nghiên cứu đánh giá khả năng xử lý của bùn đỏ tây nguyên đối với

  • Published on
    31-Dec-2016

  • View
    217

  • Download
    0

Embed Size (px)

Transcript

<ul><li><p>I HC QUC GIA H NI </p><p>TRNG I HC KHOA HC T NHIN </p><p>NGUYN VN THM </p><p>NGHIN CU NH GI KH NNG X L </p><p>CA BN TY NGUYN I VI MT S </p><p>ION C HI TRONG NC </p><p>LUN VN THC S KHOA HC </p><p>H Ni - 2015 </p></li><li><p>I HC QUC GIA H NI </p><p>TRNG I HC KHOA HC T NHIN </p><p>NGUYN VN THM </p><p>NGHIN CU NH GI KH NNG X L </p><p>CA BN TY NGUYN I VI MT S </p><p>ION C HI TRONG NC </p><p>Chuyn ngnh: Ha mi trng </p><p>M s: 60440120 </p><p> LUN VN THC S KHOA HC </p><p>NGI HNG DN KHOA HC: PGS.TS TRN HNG CN </p><p>H Ni - 2015 </p></li><li><p>Lun vn thc s </p><p>Nguyn Vn Thm Lp K23-Cao hc Ha Mi Trng </p><p>LI CM N </p><p>Vi lng bit n su sc, em xin chn thnh cm n Thy PGS.TS Trn </p><p>Hng Cn, ngi cng vi tri thc v tm huyt ca mnh tn tnh hng dn </p><p>em trong sut qu trnh lm lun vn tt nghip. </p><p>Em chn thnh cm n qu Thy, C trong Khoa Ha hc Trng i </p><p>hc Khoa Hc T Nhin i hc Quc gia H Ni dc lng truyn t kin </p><p>thc trong thi gian em hc tp. Vi vn kin thc c tip thu khng ch l </p><p>nn tng cho qu trnh nghin cu lun vn m cn l hnh trang qu bu cho </p><p>em trong cng vic v cuc sng sau ny. </p><p>Em chn thnh cm n NCS. Phm Th Mai Hng ng h v gip </p><p>em rt nhit tnh trong qu trnh thc hin lun vn. </p><p>Ti xin chn thnh cm n s gip , ng gp kin ca cc anh ch, </p><p>cc bn sinh vin ti hon thin lun vn ny. </p><p>Sau cng, em xin knh chc qu Thy, C tht di do sc khe v thnh </p><p>cng trong s nghip cao qu ca mnh l truyn t kin thc cho th h mai </p><p>sau. </p><p>Trn trng knh cho qu Thy, C! </p><p> Hc vin cao hc </p><p>Nguyn Vn Thm </p></li><li><p>Lun vn thc s </p><p>Nguyn Vn Thm Lp K23-Cao hc Ha Mi Trng </p><p>DANH MC CC T VIT TT </p><p>STT Vit tt Tn ting anh Tn ting vit </p><p>1 XRD X-Ray Diffraction Nhiu x tia X </p><p> XRF X-Ray Fluorescence Ph hunh quang tia X </p><p>2 SEM Scanning Electron </p><p>Microscope Knh hin vi in t qut </p><p>3 TEM Transmission Electron </p><p>Microscopy Knh hin vi in t truyn qua </p><p>4 pHpzc pH-Point of zero charge pH ti im ng in </p><p>5 TRMA Bn trung ha kim </p><p>6 TRMW Bn ra nc n pH=7 </p></li><li><p>Lun vn thc s </p><p>Nguyn Vn Thm Lp K23-Cao hc Ha Mi Trng </p><p>DANH MC BNG BIU </p><p>S hiu </p><p>bng Tn bng Trang </p><p>1.1 Thnh phn nguyn t ca bn Bo Lc </p><p>(phng php ph hunh quang tia X - XRF). 3 </p><p>1.2 Bng 1.2. Thnh phn nguyn t ca bn ti </p><p>Nh my Alumin Lm ng. 3 </p><p>1.3 Thnh phn bn ly t nh my ha cht Tn Bnh ti </p><p>thnh ph H Ch Minh. 3 </p><p>1.4 Cc dng cu trc pha trong bn kh. 3 </p><p>1.5 Bn knh ion NH4+ v bn knh ca cc ion kim loi kim. 19 </p><p>2.1 Kt qu xc nh dung dch chun asen t 10 90ppb. 29 </p><p>2.2 Kt qu xc nh dung dch chun asen t 100 900 ppb. 29 </p><p>2.3 Gi tr mt quang ABS. 31 </p><p>3.1 Thnh phn ha hc ca bn kh nguyn liu. 39 </p><p>3.2 Kt qu kho st kh nng hp ph As ca TRMA. 41 </p><p>3.3 Kt qu xc nh pHpzc ca vt liu TRMA 350. 