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  • Modern Automotive Technology

    Fundamentals, service, diagnostics

    vonRichard Fischer, Rolf Gscheidle, Uwe Heider, Berthold Hohmann, Wolfgang Keil, Jochen Mann, Wolfram Pichler,

    Wolfgang Saier, Bernd Schlgl, Paul Siegmayer, Alois Wimmer, Gnter Wormer

    1. Auflage

    Modern Automotive Technology Fischer / Gscheidle / Heider / et al.

    schnell und portofrei erhltlich bei beck-shop.de DIE FACHBUCHHANDLUNG

    Europa Lehrmittel 2006

    Verlag C.H. Beck im Internet:www.beck.de

    ISBN 978 3 8085 2301 8

    http://www.beck-shop.de/Fischer-Gscheidle-Heider-Hohmann-Keil-Mann-Pichler-Saier-Schloegl-Siegmayer-Wimmer-Wormer-Modern-Automotive-Technology/productview.aspx?product=12419234&utm_source=pdf&utm_medium=clickthru_lp&utm_campaign=pdf_12419234&campaign=pdf/12419234http://www.beck-shop.de/Fischer-Gscheidle-Heider-Hohmann-Keil-Mann-Pichler-Saier-Schloegl-Siegmayer-Wimmer-Wormer-Modern-Automotive-Technology/productview.aspx?product=12419234&utm_source=pdf&utm_medium=clickthru_lp&utm_campaign=pdf_12419234&campaign=pdf/12419234http://www.beck-shop.de?utm_source=pdf&utm_medium=clickthru_lp&utm_campaign=pdf_12419234&campaign=pdf/12419234http://www.beck.de

  • EUROPA REFERENCE BOOKS

    for Automotive Technology

    Modern Automotive TechnologyFundamentals, service, diagnostics

    1st English edition

    The German edition was written by technical instructors, engineers and technicians

    Editorial office (German edition): R. Gscheidle, Studiendirektor, Winnenden Stuttgart

    VERLAG EUROPA-LEHRMITTEL Nourney, Vollmer GmbH & Co. KG

    Dsselberger Strasse 23 42781 Haan-Gruiten Germany

    Europa No.: 23018

    F-Kfz 00 S.01-10 5.qxd 23.06.2006 8:45 Uhr Seite 1

  • Original title: Fachkunde Kraftfahrzeugtechnik, 28th edition 2004

    Authors:

    Fischer, Richard Oberstudienrat Polling Mnchen

    Gscheidle, Rolf Studiendirektor Winnenden Stuttgart

    Heider, Uwe Kfz-Elektriker-Meister, Trainer Audi AG Neckarsulm Oedheim

    Hohmann, Berthold Oberstudienrat Eversberg Meschede

    Keil, Wolfgang Studiendirektor Mnchen

    Mann, Jochen Dipl.-Gwl., Studienrat Schorndorf Stuttgart

    Pichler, Wolfram Ing. (grad.), Studiendirektor Pullach Mnchen

    Schlgl, Bernd Dipl.-Gwl., Studienrat Rastatt Gaggenau

    Siegmayer, Paul Dipl.-Ing., Studiendirektor Langenalb Pforzheim

    Wimmer, Alois Oberstudienrat Stuttgart

    Wormer, Gnter Dipl.-Ingenieur Karlsruhe

    Head of working group and editorial office:

    Rolf Gscheidle, Studiendirektor, Winnenden Stuttgart

    Illustrations:

    Drawing office of Verlag Europa-Lehrmittel, Leinfelden-Echterdingen

    All information given in this book corresponds to the state of the art. All testing, measuring and repairwork on a specific vehicle must be carried out in accordance with the manufacturer's specifications. Thework described is performed at the user's own risk. Warranty claims against the authors or the pub-lisher are excluded.

    English edition: Modern Automotive Technology - Fundamentals, service, diagnostics

    1st edition 2006Impression 5 4 3 2 1All impressions of the same edition can be used in parallel, as they do not differ from each other except with regardto the correction of printing errors.

    ISBN 3-8085-2301-8

    All rights reserved. This book is protected by copyright. Any commercial use beyond the legally specified usesrequires written approval from the publisher.

    Cover design and illustration using photographs and illustrations provided by Audi AG Ingolstadt Neckarsulm,Bayerische Motorenwerke AG Munich, Neoman Bus GmbH Stuttgart, DaimlerChrysler AG Stuttgart, Volkswagen AGWolfsburg.

    2006 by Verlag Europa-Lehrmittel, Nourney, Vollmer GmbH & Co. KG, 42781 Haan-Gruiten, Germanyhttp://www.europa-lehrmittel.de

    Translation: STAR Deutschland GmbH, Member of the STAR GroupTypesetting: STAR Deutschland GmbH, Member of the STAR GroupPrint: Media Print Informationstechnologie, D-33100 Paderborn, Germany

    F-Kfz 00 S.01-10 5.qxd 23.06.2006 8:45 Uhr Seite 2

  • Foreword

    11

    3

    Foreword

    "Modern Automotive Technology" is a standard work covering the subject of automotive technology. Thisfirst English edition is based on the 28th German edition of the title "Fachkunde Kraftfahrzeugtechnik".It has for many years proven to be a highly popular textbook used for training and further education. Itprovides apprentices, trainees, teachers and all those interested in this subject with the necessarytheoretical knowledge in order to gain a firm grasp of the practical and technical skills involved.Fundamental, technical connections between individual systems are presented in a clear and compre-hensible way.

    The book is intended to be used as a reference work by employees in the automotive industry and inmotor-vehicle service outlets, by teachers, apprentices, trainees and automotive-technology students tohelp them look up information and supplement their technical knowledge. The work is intended to beused by all those interested in automotive technology as a means of extending their technical knowledgethrough private study.

    The 22 chapters are logically arranged by subject and in their objectives are geared towards the changesin content that have occurred in the field of automotive technology. The book is particularly suitable forpractically orientated training in all matters pertaining to motor vehicles.

    This work covers the latest developments in automotive technology, such as, for example, service andmaintenance of vehicle systems, management, communication, FSI engines, supercharging technology,common-rail systems, twin-clutch gearboxes, electronic transmission control, electronic brake systems,compressed-air monitoring systems, adaptive cornering lights, high-frequency technology, electromag-netic compatibility and comfort and convenience systems such as adaptive cruise control, parking assis-tance and navigation. A large chapter is devoted to the subject of electrical engineering. Here, thedetailed coverage of the fundamentals of electrical engineering forms the basis for all the crucial issuesand topics pertaining to automotive electrics, up to and including data transmission in motor vehicles.A separate chapter is devoted to the increasing importance in engineering of comfort and conveniencetechnology.

    Reference is made to German and European standards in the chapters on environmental protection andoccupational safety, emissions-control engineering, braking technology and motorcycle engineering.However, the standards applicable in the respective individual countries are binding.

    The work features numerous coloured pictures, drawings and system diagrams as well as particularlyclearly and comprehensibly laid-out tables. These will help the reader to digest and comprehend thecomplex subject matter.

    The work has been written and compiled in close co-operation with the automotive trade and industry by a team of educationally experienced vocational-school teachers, engineers and master tradesmen.The authors and the publishers will be grateful for any suggestions and constructive comments.

    We would like to thank all the companies and organisations who have kindly contributed pictures andtechnical documents.

