Nghien cuu khoa hoc 2015

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  • 1

    MC LC

    A. PHN M U ................................................................................................... 2

    1. L do chn ti ............................................................................................... 2

    2. Mc ch nghin cu ......................................................................................... 4

    3. i tng v khch th nghin cu .................................................................... 4

    4. Phng php nghin cu .................................................................................... 5

    5. Phm vi nghin cu ........................................................................................... 5

    6. Kt cu ti ........................................................................................................... 5

    B. NI DUNG ........................................................................................................... 6

    CHNG 1: C S L THUYT ......................................................................... 6

    1.1. Xu hng mua sm trc tuyn ..................................................................... 6

    1.2. Cc ti nghin cu trc y .................................................................. 8

    CHNG 2: THC TRNG V GII PHP CA VN NGHIN CU ......... 10

    2.2. Tng quan v th trng thng mi in t ................................................. 10

    2.2.1. Cc khi nim v Thng mi in t .............................................................. 10

    2.2.2. Th trng thng mi in t Vit Nam ...................................................... 10

    2.2.3. Cc thng tin thu thp c t kt qu iu tra ................................................ 11

    2.3. Trnh t tin hnh nghin cu .................................................................... 19

    2.3.1. Xy dng m hnh v thit k thang o .......................................................... 19

    2.3.2. Lp bng hi v thc hin kho st ................................................................. 20

    2.4. Kt qu nghin cu ................................................................................... 20

    2.4.1 Kt qu kim nh tin cy ca thang o ........................................................ 20

    2.4.2 Kt qu phn tch cc nhn t khm ph EFA ................................................... 22

    2.4.3 Kt qu phn tch hi quy ................................................................................. 24

    C. KT LUN V KIN NGH ............................................................................. 26

    Ph lc ...................................................................................................................... 28

  • 2

    A. PHN M U

    1. L do chn ti

    Ngy nay, vi s bng n mnh m ca cng ngh thng tin, cc hot ng

    giao dch, mua bn trc tuyn ngy cng c nhiu ngi quan tm, bit n - c

    bit l ngi tiu dng trn a bn H Ni v ang tr thnh xu hng mua sm mi

    ca ngi Vit. Vn t ra cho cc nh kinh doanh lnh vc ny l bng cch no

    m bo c hiu qu, tc l phi xc nh cc nhn t tc ng c nhng gii php

    thch hp nhm thu ht ngi tiu dng chn mua sm qua loi hnh thng mi in

    t ngy cng nhiu. l l do nhm chng em quyt nh nghin cu v ti:

    PHN TCH CC NHN T NH HNG N XU HNG MUA SM

    TRC TUYN CA NGI TIU DNG TI TP. H NI.

    Theo nghin cu ca ICTnews v tnh hnh ph cp Internet nm 2014, trong

    sut 17 nm tr li y, Vit Nam l quc gia c tc tng trng Internet nhanh

    nht th gii. Cc chuyn gia nhn nh, thi gian trc tuyn ca ngi tiu dng cng

    lu th c hi cc lnh vc nh thng mi in t hay cc dch v trc tuyn pht

    trin cng cao, c bit l th trng giu tim nng nh Vit Nam.

    Cng theo bo co ca NetCitizens Vit Nam, tui trung bnh s dng

    Internet ti Vit Nam l 29, thp hn tui trung bnh ca dn s l 36. Ch c

    khong 25% ngi dng Internet trn 35 tui.S lng ngi cao tui s dng Internet

    rt thp, ch t khong 2 triu ngi.

  • 3

    Biu 1: Biu th hin tui ca ngi s dng Internet so vi tng dn s

    Theo trnh hc vn v ngh nghip, khong 54% s ngi s dng Internet

    c trnh Cao ng, i hc tr ln. cc th ln, s lng ngi s dng

    Internet c trnh hc vn cao hn so vi cc a phng khc.Mt phn ba s ngi

    s dng Internet l sinh vin hc sinh. Nhn chung, 70% ngi s dng Internet l b

    phn tr thc, nhn vin vn phng, cn li l cng nhn, ni tr, tiu thng bun bn

    nh, ch ca hng

    Biu 2: Biu th hin ngh nghip ca nhng ngi s dng Internet

  • 4

    Do , nhm khch hng mc tiu ca hnh thc mua sm trc tuyn, cc trang

    thng mi in t s tp trung ch yu vo 2 nhm i tng l nhn vin vn phng

    v sinh vin. V vy, nhm nghin cu quyt nh chn 2 nhm i tng ny tin

    hnh kho st. y l nhm i tng am hiu cng ngh, c trnh v bit nm bt

    thng tin.