43 </p><p>3.4 Kt qu kho st ti trng hp ph ca vt liu TRMA 350. 44 </p><p>3.5 Kt qu kho st kh nng hp ph As ca TRMW. 45 </p><p>3.6 Kt qu xc nh pHpzc ca vt liu TRMW 350. 47 </p><p>3.7 Kt qu kho st ti trng hp ph ca vt liu TRMW 350 . 48 </p><p>3.8 Kt qu kho st kh nng hp ph Amoni ca TRMA. 49 </p><p>3.9 Kt qu xc nh pHpzc ca vt liu TRMA 600. 51 </p><p>3.10 Kt qu kho st ti trng hp ph ca vt liu TRMA 600. 52 </p><p>3.11 Kt qu kho st kh nng hp ph Amoni ca TRMW. 53 </p></li><li><p>Lun vn thc s </p><p>Nguyn Vn Thm Lp K23-Cao hc Ha Mi Trng </p><p>3.12 Kt qu xc nh pHpzc ca vt liu TRMW 600. 55 </p><p>3.13 Kt qu kho st ti trng hp ph ca vt liu TRMW 600. 56 </p></li><li><p>Lun vn thc s </p><p>Nguyn Vn Thm Lp K23-Cao hc Ha Mi Trng </p><p>DANH MC HNH V </p><p>S hiu </p><p>hnh v Tn hnh v Trang </p><p>1.1 Cu trc t din u ca ion amoni. 19 </p><p>1.2 ng cong Clo ho ti im t bin i vi nc c amoni. 22 </p><p>2.1 ng chun asen t 10-90 ppb. 29 </p><p>2.2 ng chun asen t 100 - 900 ppb. 30 </p><p>2.3 ng chun dng xc nh nng NH4</p><p>+ trong mu </p><p>nc. 31 </p><p>2.4 Tia ti v tia phn x trn tinh th. 32 </p><p>2.5 S nguyn l ca knh hin vi in t qut. 34 </p><p>2.6 th xc nh pHpzc ca vt liu. 35 </p><p>2.7 ng hp ph ng nhit Langmuir. 37 </p><p>2.8 th dng tuyn tnh ca phng trnh Langmuir. 38 </p><p>3.1 Gin XRD ca mu bn Tn Rai. 40 </p><p>3.2 Kt qu phn tch nhit mu bn nguyn liu. 41 </p><p>3.3 Gin XRD ca vt liu TRMA 350. 42 </p><p>3.4 nh hin vi in t qut (SEM) ca vt liu TRMA 350. 43 </p><p>3.5 th xc nh pHpzc ca vt liu TRMA 350. 43 </p><p>3.6 ng ng nhit hp ph Langmuir ca TRMA 350. 44 </p><p>3.7 Gin XRD ca vt liu TRMW 350. 46 </p><p>3.8 nh hin vi in t qut (SEM) ca vt liu TRMW 350. 46 </p><p>3.9 th xc nh pHpzc ca vt liu TRMW 350. 47 </p><p>3.10 ng ng nhit hp ph Langmuir ca TRMW 350. 48 </p><p>3.11 Gin XRD ca vt liu TRMA 600. 50 </p><p>3.12 nh hin vi in t qut (SEM) ca vt liu TRMA 600. 50 </p></li><li><p>Lun vn thc s </p><p>Nguyn Vn Thm Lp K23-Cao hc Ha Mi Trng </p><p>3.13 th xc nh pHpzc ca vt liu TRMA 600. 51 </p><p>3.14 Phng trnh tuyn tnh Langmuir ca vt liu TRMA 600. 52 </p><p>3.15 Gin XRD ca vt liu TRMW 600. 54 </p><p>3.16 nh hin vi in t qut (SEM) ca vt liu TRMW 600. 54 </p><p>3.17 th xc nh pHpzc ca vt liu TRMW 600. 55 </p><p>3.18 Phng trnh tuyn tnh Langmuir ca vt liu TRMW 600. 56 </p></li><li><p>Lun vn thc s </p><p>Nguyn Vn Thm Lp K23-Cao hc Ha Mi Trng </p><p>MC LC </p><p>LI M U ....................................................................................................... 1 </p><p>CHNG 1 TNG QUAN ............................................................................... 