    The Authors of the Automotive Technology Team Summer 2006

    F-Kfz 00 S.01-10 5.qxd 23.06.2006 8:45 Uhr Seite 3

  • 4

    A/C Air conditioningA/F Air/fuel (mixture)ABC Active body control ABS Antilock braking system ABV Automatic braking-force

    distribution (German: AutomatischeBremskraftverteilung )

    AC Alternating currentACC Adaptive cruise controlACEA Association des

    Constructeurs Europensde l'automobile

    ACS Automatic clutch systemAD Analogue-digital

    (converter)ADSL Asymmetrical digital

    subscriber lineAGM Absorbing glas matALDBFR Automatic load-

    dependent brake-forceregulator

    ALSD Automatic limited-slipdifferential

    AM Amplitude modulationAPI American Petroleum

    InstituteASC Anti-stability controlASTM American Society for

    Testing and MaterialsATF Automatic transmission

    fluidATS Adaptive transmission

    control (system)

    BAS Brake assistant BDC Bottom dead centre

    CA Crankshaft angleCS CamshaftCAN Controller area networkCBS Combined brake systemCC Cruise controlCDI Capacitive discharge

    ignitionCFPP Cold filter plugging pointCFRP Carbon-fibre-reinforced

    plasticCH Combination humpCIH Camshaft in headCIP Continuous improvement

    process CN Cetane numberCNG Compressed natural gas

    CPU Central processing unitCR Common railCS CrankshaftCSR Conti support ringCV Commercial vehicleCV Check valveCVlft Check valve leftCVrt Check valve rightCVT Continuous variable

    transmission

    DA Drive axleDC Direct currentDI Direct injectionDME Digital motor electronics DOHC Double overhead

    camshaftDOT Department of TransportDSC Dynamic stability control DSG Direct-shift gearboxDSP Dynamic shift-program

    selection DSST Dunlop self-supporting

    technology

    EBS Electronic braking system Ec Exhaust valve closesECE Economic Commission

    for EuropeECM Electronic clutch

    managementECS Electronic clutch systemECU Electronic control unitEDC Electronic diesel controlEDP Electronic data

    processingEDTC Engine-drag torque

    controlEEPROM Electrically erasable

    programmable read-onlymemory

    EGR Exhaust gas recirculation EGS Electronic gearbox

    control unit (German:ElektronischesGetriebesteuergert)

    EH Extended humpEHB Electro-hydraulic braking

    systemEI Emissions inspectionELSD Electronic limited-slip

    differential EMC Electro-magnetic

    compatibility

    EMS Electronic enginemanagement system

    Eo Exhaust valve opensEOBD European on board

    diagnosisEP Exhaust passageEPHS Electrically powered

    hydraulic steeringEPS Electro-pneumatic control

    systemESP Electronic stability

    programETC Electronic throttle control ETN European type numberEV Exhaust valveFA Front axleFB Function buttonFDI Fuel direct injectionFF Freeform (reflector)FH Flat humpFL Front leftFOC Fibre-optic cableFOT Fibre-optical transceiverFR Front rightFSI Fuel stratified injectionFWD Four wheel drive

    GDI Gasoline direct injectionGFRP Glass-fibre-reinforced

    plasticGI General inspectionGMR Automatic regulation of

    yaw moment (German:Giermomentregelung)

    GPS Global positioning systemGVWR Gross vehicle weight

    rating

    HF High frequencyHFM Hot-film air-mass meterHGV Heavy goods vehicleHNS Homogeneous

    numerically calculatedsurface

    HS High-solid (paints)HTHS High temperature,

    high shearHV Hybrid vehicle

    IC Integrated circuitIc Inlet valve closesIC Individual control IDI Indirect injection

    Abbreviations

    F-Kfz 00 S.01-10 5.qxd 23.06.2006 8:45 Uhr Seite 4

  • 5

    IHPF Internal high-pressureforming

    Io Inlet valve opensIP Inlet passageIPO Input/Processing/Output

    (principle)IS Input shaftISAD Integrated starter

    alternator damperIV Inlet valveIVlft Inlet valve leftIvrt Inlet valve right

    LA Lifting axleLD Low densityLDR Light depending resistorLED Light emitting diodeLEV Low-emission vehicleLF Low frequencyLI Load indexLIN Local interconnect

    networkLNG Liquefied natural gasLS Limited slipLSG Laminated safety glassLU Logical unitLW Long wave

    MAF Mass air flowMAG Metal-active-gas

    (welding)MC MicrocomputerMC Main cylinderME Motor electronics MED Motor electronics direct

    injectionMG Motor generatorMIG Metal-inert-gas (welding)MIL Malfunction indicator

    lampMON Motor-octane numberMOST Media-oriented system

    transportMPI Multi-point injectionMS Medium-solid (paints)MW Medium wave

    NF Non-ferrous NLGI National Lubrication

    Grease InstituteNLS Needle lift sensor NTC Negative temperature

    coefficient

    OBD On board diagnosisOD Outside diameterOHC Overhead camshaftOHV Overhead valvesON Octane numberOV Outlet valveOVlft Outlet valve left

    PBC Parking-brake circuitPC Planet carriersPCU Pump control unitPDA Personal digital assistantPEM Proton exchange

    membranPES Poly ellipsoid system

    (reflector)PIN Personal identification

    numberPM Particulate matterPOF Plastic optical fibrePOT Plastic optical transceiverPR Ply ratingPTC Positive temperature

    coefficientPWM Pulse width modulation

    QA Quality assuranceQM Quality management

    RA Rear axleRDS Radio data system RHD Right-hand driver RL Rear leftRLFS Return-less-fuel systemRON Research-octane numberROP Roll-over protectionROV Rotating high voltage

    distribution (German: RotierendeHochspannungs-verteilung)

    RR Rear rightRRC Radio remote controlRUV Static high voltage

    distribution (German: RuhendeHochspannungs-verteilung)

    SAC Self-adjusting clutchSAE Society of Automotive

    EngineersSAM Signal acquisition and

    actuation module

    SBC Sensotronic brake controlSC Signal conditioningSCR Selective catalytic

    reductionSCV Solenoid control valveSDC Semi-drop centreSE SensorSI Safety inspectionSLC Select-low controlSoC State of chargeSPI Single-point injectionSRR Short-range radarSRS Safety restraint systemsSSlft Speed sensor leftSSR Self-supporting run-flat

    tyresSSrt Speed sensor rightSV Solenoid valveSV Side valveSW Short waveSWR Stationary wave ratio

    Tc Transfer passage closesTCS Traction control systemTDC Top dead centreTIG Tungsten-inert gasTL TubelessTo Transfer passage opensTP Transfer passageTPC Tyre-pressure checkTSG Toughened safety glassTWI Treadwear indicator

    UIS Unit injector systemUPS Unit pump system

    VDC Vehicle dynamicscontroller

    VDR Voltage-dependentresistor

    VF Variable focus (reflector)VHF Very high frequencyVT Viscosity temperatureVTec Variable valve timing and

    lift electronic controlVTG Variable turbine geometry

    WIG Wolfram-inert-gas(welding)

    Abbreviations

    F-Kfz 00 S.01-10 5.qxd 23.06.2006 8:45 Uhr Seite 5

  • Contributing companies6

    Alfa-Romeo-AutomobileMailand/Italien

    Aprilia Motorrad-VertriebDsseldorf

    Aral AG, Bochum

    Audatex Deutschland, Minden

    Audi AG, Ingolstadt Neckarsulm

    Autokabel, Hausen

    Autoliv, Oberschleiheim

    G. Auwrter GmbH & Co(Neoplan) Stuttgart

    BBS Kraftfahrzeugtechnik, Schiltach

    BEHR GmbH & Co, Stuttgart

    Beissbarth GmbH Automobil ServicegerteMnchen

    BERU, Ludwigsburg

    Aug. Bilstein GmbH & Co KGEnnepetal

    Boge GmbH, Eitdorf/Sieg

    Robert Bosch GmbH, Stuttgart

    Bostik GmbH, Oberursel/Taunus

    BLACK HAWK, Kehl

    BMW Bayerische Motoren-Werke AGMnchen/Berlin

    CAR-OLINER, Kungsr, Schweden

    CAR BENCH INTERNATIONAL.S.P.A.Massa/Italien

    Continental Teves AG & Co, OHG, Frankfurt

    Celette GmbH, Kehl

    Citroen Deutschland AG, Kln

    DaimlerChrysler AG, Stuttgart

    Dataliner Richtsysteme, Ahlerstedt

    Deutsche BP AG, Hamburg

    DUNLOP GmbH & Co KG, Hanau/Main

    ESSO AG, Hamburg

    FAG Kugelfischer Georg Schfer KG aAEbern

    J. Eberspcher, Esslingen

    EMM Motoren Service, Lindau

    Ford-Werke AG, Kln

    Carl FreudenbergWeinheim/Bergstrae

    GKN Lbro, Offenbach / Main

    Getrag Getriebe- und ZahnradfarbrikLudwigsburg

    Girling-Bremsen GmbH, Koblenz

    Glasurit GmbH, Mnster/Westfalen

    Globaljig, Deutschland GmbHCloppenburg

    Glyco-Metall-Werke B.V. & Co KGWiesbaden/Schierstein

    Goetze AG, Burscheid

    Grau-Bremse, Heidelberg

    Gutmann Messtechnik GmbH, Ihringen

    Hazet-Werk, Hermann Zerver, Remscheid

    HAMEG GmbH, Frankfurt/Main

    Hella KG, Hueck & Co, Lippstadt

    Hengst Filterwerke, Nienkamp

    Fritz Hintermayr, Bing-Vergaser-FabrikNrnberg

    HITACHI Sales Europa GmbHDsseldorf

    HONDA DEUTSCHLAND GMBHOffenbach/Main

    Hunger Maschinenfabrik GmbHMnchen und Kaufering

    IBM Deutschland, Bblingen

    IVECO-Magirus AG, Neu-Ulm

    ITT Automotive (ATE, VDO, MOTO-METER, SWF, KONI, Kienzle)

