Rai, Thailand</p> <p>Photo: TERRA</p> <p>Chiang Rai, Thailand</p> <p>Photo: TERRA</p> <p>Cambodia</p> <p>Photo: TERRA</p> <p>Cambodia</p> <p>Photo: TERRA</p> <p>Lao PDR</p> <p>Photo: TERRA</p> <p>Lao PDR</p> <p>Photo: TERRA</p> <p>Auen, Long net</p> <p>Cambodia</p> <p>Photo: TERRA</p> <p>Cambodia Auen, Long net</p> <p>Photo: TERRA</p> <p>Both fishery and river bank agriculture are also the most important sources for household consumption, as most landscape in both side of the Mekong is rocky and people have less to none land that is appropriate enough to be cultivated as paddy rice field.</p> <p>River bank agriculture at Ban Song Khon Photo: TERRA</p> <p>impacts on river bank agriculturePeople do river bank agriculture from November to March. Villagers can cultivate and produce such as maize, soil bean, sweet potato, cotton, onion, garlic, cabbage, long bean, chili etc.</p> <p>Sweet potato at Ban Song Khon, Thailand</p> <p>Photo: TERRA</p> <p>The research study in 6 villages in 2008 by Nature Care Foundation in Ubon Ratchathani province, Thailand found that; Villagers earn incomes from river bank agriculture around 25,000 85,000 bath (715 2,428 U$) per family per year.</p> <p>Ban Song Khon, Thailand</p> <p>Photo: TERRA</p> <p>Chiang Rai, Thailand</p> <p>Photo: TERRA</p> <p>Chiang Rai, Thailand</p> <p>Photo: TERRA</p> <p>Cambodia</p> <p>Photo: TERRA</p> <p>fresh water weed (Kai)</p> <p>Chiang Rai, Thailand</p> <p>Photo: TERRA</p> <p>From some natural food on the river bank such as earth crickets, many village people can earn around 1,000-10,000 baht (28 285 U$) extra income per year. (Ban Khum dam, Thailand)</p> <p>Photo: TERRA</p> <p>Photo: TERRA</p> <p>Cambodia</p> <p>Photo: TERRA</p> <p>Chiang Rai, Thailand</p> <p>Photo: TERRA</p> <p>Cambodia</p> <p>Photo: TERRA</p> <p>Cambodia</p> <p>Photo: TERRA</p> <p>Cambodia</p> <p>Photo: TERRA</p> <p>Cambodia</p> <p>Photo: TERRA</p> <p>Cambodia</p> <p>Photo: TERRA</p> <p>Cambodia</p> <p>Photo: TERRA</p> <p>Cambodia</p> <p>Photo: TERRA</p> <p> ( , ( ), ( ) , 1 , , 1 10,000 4,000 </p> <p>Chiang Mai, Thailand</p> <p>Photo: FER</p> <p>Ban Mae Ka-Nin Tai, Chiang Mai, Thailand</p> <p>Photo: FER</p> <p>Ban Mae Ka-Nin Tai, Chiang Mai, Thailand</p> <p>Photo: FER</p> <p>Ban Mae Ka-Nin Tai, Chiang Mai, Thailand</p> <p>Photo: FER</p> <p>Ban Mae Ka-Nin Tai, Chiang Mai, Thailand</p> <p>Photo: FER</p> <p>Ban Mae Ka-Nin Tai, Chiang Mai, Thailand</p> <p>Photo: FER</p> <p>Ban Huay E-Kang, Chiang Mai, Thailand</p> <p>Photo: FER</p> <p>Ban Huay E-Kang, Chiang Mai, Thailand</p> <p>Photo: FER</p> <p>Ban Tong Fai, Chiang Mai, Thailand</p> <p>Photo: FER</p> <p> ( ) </p> <p>Ban Tong Fai, Chiang Mai, Thailand</p> <p>Photo: FER</p> <p>Ban Tong Fai, Chiang Mai, Thailand</p> <p>Photo: FER</p> <p>Ban Tong Fai, Chiang Mai, Thailand</p> <p>Photo: FER</p> <p>Ban Tong Fai, Chiang Mai, Thailand</p> <p>Photo: FER</p> <p>Ban Tong Fai, Chiang Mai, Thailand</p> <p>Photo: FER</p> <p>Fai Laung, Ban Tap, Chiang Mai, Thailand</p> <p>Photo: FER</p> <p> 2 </p> <p> 200 0.6 0.8 2 2 " " "" (Jacobshavn) 2 1 </p> <p> 2007/2008 (Human Development Report 2007/2008) () 15 (Growth rate) 2 180% ..2547 268 96 ..2533 280 % 180 % 15 12 % 2 ..2547 5,007 2,399 ..2533 109 % 4 ..2547 1,342 682 ..2533 97% ..2547 64,000,000 4.2 // ..2533 1.7 // 10 2550 </p> <p> 2546 344.2 193.2 56.1 13.5 </p> <p>: </p> <p>: (31 .. - 6 .. 2552)</p> <p>Mitigation fish lock lowmedium dams</p> <p>Mitigation fish lift or elevator potentially high dams</p> <p>Chiang Rai, Thailand</p> <p>Photo: TERRA</p> <p>Chiang Rai, Thailand</p> <p>Photo: TERRA</p>