2 </p><p>1.1. Bn ........................................................................................................ 2 </p><p>1.1.1. Ngun gc ca bn ......................................................................... 2 </p><p>1.1.2. Thnh phn v c im ca bn . .................................................. 2 </p><p>1.1.3. Tnh hnh bn Ty Nguyn. ........................................................ 4 </p><p>1.1.4. Cc phng php x l bn . .......................................................... 4 </p><p>1.2. Vn nhim nc. ................................................................................ 8 </p><p>1.2.1. Asen v cc phng php x l Asen. ................................................ 8 </p><p>1.2.2. Amoni v cc phng php x l Amoni. ........................................ 17 </p><p>CHNG 2 THC NGHIM ........................................................................ 26 </p><p>2.1. Mc tiu v ni dung nghin cu ca lun vn. ...................................... 26 </p><p>2.1.1. Mc tiu nghin cu. ......................................................................... 26 </p><p>2.1.2. Ni dung nghin cu. ........................................................................ 26 </p><p>2.2. Ha cht v thit b dng c. .................................................................... 26 </p><p>2.2.1. Ha cht............................................................................................. 26 </p><p>2.2.2. Thit b v dng c. ........................................................................... 27 </p><p>2.3. Phng php phn tch Asen v Amoni trong nc. ............................... 28 </p><p>2.3.1. Phn tch Asen bng phng php thy ngn bromua. .................... 28 </p><p>2.3.2. Phn tch Amoni bng phng php Nessler. ................................... 30 </p><p>2.4. Ch to cc loi vt liu hp ph t bn . ............................................ 32 </p><p>2.4.1. Bn trung ha kim (TRMA)....................................................... 32 </p><p>2.4.2. Bn ra nc n pH=7 (TRMW) ............................................... 32 </p><p>2.5. Cc phng php nh gi c tnh ca vt liu hp ph........................ 32 </p><p>2.5.1. Phng php nhiu x tia Rnghen (XRD). ..................................... 32 </p><p>2.5.2. Phng php knh hin vi in t qut (SEM). ................................ 33 </p><p>2.5.3. Phng php xc nh gi tr pH ti im ng nhit. ..................... 35 </p><p>2.5.4. Phng php nh gi kh nng hp ph ca vt liu. ..................... 35 </p></li><li><p>Lun vn thc s </p><p>Nguyn Vn Thm Lp K23-Cao hc Ha Mi Trng </p><p>CHNG 3- KT QU V THO LUN ...................................................... 39 </p><p>3.1. Cc c tnh ca bn nguyn liu. ...................................................... 