    Frankfurt/Main

    IXION Maschinenfabrik Otto Hfner GmbH & CoHamburg-Wandsbeck

    Jurid-Werke, Essen

    Kawasaki-Motoren GmbH, Friedrichsdorf

    Knecht Filterwerke GmbH, Stuttgart

    Knorr-Bremse GmbH, Mnchen

    Kolbenschmidt AG, Neckarsulm

    KS Gleitlager GmbH, St. Leon-Rot

    KTM Sportmotorcycles AGMattighofen/sterreich

    Khnle, Kopp und Kausch AGFrankenthal/Pfalz

    Lemmerz-Werke, Knigswinter

    LuK GmbH, Bhl/Baden

    MAHLE GmbH, Stuttgart

    Mannesmann Sachs AG, Schweinfurt

    Mann und Hummel, FilterwerkeLudwigsburg

    MAN Maschinenfabrik Augsburg-Nrnberg AG

    Mnchen

    Mazda Motors Deutschland GmbHLeverkusen

    MCC Mikro Compact Car GmbHBblingen

    Messer-Griesheim GmbHFrankfurt/Main

    Metzeler Reifen GmbHMnchen

    Michelin Reifenwerke KGaAKarlsruhe

    Microsoft GmbH, Unterschleiheim

    Mitsubishi Electric Europe B.V.Ratingen

    Mitsubishi MMC, Trebur

    MOBIL OIL AG, Hamburg

    NGK/NTK, Ratingen

    Adam Opel AG, Rsselsheim

    OSRAM AG, Mnchen

    OMV AG, Wien

    Peugeot Deutschland GmbHSaarbrcken

    Pierburg GmbH, Neuss

    Pirelli AG, Hchst im Odenwald

    Dr. Ing. h.c. F. Porsche AGStuttgart-Zuffenhausen

    Renault Nissan Deutschland AGBrhl

    Samsung Electronics GmbH, Kln

    SATA Farbspritztechnik GmbH & CoKornwestheim

    SCANIA Deutschland GmbHKoblenz

    SEKURIT SAINT-GOBAINDeutschland GmbH, Aachen

    Siemens AG, Mnchen

    SKF Kugellagerfabriken GmbHSchweinfurt

    SOLO Kleinmotoren GmbHMaichingen

    Stahlwille E. WilleWuppertal

    Steyr-Daimler-Puch AGGraz/sterreich

    Subaru Deutschland GmbHFriedberg

    SUN Elektrik DeutschlandMettmann

    Suzuki GmbHOberschleiheim/Heppenheim

    Technolit GmbH, Grolder

    Telma Retarder Deutschland GmbHLudwigsburg

    Temic Elektronik, Nrnberg

    TOYOTA Deutschland GmbH, Kln

    VARTA Autobatterien GmbHHannover

    Vereinigte Motor-Verlage GmbH & Co KGStuttgart

    ViewSonic Central Europe, Willich

    Voith GmbH & Co KG, Heidenheim

    Volkswagen AG, Wolfsburg

    Volvo Deutschland GmbH, Brhl

    Wabco Westinghouse GmbHHannover

    Webasto GmbH, Stockdorf

    Yamaha Motor Deutschland GmbHNeuss

    ZF Getriebe GmbH, Saarbrcken

    ZF Sachs AG, Schweinfurt

    ZF Zahnradfabrik Friedrichshafen AGFriedrichshafen/Schwbisch Gmnd

    We wish to thank the companies listed below for providing technical advice, information, photographs andillustrations.

    F-Kfz 00 S.01-10 5.qxd 23.06.2006 8:45 Uhr Seite 6

  • Table of contents

    Abbreviations 4, 5

    Contributing companies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

    1 Motor vehicle 11

    1.1 Evolution of the motor vehicle . . . . . . . . . 111.2 Motor vehicle classifications . . . . . . . . . . . 121.3 Design of the motor vehicle . . . . . . . . . . . 121.4 The motor vehicle as technical system . . 131.4.1 Technical systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131.4.2 Motor vehicle system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131.4.3 Subsystems in the motor vehicle . . . . . . . 151.4.4 Classifications of technical systems

    and subsystems by processing mode . . . 161.4.5 Using technical systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171.5 Service and maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181.6 Filter, body and maintenance . . . . . . . . . . 201.6.1 Air filters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201.6.2 Fuel filters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211.6.3 Oil filters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221.6.4 Hydraulic filters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221.6.5 Interior filters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221.6.6 Service and maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221.7 Fluids and lubricants, auxiliary materials 231.7.1 Fuels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231.7.2 Fuels for spark-ignition engines . . . . . . . . 251.7.3 Diesel fuels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 261.7.4 Oils and lubricants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 271.7.5 Antifreeze . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 321.7.6 Refrigerant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 331.7.7 Brake fluid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33

    2 Environmental protection,occupational safety 34

    2.1 Environmental protection in automotive service operations . . . . . . . . . 34

    2.1.1 Environmental pollution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 342.1.2 Disposal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 342.1.3 End-of-life vehicle disposal . . . . . . . . . . . . 372.1.4 Recycling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 382.2 Occupational safety and

    accident prevention . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 402.2.1 Safety signs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 402.2.2 Accident causes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 412.2.3 Safety measures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 412.2.4 Safe handling of hazardous

    materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42

    3 Business organisation, communications 43

    3.1 Basics of business organisation . . . . . . . . 433.1.1 Organisation of a car dealership . . . . . . . . 433.1.2 Aspects of the business organisation . . . 443.2 Communication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 463.2.1 Basics of communication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 463.2.2 Consultations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47

    3.2.3 Customer complaints andremedial action claims . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50

    3.3 Personnel leadership . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 503.4 Staff conduct . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 513.5 Teamwork . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 523.6 Order processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 533.7 Data processing in a car dealership . . . . . 563.8 Quality management in automotive

    service operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59

    4 Basics of information technology 63

    4.1 Hardware and software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 634.2 IPO concept . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 634.3 Internal data representation

    within the computer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 644.4 Numeric systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 644.5 Structure of the computer system . . . . . . 654.6 Data communications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 664.6.1 Data transfer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 674.6.2 Remote data transmission . . . . . . . . . . . . . 684.7 Data integrity assurance

    and data protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69

    5 Open- and closed-loop control technology 70

    5.1 Basics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 705.1.1 Open-loop control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 705.1.2 Closed-loop control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 715.2 Structure and components of the

    open-loop control system . . . . . . . . . . . . . 735.2.1 Signalling devices, signal types and

    signal conversion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 735.2.2 Control elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 755.2.3 Actuators and drive elements . . . . . . . . . . 765.3 Control types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 775.3.1 Mechanical control systems . . . . . . . . . . . 775.3.2 Pneumatic and hydraulic

    control systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 785.3.3 Electric control systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 835.3.4 Gate-logic control systems . . . . . . . . . . . . 855.3.5 Process-sequence control . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86

    6 Test technology 87

    6.1 Basics of linear test technology . . . . . . . . 876.2 Measuring instruments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 896.3 Gauges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 946.4 Tolerances and fits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 956.5 Scribing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98

    7 Production engineering 99

    7.1 Categorisation of manufacturing processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99

    7.2 Creative forming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1017.3 Forming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1047.3.1 Forming under bending conditions . . . . 1057.3.2 Forming under combination of tensile

    and compressive conditions . . . . . . . . . . 106

    Table of contents 7

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  • 7.3.3 Forming under compressive conditions 1077.3.4 Straightening . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1097.3.5 Sheet-metal working processes . . . . . . . 1097.4 Separating by cutting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1137.4.1 Basics of cutting-shaping . . . . . . . . . . . . 1137.4.2 Cutting-shaping by hand . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1137.4.3 Basics of cutting-shaping

    with machine tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1207.5 Separating by dividing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1297.5.1 Cropping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1297.5.2 Wedge-action cutting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1307.6 Joining . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1317.6.1 Categorisation of connections . . . . . . . . 1317.6.2 Threads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1327.6.3 Screwed joints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1337.6.4 Pin connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1387.6.5 Riveted joints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1397.6.6 Clinching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1407.6.7 Shaft-hub connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1417.6.8 Press-fit joints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1427.6.9 Snap-in connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1427.6.10 Soldering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1437.6.11 Welding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1447.6.12 Gluing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1517.7 Coating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152

    8 Material science 154

    8.1 Properties of materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1548.2 Categorisation of materials . . . . . . . . . . 1588.3 Structure of metallic materials . . . . . . . . 1598.4 Ferrous products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1618.4.1 Steel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1618.4.2 Cast-iron materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1618.4.3 Influence of additives on

    ferrous products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1638.4.4 Designation of ferrous products . . . . . . 1638.4.5 Categorisation and application

    of steels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1658.4.6 Commercial forms of steel . . . . . . . . . . . 1678.4.7 Heat treatment of

    ferrous products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1678.5 Non-ferrous metals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1718.6 Plastics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1738.7 Composite materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176

    9 Friction, lubrication, bearings, seals 177

    9.1 Friction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1779.2 Lubrication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1789.3 Bearings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1799.4 Seals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182

    10 Design and operating principle of a four-stroke engine 183

    10.1 Spark-ignition engine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18310.2 Diesel engine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18510.3 General physical and

    chemical principles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18510.4 Pressure-volume diagram

    (p -V diagram) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190

    10.5 Timing diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19210.6 Cylinder numbering, firing orders . . . 19210.7 Engine-performance curves . . . . . . . . 19410.8 Stroke-to-bore ratio, power output

    per litre, weight-to-power ratio . . . . . . 195

    11 Mechanical engine components 196

    11.1 Cylinder, cylinder head . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19611.1.1 Functions, stresses and strains . . . . . . 19611.1.2 Cylinder types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19611.1.3 Cylinder head . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19811.1.4 Cylinder-head gasket . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19911.1.5 Crankcase . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20011.1.6 Engine suspension . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20011.2 Engine-cooling systems . . . . . . . . . . . . 20411.2.1 Types of cooling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20411.2.2 Air cooling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20511.2.3 Liquid cooling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20511.2.4 Pump-cooling components . . . . . . . . . 20611.2.5 Map-controlled cooling systems . . . . . 21111.2.6 Map-cooling components . . . . . . . . . . 21111.3 Crankshaft drive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21311.4 Dual-mass flywheel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22511.5 Engine lubricating systems . . . . . . . . . 22611.6 Engine timing gear . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23211.7 Charge optimisation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 238

    12 Mixture formation 247

    12.1 Fuel-supply systems inspark-ignition engines . . . . . . . . . . . . . .247

    12.2 Mixture formation in spark-ignitionengines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 252

    12.3 Carburettor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25512.4 Petrol injection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25712.4.1 Basic principles of petrol injection . . . 25712.4.2 Design and function of

    electronic petrol injection . . . . . . . . . . 25912.4.3 Operating-data acquisition . . . . . . . . . 26012.4.4 Single-point injection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26612.4.5 LH-Motronic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27012.4.6 ME-Motronic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27612.4.7 MED-Motronic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28012.4.8 KE-Jetronic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28612.5 Mixture formation in diesel engines . 28812.5.1 Combustion sequence in a

    diesel engine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28812.5.2 Failures in combustion sequence . . . . 28812.5.3 Comparison of injection processes . . . 28912.5.4 Inlet-passage control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 290 12.5.5 Start-assist systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 290 12.5.6 Nozzle-holder assembly . . . . . . . . . . . . 29212.5.7 Injection systems for

    passenger-car diesel engines . . . . . . . 29412.5.7.1 Axial-piston distributor pump

    with mechanical control . . . . . . . . . . . . 29412.5.7.2 Electronic diesel control (EDC) . . . . . . 29812.5.7.3 Electronically controlled axial-piston

    distributor injection pump (VE-EDC) . 299

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  • 12.5.7.4 Radial-piston distributorinjection pump (VP44) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 300

    12.5.7.5 Unit-injector system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30212.5.7.6 Common-rail system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 304

    13 Pollutant reduction 309

    13.1 Exhaust system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30913.2 Pollutant reduction in a

    spark-ignition engine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31213.2.1 Exhaust-gas composition . . . . . . . . . . 31213.2.2 Procedures for reducing pollutants . . 31413.2.3 Diagnosis and maintenance (EI) . . . . . 31913.2.4 European On-Board Diagnosis

    (EOBD) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32013.3 Pollutant reduction in a

    diesel engine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32413.3.1 Exhaust-gas composition . . . . . . . . . . 32413.3.2 Procedures for reducing pollutants . . 324

    14 Two-stroke spark-ignition engine,rotary engine 326

    14.1 Two-stroke engine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32614.2 Rotary engine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 333

    15 Alternative drive concepts 335

    15.1 Alternative sources of energy . . . . . . . 33515.2 Natural-gas drives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33515.3 Hybrid drives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33715.4 Drives with fuel cells . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33915.5 Internal-combustion engines with

    hydrogen mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33915.6 Internal-combustion engines with

    vegetable-oil mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 339

    16 Drivetrain 340

    16.1 Types of drive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34016.2 Clutch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34216.2.1 Friction clutch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34216.2.2 Double-plate clutch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34816.2.3 Twin clutch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34816.2.4 Multi-plate clutch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34916.2.5 Magnetic-particle clutch . . . . . . . . . . . . 34916.2.6 Automatic clutch system (ACS) . . . . . . 35016.2.7 Function checks on friction

    clutches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35116.3 Variable-speed gearbox . . . . . . . . . . . . 35216.4 Manual variable-speed gearbox . . . . . 35316.5 Automatic gearbox . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35816.5.1 Automated manual gearbox . . . . . . . . 35816.5.2 Stepped automatic gearbox

    with hydrodynamic converter . . . . . . . 36016.5.3 Electrohydraulic transmission

    control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36616.5.4 Adaptive transmission control . . . . . . 373

    16.5.5 Continuously variable automatictransmission with pushbelt or link chain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 374

    16.6 Propeller shafts, drive shafts, joints . 37616.7 Final drive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37916.8 Differential . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38216.9 Differential locks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38316.10 All-wheel drive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 387

    17 Vehicle body 390

    17.1 Vehicle body/bodywork . . . . . . . . . . . 39017.1.1 Separate construction . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39017.1.2 Partially self-supporting construction 39017.1.3 Self-supporting construction . . . . . . . 39017.1.4 Materials in body making . . . . . . . . . . 39117.1.5 Safety in vehicle manufacturing . . . . 39317.1.6 Damage assessment and

    measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40017.1.7 Accident repairs to self-

    supporting bodies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40417.2 Corrosion protection on

    motor vehicles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40917.3 Vehicle paintwork . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 410

    18 Chassis 414

    18.1 Driving dynamics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41418.2 Basic principles of steering . . . . . . . . . 41618.3 Wheel adjustments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41718.4 Computerised axle alignment . . . . . . . 42018.5 Steering gear . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42118.6 Steering systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42118.6.1 Hydraulic rack-and-pinion steering . . 42118.6.2 Electro-hydraulic power steering

    Servotronic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42218.6.3 Electric power steering

    Servolectric . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42318.6.4 Active steering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42318.7 Wheel suspension . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42418.8 Suspension . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42818.8.1 Function of the suspension . . . . . . . . 42818.8.2 Operating principle of the suspension 42818.8.3 Types of springs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43018.8.4 Vibration dampers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43418.8.5 Active Body Control (ABC) . . . . . . . . . 43818.9 Wheels and tyres . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44118.9.1 Wheels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44118.9.2 Tyres . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44218.9.3 Run-flat systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44818.9.4 Compressed-air monitoring systems 44918.10 Brakes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45118.10.1 Braking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45318.10.2 Hydraulic brake . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45318.10.3 Brake-circuit configuration . . . . . . . . . 45418.10.4 Master cylinder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45418.10.5 Drum brake . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45618.10.6 Disc brake . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45818.10.7 Brake pads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46018.10.8 Diagnosis and maintenance of the

    hydraulic brake system . . . . . . . . . . . . 461

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  • 18.10.9 Power-assisted brake . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46318.10.10 Braking-force distribution . . . . . . . . . . 46418.10.11 Mechanically operated brake . . . . . . . 46518.10.12 Basics of the electronic chassis

    control systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46618.10.13 Antilock-braking system (ABS) . . . . . 46718.10.14 Brake assistant (BAS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47118.10.15 Traction-Control System (TCS) . . . . . 47118.10.16 Vehicle Dynamics Control