39 </p><p>3.1.1. Thnh phn ha hc ca bn nguyn liu. ................................... 39 </p><p>3.1.2. Thnh phn khong hc ca bn nguyn liu. ............................. 40 </p><p>3.1.3. Kt qu chp phn tch nhit ca bn nguyn liu. ..................... 40 </p><p>3.2. Vt liu hp ph Asen t bn . ............................................................. 41 </p><p>3.2.1. Bn trung ha kim (TRMA)....................................................... 41 </p><p>3.2.2. Bn ra nc n pH=7 (TRMW). .............................................. 45 </p><p>3.3. Vt liu hp ph Amoni t bn . .......................................................... 49 </p><p>3.3.1. Bn trung ha kim (TRMA)....................................................... 49 </p><p>3.3.2. Bn ra nc n pH=7 (TRMW). .............................................. 53 </p><p>KT LUN ......................................................................................................... 57 </p><p>TI LIU THAM KHO ................................................................................... 58 </p></li><li><p>Lun vn thc s </p><p>Nguyn Vn Thm 1 Lp K23-Cao hc Ha Mi Trng </p><p>LI M U </p><p>Song song vi s pht trin ca nn cng nghip ha, hin i ha t </p><p>nc th nhim mi trng ang tr thnh mt vn cp bch i vi ton x </p><p>hi. Bn cnh qu trnh sn xut ca cc nghnh cng nghip th i cng vi n </p><p>l mt lng ln rc thi cng nghip c thi ra mi trng. </p><p>Bn l cht thi t qu trnh sn xut nhm t qung bauxite theo cng </p><p>ngh Bayer. Vic x l loi b bn l mt vn quan trng i vi mi </p><p>trng v hai l do chnh: mt l bn c c tnh do pH cao, hai l khi lng </p><p>bn thi ra rt ln. Tc ng n mi trng ca bn c th dn ti s </p><p>nhim tng nc ngm hay nh hng n ngun nc sinh hot, nh hng </p><p>n t canh tc v thm thc vt xung quanh khu vc khai thc v nhng ni </p><p>thp hn. Do vn cp bch t ra l vic x l bn thi ra sao cho hp </p><p>l v ph hp vi kinh t. </p><p>Chnh v vy, em thc hin ti nghin cu Nghin cu nh gi </p><p>kh nng x l ca bn Ty Nguyn i vi mt s ion c hi trong </p><p>nc, m c th trong ti ny s kho st nh gi i vi asen v amoni. </p></li><li><p>Lun vn thc s </p><p>Nguyn Vn Thm 2 Lp K23-Cao hc Ha Mi Trng </p><p>CHNG 1 TNG QUAN </p><p>1.1. Bn </p><p>1.1.1. Ngun gc ca bn . </p><p>Bn l cht thi trong qu trnh sn xut alumina t qung bauxite theo </p><p>cng ngh Bayer- sng ch ca Karl Joseph Bayer nm 1888. Qu trnh sn xut </p><p>alumina thc cht l qu trnh lm giu Al2O3 nhm tch lng Al2O3 trong </p><p>bauxite ra khi cc hp cht khc. </p><p>Theo cng ngh Bayer, bauxite th c nghin ra thu c qung </p><p>tinh bauxite, qung tinh c nung vi NaOH trong iu kin nhit v p </p><p>sut thch hp. Dung dch aluminat (NaAlO2) sau c tch em kt ta to </p><p>thnh Al(OH)3, ra v nung Al(OH)3 s thu c Al2O3 l bt mu trng c hm </p><p>lng Al2O3 