    ESP, DSC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47318.10.17 Sensotronic Brake Control (SBC) . . . . 474

    19 Electrical engineering 476

    19.1 General of the electrical engineering 47619.1.1 Voltage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47719.1.2 Electrical current . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47719.1.3 Electrical resistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47919.1.4 Ohm's law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48119.1.5 Power, work, efficiency . . . . . . . . . . . . 48119.1.6 Resistor circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48219.1.7 Measurements in electrical

    circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48319.1.8 Properties of electrical current . . . . . . 49119.1.9 Protection against the hazards of

    electrical current . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49219.1.10 Voltage generation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49419.1.11 Alternating voltage and

    alternating current . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49619.1.12 Three-phase AC voltage and

    three-phase current . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49719.1.13 Magnetism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49719.1.14 Self-induction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49919.1.15 Capacitor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50019.1.16 Electrochemistry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50019.1.17 Electronic components . . . . . . . . . . . . 50219.2 Applications of electrical engineering 51219.2.1 Circuit diagrams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51219.2.2 Signal transmitters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52219.2.3 Relays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52319.2.4 Lighting in the motor vehicle . . . . . . . 52519.2.5 Power supply and

    vehicle electrical system . . . . . . . . . . . 53219.2.6 Alternator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53919.2.7 Electric motors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54719.2.8 Ignition systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55419.2.9 Sensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57119.2.10 High-frequency technology . . . . . . . . 57519.2.11 Electromagnetic compatibility . . . . . . 58019.2.12 Data transmission in motor vehicles 58219.2.13 Measuring, testing, diagnosis . . . . . . 592

    20 Comfort and convenience technology 596

    20.1 Ventilation, heating, surrounding air, air conditioning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 596

    20.2 Antitheft systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60320.2.1 Central locking system . . . . . . . . . . . . 60320.2.2 Vehicle immobiliser . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 605

    20.2.3 Alarm system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60720.3 Comfort and convenience systems . . . 60920.3.1 Electric power windows . . . . . . . . . . . . 60920.3.2 Convertible roof actuation . . . . . . . . . . . 61120.3.3 Electric power seats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61220.3.4 Electronic windscreen wiper . . . . . . . . 61220.3.5 Electric adjustable exterior mirrors . . 613 20.4 Driver assistance systems . . . . . . . . . . 61420.4.1 Cruise control system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61420.4.2 Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC) . . . . . . 61420.4.3 Parking assistance system . . . . . . . . . . 61520.5 Infotainment system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61520.5.1 Operating and travel data display . . . . 61520.5.2 Navigation systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61520.5.3 Mobile phones . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 617

    21 Motorcycle technology 618

    21.1 Types of motorcycle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61821.2 Motorcycle engines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62121.3 Exhaust system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62121.4 Mixture formation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62221.5 Engine cooling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62321.6 Engine lubrication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62321.7 Clutch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62421.8 Drive train . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62521.9 Electrical system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62721.10 Dynamics of vehicular operation . . . . 63021.11 Motorcycle frames . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63121.12 Wheel location, suspension and

    damping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63221.13 Brakes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63421.14 Wheels, tyres . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 636

    22 Commercial vehicle technology 639

    22.1 Categorisation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63922.2 Engines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64022.3 Injection systems for

    CV diesel engines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 640 22.3.1 Injection system with inline injection

    pump . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64122.3.2 Control sleeve inline fuel-injection

    pump . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64622.3.3 Unit pump systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64622.3.4 Auxiliary starting assistance systems 64822.3.5 Reduction of harmful emissions

    on CV-diesel engines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64922.4 Drive train . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65122.5 Chassis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65422.5.1 Suspension . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65422.5.2 Wheels and tyres . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65722.5.3 Air-brake system (brake system

    with external power source) . . . . . . . . 65822.6 Starting systems for commercial

    vehicles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 670

    23 Keyword index 674

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  • 11

    11

    1860 The Frenchman Lenoir constructs the first fullyoperational internal-combustion engine; thispowerplant relies on city gas as its fuel source.Thermal efficiency is in the 3% range.

    1867 Otto and Langen display an improved internal-combustion engine at the Paris InternationalExhibition. Its thermal efficiency is approxi-mately 9%.

    1876 Otto builds the first gas-powered engine toutilise the four-stroke compression cycle. At vir-tually the same time Clerk constructs the firstgas-powered two-stroke engine in England.

    1883 Daimler and Maybach develop the first high-speed four-cycle petrol engine using a hot-tubeignition system.

    1885 The first self-propelled motorcycle fromDaimler. First self-propelled three-wheeler fromBenz (patented in 1886) (Fig. 1).

    1886 First four-wheeled motor carriage with petrolengine from Daimler (Fig. 2).

    1887 Bosch invents the magneto ignition.

    1889 Dunlop in England produces the first pneu-matic tyres.

    1893 Maybach invents the spray-nozzle carburettor.

    1893 Diesel patents his design for a heavy oil-burn-ing powerplant employing the self-ignitionconcept.

    1897 MAN presents the first workable diesel engine.

    1897 First Electromobile from Lohner-Porsche (Fig. 2).1899 Fiat Automobile Factory founded in Turin.1913 Ford introduces the production line to automo-

    tive manufacturing. Production of the Tin Lizzy(Model T, Fig. 3). By 1925, 9,109 were leaving theproduction line each day.

    1916 The Bavarian Motor Works are founded.1923 First motor lorry powered by a diesel engine

    produced by Benz-MAN (Fig. 4).1936 Daimler-Benz inaugurates series-production of

    passenger cars propelled by diesel engines.1938 The VW Works are founded in Wolfsburg.1949 First low-profile tyre and first steel-belted radial

    tyre produced by Michelin.1950 First gas-turbine propulsion unit for automo-

    tive application makes its debut at Rover inEngland.

    1954 NSU-Wankel constructs the rotary engine(Fig. 4).

    1966 Electronic fuel injection (D-Jetronic) for stan-dard production vehicles produced by Bosch.

    1970 Seatbelts for driver and front passengers.1978 Initial application of the ABS Antilock Braking

    System in passenger cars.1984 Debut of the airbag and seatbelt tensioning

    system.1985 Advent of a catalytic converter designed for op-

    eration in conjunction with closed-loop mixturecontrol, intended for use with unleaded fuel.

    1997 Electronic suspension control systems.

    11 MMoottoorr vveehhiiccllee

    1.1 Evolution of the motor vehicle

    Fig. 1: Daimler motorcycle and Benz motor carriage

    Benz-MAN lorry, 5 K 31st diesel lorry, 1923

    NSU Spider with Wankelengine, 1963, 500 cc,37 kW at 6,000 rpm, 153 km/h

    Fig. 4: Diesel-engined lorryPassenger car with Wankel rotary engine

    Fig. 2: Daimler motor carriage and the first Electromobile

    Fig. 3: Ford Model T and VW Beetle

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  • 111.2 Motor vehicle classifications

    The basic division is into two classes, motor vehiclesand trailers. Motor vehicles always possess an integralmechanical propulsion system.

    Dual-track vehiclesMotor vehicles with more than two wheels can be foundin dual-track and multiple-track versions. These include:

    Passenger cars. These are primarily intended for usein transporting people, as well as their luggage andother small cargo. They can also be used to pull trail-ers. The number of seats, including that of the dri-ver, is restricted to nine.

    1 Motor vehicle12

    Commercial vehicles. These are designed to trans-port people and cargo and for pulling trailers. Pas-senger cars are not classified as commercial vehi-cles.

    Single-track vehiclesMotorcycles are single-track vehicles with 2 wheels. Asidecar may be attached to the motorcycle, which re-mains classified as such provided that the tare weightof the combination does not exceed 400kg. A motor-cycle can also be employed to pull a trailer. Single-trackvehicles include Motorcycles. These are equipped with permanent,

    fixed-location components (fuel tank, engine) locat-ed adjacent to the knees as well as footrests.