chim ti 98,5-99,5%. Trong tin trnh tinh ch Alumina trn, </p><p>phn qung khng tan trong kim c lng, ra v loi khi dy chuyn. B </p><p>thi ny c gi l bn [27]. </p><p>1.1.2. Thnh phn v c im ca bn . </p><p>Bn thi ra gm c pha lng v pha rn. Pha lng c tnh kim mnh </p><p>cha thnh phn nhm tan trong kim. Pha rn bao gm cc thnh phn chnh </p><p>nh Fe2O3, Al2O3, SiO2, TiO2,Thnh phn khong ca bn ch yu bao </p><p>gm Gibssite, Boemite, Hematite, Goethite, Manhetite, cng mt s cht ha </p><p>hc khc na nh Nitrogen, Potasium, Chromium,Zinc...[8]. </p><p>Qu trnh iu ch Alumina, bauxite c nghin nh. Do , bn thi </p><p>khi kh l cc ht bi mn (60% ht c &lt; 1 m) d pht tn vo khng kh gy </p><p> nhim mi trng, tip xc thng xuyn vi bi ny gy ra cc bnh v da, </p><p>v mt. Pha lng ca bn c tnh kim gy n mn i vi vt liu. Khi </p><p>khng c thu gom, cch ly vi mi trng, pha lng ny c th thm vo t </p><p>nh hng n cy trng, xm nhp vo mch nc ngm gy nhim ngun </p><p>nc. Nc thi t bn tip xc vi da gy tc hi nh n da, lm mt i lp </p><p>nhn khin da kh rp, sn si, chai cng, nt n, au rt, c th sng ty v lot </p><p>m vt rch xc trn da [29]. </p></li><li><p>Lun vn thc s </p><p>Nguyn Vn Thm 3 Lp K23-Cao hc Ha Mi Trng </p><p>Bng 1.1. Thnh phn nguyn t ca bn Bo Lc </p><p>(phng php ph hunh quang tia X XRF) [8]. </p><p>Thnh phn </p><p>ha hc % khi lng </p><p>Thnh phn </p><p>ha hc % khi lng </p><p>Al2O3 27,67 P2O5 0,163 </p><p>Fe2O3 36,28 Cr2O3 0,120 </p><p>SiO2 8,486 CuO 0,015 </p><p>CaO 0,066 ZnO 0,010 </p><p>TiO2 5,389 ZrO2 0,064 </p><p>MnO 0,045 SO3 0,221 </p><p>K2O 0,024 MKN 20,330 </p><p>Bng 1.2. Thnh phn nguyn t ca bn ti </p><p>Nh my Alumin Lm ng [7]. </p><p>TT Thnh phn ha </p><p>hc n v Hm lng </p><p>1 m % 20,42 </p><p>2 Al2O3 % 16,71 </p><p>3 TiO2 % 5,83 </p><p>4 Fe2O3 % 51,10 </p><p>5 Na2O % 5,32 </p><p>6 SiO2 % 6,98 </p><p>Bng 1.3.Thnh phn bn ly t nh my ha cht Tn Bnh ti thnh </p><p>ph H Ch Minh [8]. </p><p>Fe2O3 Al2O3 SiO2 Na2O TiO2 CaO SO3 P2O5 Cr2O3 </p><p>47,44% 31,26% 6,17% 6,64% 6,73% 0,41% 0,44% 0,24% 0,22% </p><p>Bng 1.4: Cc dng cu trc pha trong bn kh. </p><p>STT Cng thc ha hc Dng tn ti </p><p>1 Al(OH)3 Gibbsite </p><p>2 FeO(OH) Geothite </p><p>3 Fe2O3 Hematite </p><p>4 SiO2 Quartz </p><p>5 1.08Na2O.Al2O3.1.68SiO2.1.8H2O Sodium Aluminum Silicate Hydrate </p></li><li><p>Lun vn thc s </p><p>Nguyn Vn Thm 4 Lp K23-Cao hc Ha Mi Trng </p><p>1.1.3. Tnh hnh bn Ty Nguyn. </p><p>Theo kt qu iu tra thm d a cht cha y , nc ta c tr lng </p><p>khong sn Bauxite ln phn b rng t Bc n Nam vi tr lng khong 5,5 </p><p>t tn qung nguyn khai; tng ng vi 2,4 t tn qung tinh; tp trung ch </p><p>yu Ty Nguyn. Do ngnh cng nghip sn xut nhm t qung Bauxite </p><p>ang c nh hng pht trin mnh m, i km vi n l mt lng ln bn </p><p> c thi ra. Vi quy hoch pht trin bauxite Ty Nguyn, d n alumin </p><p>Nhn C cng sut 600.000 