    Motor scooters. Because the operator's feet rest ona floor panel, there are no fixed components at kneelevel on these vehicles.

    Bicycles with auxiliary power plants.These vehiclesexhibit the same salient features as bicycles, such aspedals (mopeds, motor bicycle, etc.).

    1.3 Design of the motor vehicle

    The layout of the individual assemblies and their rela-tive positions is not governed by invariable standards.Thus, for example, the engine may be designed as anindependent assembly, or it may be integrated as a sub-assembly within a larger powertrain unit.One of the options described in this book is to divide thevehicle into 5 main assembly groups: engine, drivetrain,chassis, vehicle body and electrical system.The relationships between the assemblies and theirconstituent components are illustrated in Fig. 2.

    Roadgoing or highway vehicles is a category com-prising all vehicles designed for road use, as op-posed to operation on tracks or rails (Fig. 1).

    Centre-axletrailers

    Semitrailers

    Motor vehicles

    Vehicle combination

    Motor vehicles

    Passenger cars

    Commercial vehicles

    Motor buses

    Trucks

    Tractors

    Motorcycles

    Trailer vehicles

    Roadgoing vehicles

    Drawbar trailers

    Fig. 1: Overview of roadgoing vehicles

    Fig. 2: Design of the motor vehicle

    Crankshaft drive

    Cylinders

    Internal-combustion engine

    Reciprocating-piston engine,

    petrol/diesel engine

    Rotary engineWankel engine

    Housing

    Rotor

    Eccentric shaft

    Engine Drivetrain Suspension

    Powergenerators

    Wheelsuspension

    SuspensionDamping

    Steering

    Brakes

    WheelsTyres

    Electricalloads/

    consumers

    Electricalsystem

    Electric motor

    Stator

    Rotor

    Controlelectronics

    Powersupply

    Clutch

    Variable-ratiogearbox

    Motor vehicle

    Engine management

    Vehiclebody

    Frame

    Body

    Hydrodynamictorque

    converter

    Automaticgearbox

    Exhaust system

    Lubrication

    Cooling

    Mixture preparation

    Differential

    Final-drive unit

    Propeller shaft

    The motor vehicle consists of component assem-blies and their individual components.

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  • The rectangle symbolises the system limit (hypotheti-cal boundary) that delineates the border separatingeach individual technical system from other systemsand/or the surrounding environment.

    1.4.2 Motor vehicle system

    The motor vehicle is a complex technical system inwhich various subsystems operate in harmony to dis-charge a defined function. The function of the passenger car is to transportpeople, while the function of the motor lorry, or truck, is to carry cargo.

    Operational units within the motor vehicleSystems designed to support operational processesare combined in operational units (Fig. 1). Familiaritywith the processes performed in operational units suchas the engine, drivetrain, etc. can enhance our under-

    1.4.1 Technical systems

    Every machine forms a complete technical system.

    A rectangle is employed in graphic portrayals of techni-cal systems (Fig. 2).

    Input and output variables are represented by arrows.The number of arrows varies according to the numberof input and output variables.

    1.4 The motor vehicle as technical system

    1 Motor vehicle

    11

    13

    Safety equipment:e.g. airbag; seat-belt tensioner

    Transmission unit:e.g. suspension

    Transmission unit:e.g. drivetrain

    Drive unit:engine

    Open and closed-loop control units:e.g. antilock braking system

    Support and bearing unit:e.g. body

    Transmission unit:e.g. suspension

    Fig. 1:The motor vehicle as a system with operational units

    The distinctive, defining features of the individualsystem include: Input (input variables or parameters) entering

    from beyond the system limits Processing within the system limits Output (output variables or parameters) issued

    and relayed to destinations lying outside thelimits of the system (IPO concept)

    System limit

    Fuel

    Motor vehicle Kineticenergy

    Exhaust gas

    Heat

    Air

    Fig. 2: Basic system portrait using a motor vehicle as anexample

    Characteristics of technical systems: Defined system borders delineate their limits

    relative to the surrounding environment. They possess input and output channels. The salient factor defining system operation is

    the total function, and not the individual func-tion, which is discharged internally, within thesystem.

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  • 11standing of the complete system represented by themotor vehicle in its implications for maintenance, diag-nosis and repair.

    The concept is suitable for application with any techni-cal system. Among the operational units that comprisethe motor vehicle are the:

    Power unit Power-transfer assembly Support and load-bearing structure Electro-hydraulic systems

    (open and closed-loop systems, etc.) Electrical and electronic systems

    (such as safety devices)

    Each operational unit acts as a subsystem by assuminga specific function.

    1 Motor vehicle14

    Subfunction: Provides energy for propulsion purposes

    Operational unit: Power unit engine

    Subfunction: Relays mechanical energy from thepower unit to the drive wheels

    Operational unit: Power-transfer assembly, such as drivetrain

    Subfunction: Support function, support for allsubsystems

    Operational unit:Vehicle structure as supportstructure, exemplified by body

    Steering-wheel-angle sensor

    Hydraulic control unitwith integrated controller

    Enginemanagement

    2 pressure sensors ontandem master cylinder

    Yaw-rate sensor Wheel-speedsensor

    Lateral-accelerationsensor

    ABS: Antilock Braking System+ ABV: Automatic regulation of braking-force distribution+ TCS: Traction Control System+ GMR: Automatic regulation of yaw moment= ESP: Electronic Stability Program

    ABV

    GMR

    ABSESP

    TCSESP

    Subfunction: Active occupant protection, improve-ments in dynamic response

    Operational unit: Electro-hydraulic systems (open and closed-loop controlsystems, such as ABS, ESP, etc.)

    ECU forairbag

    Driversideairbag

    Seat belt

    Crash sensor,driver side airbag

    Seat with integratedside airbag

    Subfunction: Passive protection for vehicle occupants

    Operational unit: Electr., electron. systems (safetyand security devices, such asairbags, seatbelt tensioners)

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  • Various subsystems must operate together for the mo-tor vehicle to discharge its primary functions (Fig. 1).Reducing the scale of the system's limits shifts thefocus to progressively smaller subsystems, ultimatelyleading to the level of the individual component.

    The motor vehicle as a complete systemDefining the limits of the system to coincide with thoseof the overall vehicle produces boundaries in which thesystem's limits border on environmental entities suchas air and the road surface. On the input side, air andfuel are the only factors entering from beyond the sys-tem's limits, while exhaust gas joins kinetic and ther-mal energy outside this boundary on the output side(Fig. 2, Fig. 3).

    1 Motor vehicle

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    15

    Operational units

    Subsystems

    Electricalsystem

    Complete system, motor vehicle

    e.g.: Clutch system Gearbox Propeller shafts Final-drive unit

    e.g.: Suspension Brakes Wheels Tyres

    e.g.: Body Side-impact

    protection Frame

    e.g.: Lights Ignition Data-

    transmissionsystems

    Comfort andconveniencesystems

    e.g.: Engine

    management Crankshaft

    assembly Engine lubrication Engine cooling Exhaust system Air systems

    SuspensionSupport and load-bearing structure:

    vehicle body

    Power-transferassembly:drivetrain

    Power unit:engine

    Fig. 1:The motor vehicle as composite system

    1.4.3 Subsystems in the motor vehicle

    Each subsystem is subject to the IPO concept (Fig. 3).

    Input. The factors operating on the input side of thegearbox are engine speed, engine torque and enginepower. Processing. The crankshaft's rotation speed and thetorque it transfers undergo a transformation processwithin the gearbox.Output. The elements exiting the subsystem on theoutput side include output-shaft speed, output torqueand output power as well as heat.Efficiency level. The efficiency of the drivetrain is re-duced by energy losses sustained within the gearbox.

    The "gearbox" subsystem is connected to the drivewheels via other subsystems, such as the propellershaft, final-drive unit, and half shafts.

    Motor vehiclesystem Travelling

    motion

    Input Output

    Air+

    Fuel

    (chemicallycombinedenergy)

    Environment (air, road)

    System limit

    Processing

    Exhaustgas+

    (mechanicalenergy)

    Fig. 2: System: Motor vehicle

    Input Output

    Engine

    Processing

    Clutch GearboxAxledrive

    Drivewheels

    Engine speed Engine torque Engine power

    Output speed Output torque Output power

    System limit

    Propeller shaft

    Gearbox

    Fig. 3: Subsystem: Gearbox

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  • 1.4.4 Classifications of technical systemsand subsystems by processing mode

    Technical systems (Fig. 1) are classified according tothe type of processing within overall systems:

    Material-processing systems such as the fuel-supplysystem

    Energy-processing systems such as the internal-combustion engine

    Information-processing systems such as the on-board computer, the steering system, etc.

    Material-processing systems

    Transport media and basic machinery are employed toconvey substances and materials. Machine tools as-sume responsibility for shaping materials. To cite an ex-ample: in the material-transport process, a pump in-duces motion in a static fluid (gasoline in the fuel tank)in order to transport it to the fuel-injection system. Aprecondition for this processing operation is provisionof electrical energy to the operational machinery, suchas a fuel pump, that is responsible for the process.

    Overview of material-processing systems:Machines for reshaping include machine tools such asdrills, mills and lathes as well as the equipment foundin foundries and stamping works such as metal press-es.

    Machines for repositioning include all conveyors,transporters and machines employed in the transportof solid materials (conveyor belts, fork lift trucks, trucks, passenger cars), liquids (pumps) and gases(fans, turbines).

    Examples of material-processing systems within themotor vehicle: Lubrication system, in which the oil pump provides

    the motive power for material propulsion. Cooling system, in which the water pump transports

    a medium to support thermal transfer.

    Energy-processing systems

    This class embraces all manner of power-generationmachines, including internal-combustion engines andelectric motors, steam engines and gas power plants, aswell as energy units such as heat pumps, photovoltaicsystems and fuel cells. In the realm of energy conver-sion the operative distinction is between:

    Heat engines, such as spark-ignition and diesel en-gines, and gas turbines

    Hydraulically powered machines, such as water tur-bines

    Wind-energy devices, such as wind-powered genera-tors

    Solar-energy converters, such as photovoltaic sys-tems

    Fuel cells

    Within the internal-combustion engine, the fuel'schemical energy is initially converted into thermalenergy before undergoing a second transformation toemerge as kinetic energy (Fig. 2).

    This process can generate additional substances and in-formation. Because these are of secondary significancein the operation of the energy-processing machine, theyare not usually primary objects of attention.

    The flow of substances and materials (entry of fuel andemission of exhaust gases) and the flow of information(fuel-air mixture, engine-speed control, steering, etc.) allassume the role of secondary functions.

    Energy-processing system.The primary focus is on con-verting chemical energy contained in fuel into kineticenergy to propel the vehicle, with the internal-combus-tion engine serving as the energy-processing system.

    1 Motor vehicle

    11

    16

    Informationprocessing

    Energyprocessing

    Materialprocessing

    Fig. 1: Systems classified according to processing mode

    Material-processing systems modify materials intheir geometrical configuration (reshaping) ortransport them from one position to another (repo-sitioning).

    Energy-processing systems transform energy froman external source from one form into another.

    Chemicalenergy

    Mechanicalenergy

    Fuel/air mixture

    Combustion

    Torque atcrankshaft

    Thermal energyConrod force

    Fig. 2: Energy processing in the spark-ignition engine

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  • Information-processing systems

    Information-processing and relay systems, such aselectronic control units (ECU), CAN bus controllers anddiagnostic equipment (testers) assume vital signifi-cance in the maintenance of modern vehicles.

    Information. Knowledge concerning conditions andprocesses. Examples from within the vehicle includeinformation on engine temperature, driving speed,load factor, etc. required to support vehicle operation.This information can be relayed from one electroniccontrol unit to another. The data are registered in theform of signals.

    Signals. Signals are data portrayed in physical form.Within the motor vehicle, sensors generate signals torepresent parameters such as rotational speed, temper-ature and throttle-valve position.

    Examples of information-processing systems in motorvehicles:

    Engine control unit. The engine-management ECUregisters and processes an entire array of relevantdata in order to adapt engine performance to provideideal operation under any given conditions.

    On-board computer. Among its functions are tofurnish the driver with information on average andcurrent fuel consumption, estimated cruising range,average speed and outside temperature.

    1.4.5 Using technical systems

    Extensive familiarity with technical systems is essentialfor the operation and maintenance of motor vehicles.The manufacturer provides operating instructions(owner's manual) to help ensure that its vehicles oper-ate with optimal safety, security and reliability, whilealso observing the interests of the natural environment.

    Operating instructions contain, among other informa-tion:

    System descriptions

    Explanations of functions and operation

    System descriptions

    Operating diagrams

    Instructions on correct operation and use of thecontrols

    Maintenance and service inspection schedules

    Instructions for responding to malfunctions

    Information on approved fluids, lubricants andservice materials, such as engine oils

    Technical data

    Emergency service addresses

    Operation. Motor vehicles and machines should beoperated by qualified and duly-authorised personsonly.

    Among the applicable stipulations

    the driver of a passenger car operating on publicroads must be in possession of the requiredClass B driving licence.

    lift platforms and hydraulic hoists in automotiveservice facilities are to be operated exclusively byindividuals over 18 years of age who have alsoreceived corresponding instruction in and autho-risation for its use.

    the driver of a truck equipped with a crane must bein possession of a crane operator's licence.

    This stipulation is intended to ensure that drivers ofcrane-equipped trucks have received the required train-ing for operating lifts and hoisting equipment, and willprovide the vehicle with the correct supplementarysupport (Fig. 1) whilst simultaneously observing all ap-plicable accident-prevention regulations and operatingthe crane in a professional manner.

    1 Motor vehicle

    11

    17

    They monitor, process and relay information anddata and support communications.

    14m

    0 2 4 6 8 10 12m

    12

    10

    8

    6

    4

    22,180 kg7,400 kg 3,860 kg

    1,750 kg2,820 kg5,830 kg

    5,950 kg58.4 kN

    6,600 kg64.7 kN

    Fig. 1: Correct load distribution on a crane hoist

    REVIEW QUESTIONS

    1 What are the parameters that define a technical sys-tem?

    2 What is the IPO concept?

    3 What are the names of the operational units in themotor vehicle?

    4 Name three subsystems in the motor vehicle, and de-scribe the corresponding input and output variables.

    5 What is the primary function of an energy-processingsystem?

    6 What information is available in the operating instruc-tions (vehicle owner's manual)?

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  • 1.5 Service and maintenance

    The manufacturer issues service and maintenanceschedules, spare part catalogues and repair instruc-tions to guide and support these activities. This docu-mentation is available in many forms, including repairmanuals, microfiche files and menu-guided computerprograms designed to run on personal computers(PCs).

    Service and maintenance. Service procedures include: Inspections, such as test procedures General maintenance, comprising oil changes,

    lubrication and cleaning Remedial action, such as repairs and component

    replacement

    Aftersales service. Vehicle manufacturers and automo-tive repair operations offer professional service to theircustomers. Among the services offered by these facili-ties is to perform the prescribed preparations on newvehicles prior to delivery to the customer. Professionaltechnicians also carry out service and maintenanceprocesses that the vehicle operator may not be able toperform. In the official service and maintenance guide-lines the manufacturer defines an action catalogue in-tended to ensure unrestricted functionality and main-tain the vehicle's value. The individual procedures arecontained in the service and maintenance schedules forthe specific vehicles. Service intervals can be defined according to the fol-lowing criteria: Invariable, time-based service intervals

    (maintenance schedule) Flexible service intervals New service concepts

    Maintenance scheduleIt furnishes information on the specified service and in-spection intervals by specifying (for example) a majorinspection for every 20,000km or 12 months.

    Service inspection schedule. This schedule defines thecontents and lists the procedures included in the ser-vice inspection (Fig. 1, Page 19).

    Flexible service intervalsModern engine-management systems have allowedthe advent of a new service concept characterised byadaptive scheduling. This concept reflects each individ-ual vehicle's requirements based on its actual operat-ing conditions. In addition to mileage, the systemrecords and evaluates a variety of other factors (influ-encing variables) for inclusion in its calculations. A dis-play then provides the driver with prompt notice as theinspection date approaches (Fig. 1). The process culmi-nates with execution of the prescribed operations atthe service facility in accordance with the service in-spection schedule (Fig. 1, Page 19).