tn alumin/nm s thi ra lng bn kh l </p><p>566.000 tn/nm, dung dch bm theo bn l 610.000 tn/nm; d n alumin </p><p>Tn Rai s thi ra lng bn kh l 636.720 tn/nm, dung dch bm theo </p><p>bn l 687.720 tn/nm. Hai nh my alumin Nhn C v Tn Rai c lng </p><p>bn thi ra khong 1,2-1,3 triu tn/nm [7]. </p><p>Bn sinh ra l tt yu v lng nhm trong qung tinh t n 47 49% </p><p>v phn ng tch nhm trong qung t hiu sut 70 75%. y l ngun thi </p><p>ln cn c qun l, x l trit v an ton. </p><p> cc tnh Ty Nguyn, ni bt l tnh Lm ng v tnh k Nng, </p><p>ang chu nh hng ca bn . Ton tnh k Nng c 13 m Bauxite, tri </p><p>u trn a bn cc huyn nm thng ngun 2 h thng sng ln l Srepok </p><p>(gm cc nhnh Krng Bng, Krng Pk, Krng Ana, Krng N - vo dng </p><p>chnh sng M Kng) v ng Nai (gm cc nhnh chnh l k Hut, k </p><p>Glun, k Rtit, k Nng - vo sng ng Nai). Phn din tch sng Srepok </p><p>trn a bn k Nng l 3.583 km2 (chim 50% din tch ton tnh), sng ng </p><p>Nai l 2.934,4 km2 (chim 45% din tch tnh). </p><p>Theo cc nh khoa hc Vin Khoa hc Thy li min Nam, cc d n </p><p>khai thc u cn n nhng din tch t rt ln lm bi thi bn. Kt qu tnh </p><p>ton cho thy, ch bin c 1 tn Alumin t Bauxite, cc nh my phi thi </p><p>ra mi trng 2 tn bn . C mi nm trong giai on 2007 - 2015 (thc hin </p><p>theo quy hoch), cc d n Ty Nguyn s sn xut 6,6 triu tn Alumin v </p><p>lng bn thi ra s khong 12 triu tn. Cc h cha qu mong manh trc </p><p>bin c thin tai nh lt, l qut l nguyn nhn dn n thm ha mi trng </p><p>trong tng lai. V vy, vic x l bn l vn bc thit mang tnh sng </p><p>cn cho cc d n Bauxite Ty Nguyn. </p><p>1.1.4. Cc phng php x l bn . </p><p>Cc phng php x l bn hin nay ang c p dng bao gm cc </p><p>phng n chnh sau: </p></li><li><p>Lun vn thc s </p><p>Nguyn Vn Thm 5 Lp K23-Cao hc Ha Mi Trng </p><p>- X l phn cht lng i km bn hoc pht sinh trong h bn </p><p>bng cch ti s dng trong dy chuyn sn xut hoc trung ho bng nc bin </p><p>(trng hp nh my t cnh bin) hoc trung ho bng CO2. </p><p>- Chn lp bn thi, tin hnh hon th, phc hi mi trng. </p><p>- X l bn t bi thi, dng cho cc ng dng nh vt liu xy dng </p><p>(gch, ngi,...), lm ng, ch bin sn, ch to cc vt liu c bit khc... </p><p>Vic la chn cc phng n x l bn sau thi c thc hin ty </p><p>theo cc nh my alumin c th, tuy nhin hin nay phng n chn lp, hon </p><p>th chim u th v c p dng rng ri, phng n ch bin bn ang </p><p>c nghin cu, th nghim v chi ph thc hin cao, hiu qu kinh t thp. </p><p>*Phng php chn lp: </p><p>Bn cnh khai thc m Bauxite, n v u thu Tp on Cng nghip </p><p>Than Khong sn Vit Nam cng xut mt s phng n x l bn . </p><p>Mt trong nhng phng n kh thi nht l chn lp. H cha bn l mt b </p><p>phn ca h thng sn xut alumina t qung bauxite, h ny c thit k rt </p><p>k chng thm cht lng trong bn xung nc ngm theo chiu ng v </p><p>chiu ngang. chng trn, ch u t xy dng h thng thot nc ma...</p></li></ul>