    Oil change intervals. Two methods are available fordefining oil change intervals: A virtual database, derived from such factors as

    mileage, overall fuel consumption and oil tempera-ture curves, provides an index indicating how muchthe oil ages over a given period.

    The actual condition of the oil, meaning the qualityand level of the oil as determined via the oil levelsensor, in combination with the mileage and the reg-istered engine load factors.

    Brake pad wear. Brake pad wear is monitored electrical-ly. When the brake pad reaches its wear limit a contactwire within the pad is perforated. The system then con-siders such factors as braking frequency, the duration ofbrake actuations and mileage in calculating the theoreti-cally available mileage reserves, which are then reflect-ed in the replacement intervals displayed to the driver.

    Interior (passenger compartment) filter wear status.Data gleaned from the outside air temperature sensor,information on heater use, use of the recirculated-airmode, vehicle speed, fan blower speed, mileage anddates all flow into calculations to determine the periodremaining until the dust and pollen filter will be due forreplacement.

    Sparking plug replacement intervals are still based onmileage, with new plugs specified after a specific dis-tance, such as 100,000km.

    Replacement dates for fluids and lubricants, such asthe coolant and brake fluid, are defined according totime, for instance, at intervals of 2 or 4 years.

    1 Motor vehicle

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    18

    Professional-quality service and maintenance, per-formed in accordance with the manufacturer's in-structions (by the factory service organisation, etc.)are vital elements in ensuring continued vehiclesafety and in maintaining the validity of the manu-facturer's warranty.

    Service, maintenance and inspection operationsmust be performed in accordance with definedschedules. Once operations have been carried out,they should be confirmed in a service record andsigned by the responsible service technician.

    Brake fluid

    Engine oil

    Rear brake pads

    Spark plugs

    Microfilters12 months

    Fig. 1:Wear indicators

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  • New service conceptsThe service date is calculated on the basis of data col-lected on the actual condition of wearing parts, fluidsand lubricants, as well as information on the vehicle'soperating conditions. When defined by this demand-based service concept, service and maintenance arecarried out only when needed, for instance, when acomponent reaches its wear limit, or a fluid or lubricanthas reached the end of its service life.A new feature is provided by the on-board computer,which transmits coded data on the customer and theextent of the required service to the service facility.

    This gives the service representative time to order anyrequired replacement parts such as brake pads and toconsult the customer in advance concerning a conve-nient service date. Early recognition of potential problems is intended tohelp avoid repairs stemming from vehicle breakdowns.Additional advantages include: Precisely defined dates Minimal waiting times No information loss Flexible service

    1 Motor vehicle

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    Fig. 1: Service inspection schedule

    FL mm

    Service inspection schedule

    Job no.: Vehicle model: Vehicle owner:

    km reading/mileage:

    Vehicle age: Additional work, e.g.emissions inspection

    Servicing to be carried out

    OK

    not O

    KRe

    ctifi

    ed

    Electrical system

    Vehicle from the outside

    Tyres

    Vehicle from below

    Engine compartment

    Front lights. Check function: Parking lights,dipped beam, main beam, fog lamps,direction indicators and hazard-warning signals

    Rear lights. Check function: Brake lights, tail lights,reversing lights, fog warning lamp, number-platelights, luggage-compartment light, parking lights,direction indicators and hazard-warning signals

    Interior and glove-compartment lights,cigarette lighter, signal horn and telltale lamps:Check function

    Self-diagnosis: Interrogate fault memories ofall systems(insert printout at back of logbook wallet)

    Door arresters and retaining bolts: lubricate

    Windscreen wash/wipe system andheadlight washer system:Check function and spray-nozzle setting

    Windscreen wiper blades:Check for damage, check home position; in eventof rubbing wiper blades: Check contact angle

    Tyres: Check condition, tyre tread pattern andinflation pressure, enter tread depth

    FR mm

    RL mm RR mm

    Engine oil: Drain or draw off, replace oil filters

    Engine and components in engine compartment:Visually check for leaks and damage

    V-belts, ribbed V-belts:Check condition and tension

    Gearbox, final-drive unit and joint boots:Visually check for leaks and damage

    Manual gearbox / axle drive: Check oil level

    Brake system:Visually check for leaks and damage

    Front and rear brake pads:Check thickness

    Undercoating:Visually check for damage

    Exhaust system:Visually check for leaks and damage

    Track-rod ends:Check play, mounting and sealing gaiters; axle joints:visually check sealing gaiters for leaks and damage

    Engine oil: Check oil level (during inspectionservice with filter change, change oil)

    Engine and components in enginecompartment (from above):Visually check for leaks and damage

    Windscreen wash/wipe system: Top up fluid

    Cooling system: Check coolant level and antifreeze;setpoint value: 25C

    Actual value (measured value): C

    Dust and pollen filter: Replace filter element(every 12 months or every 15,000 km)

    Toothed belt for camshaft drive:Check condition and tension

    Air filter:Clean housing and replace filter element

    Fuel filter: Replace

    Power steering: Check fluid level

    Brake-fluid level (dependent on brake-pad wear):Check

    Battery: Check

    Idle speed: Check

    Headlight adjustment / documentation /final inspection

    Headlight adjustment: Check

    Service sticker:Enter date/mileage for next service(also brake-fluid renewal) on sticker andattach sticker to door pillar (B-pillar)

    Take vehicle for test drive

    Date / Signature (mechanic)

    Date / Signature (final inspection)

    ,

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  • 1.6 Filter, body and maintenance

    Motor vehicle filters (Fig. 1) can be classified accordingto two criteria. These are the filtration concept and themedium being filtered.Filtration concepts. Solid contaminants are filtered fromflowing media such as air, oil, fuel and water by: Screen filtration, using sieve-type filter screens and

    fibre filters, etc. Adhesive filtration, including wet filters Magnetic filtration, as with magnetic separators Centrifugal filtration, with centrifugal filters, etc.Strainers (filter screens). Filter mesh dimensions smal-ler than the contaminants facilitate filtration (Fig. 2).

    Adhesive filters. These are usually wet air filters. Contam-inants such as dust adhere to the filter surface on contact.Magnetic filter. The filter (for instance, on the oil drainplug) attracts and retains ferromagnetic contaminantssuspended in the flowing medium.Centrifugal filter. The object medium (such as air) isplaced in a state of rotation. Centrifugal force propelsthe contaminants onto the filter's walls, where they set-tle as deposits.Filter types include Air and exhaust-gas filters Fuel filters Filters for lubricating oils Interior filters, such as pollen, smog and ozone filters Hydraulic filters, for ATF, etc.

    1.6.1 Air filters

    Airborne dust particles are minute in size (0.005mm to0.05mm). The air can also contain quartz. Dust concen-trations vary considerably according to vehicle operat-ing conditions (motorway, construction site). Should itenter the oil, this dust would form an abrasive film,leading to extreme wear, especially on the cylinderwalls, the pistons and the valve guides.

    1 Motor vehicle

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    20

    Filters installed in the motor vehicle guard againstcontaminants and impurities by providing protec-tion for the engine, other vehicle components, andthe vehicle's occupants.

    The purpose of the air filter is to cleanse inductionair of impurities while simultaneously subduing in-duction roar.

    Strainer

    Mesh

    Directionof flow

    Contaminant

    Fig. 2: Operational concept of the filter screen

    Cylinder-headcover withintegratedoil separator

    Oil-mistseparator

    Air filterwith serviceindicator

    Waterseparator

    Air-filterelement

    Coolant filter

    Inlinefuel filter

    Washer-fluidfilter

    Diesel-filtermodule

    Metal-freefuel-filterelement

    In-tank petrol-filter element

    Tank-ventilationfilter

    Urea filter forSCR catalysts

    Interior filter

    Gear-oil filter

    Steering-hydraulics filter

    Brake-hydraulics filter

    Suspension-hydraulics filter

    Desiccant box

    Easy-changeoil filter

    Oil-filter module

    Metal-freeoil-filter element

    System forcrankcaseventilation withmulti-cyclonefilter

    Partial-flowcentrifugaloil filter

    Electronics-box filter

    5

    4

    3

    2

    1

    6

    7

    8

    9

    10

    11

    12

    13

    14

    15

    16

    17

    18

    19

    20

    21

    22

    23

    24

    25

    13

    14

    1516171819202122

    23

    24

    25

    54

    3

    21

    6 7 8 9 10

    11

    12

    Fig. 1: Filters in modern motor vehicles

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