    2. Mc ch nghin cu

    Cc nghin cu v hnh thc mua sm trc tuyn Vit Nam cn cha nhiu

    nn nhm thc hin ti ny vi mong mun s ng gp mt phn no lm t

    liu nghin cu cho cc nhm nghin cu sau ny khi mun tm hiu su hn v hnh

    thc mua sm trc tuyn. Nghin cu a ra cc yu t tc ng n vic mua sm

    trc tuyn ca ngi tiu dng trn a bn thnh ph H Ni. Vi bin c lp l cc

    yu t c cp m hnh nghin cu, bin ph thuc l xu hng mua sm trc

    tuyn ca ngi tiu dng s cho thy u l yu t chnh tc ng n xu hng

    mua sm trc tuyn v yu t no l quan trng. T a ra mt s nhng gi v

    chnh sch cho cc cng ty, cc doanh nghip ang hot ng trong lnh vc thng

    mi in t.

    3. i tng v khch th nghin cu

    Cng ngh thng tin ngy cng pht trin, ko theo l nhiu dch v pht

    trin theo. Thng mi in t l mt trong nhng lnh vc giu tim nng trong s

    nhng dch v .Chnh v th, nhm i tng m thng mi in t hng ti l

    nhn vin vn phng v sinh vin.y l nhm i tng am hiu cng ngh, c trnh

    v bit nm bt thng tin. Sinh vin l nhng ngi tr tui, ham thch ci mi, yu

    thch cng ngh, thng xuyn cp nht cng nh nm bt tro lu.Nhn vin vn

    phng l nhng ngi tip xc nhiu vi my tnh, c thi gian tip cn vi

    internet.Tuy nhin, h khng c thi gian nhiu cho vic mua sm. V vy, nhm

    nghin cu quyt nh chn 2 nhm i tng ny tin hnh kho st.

    H Ni l ni tp trung ng dn c, l thnh ph pht trin, cng l ni m

    nhm nghin cu ang cng tc.Chnh v th, ti hng n nhng ngi tiu dng

    trn a bn thnh ph H Ni thun tin hn trong qu trnh nghin cu.

  • 5

    4. Phng php nghin cu

    C nhiu phng php nghin cu khc nhau c s dng trong khi nghin

    cu. Tuy nhin, trong ti ny, nhm nghin cu s dng kt hp nhiu phng

    php

    - Phng php nghin cu ti liu: s dng cc nghin cu ca nhng ngi i

    trc lm thng tin trong qu trnh thc hin.

    - Phng php iu tra: s dng 200 phiu iu tra tin hnh thu thp d liu

    cho cuc nghin cu.

    - Phng php tng kt kinh nghim: tham kho kin ca gio vin hng dn

    v nhng ngi c kinh nghim.

    - Phng php lng ha bng SPSS

    - Phng php phn tch tng hp.

    5. Phm vi nghin cu

    ti c thc hin nhm tm ra cc nhn t nh hng n xu hng mua

    sm trc tuyn ca ngi tiu dng, v c tin hnh kho st i tng c kinh

    nghim mua sm trc tuyn ti khu vc H Ni vi hai nhm i tng l nhn vin

    vn phng v sinh vin ti cc trng i hc, cao ng.

    6. Kt cu ti

    Chng 1: C s l thuyt

    Chng 2: Thc trng v gii php ca vn nghin cu

  • 6

    B. NI DUNG

    CHNG 1: C S L THUYT

    1.1. Xu hng mua sm trc tuyn

    Theo nh ngha ca t in kinh doanh ( business dictionary), xu hng mua

    sm hay xu hng tiu dng c xem nh l thi quen hay hnh vi v mua sm hng

    ha dch v, v n c cp n nhng ni dung bao gm chn loi sn phm

    mua, cch thc mua v ni mua. Xu hng mua sm biu th xu hng ca ngi tiu

    dng trong vic thc hin mt hnh vi tiu dng. Hnh vi mua sm ca con ngi l

    mt qu trnh nhn thc nhu cu n quyt nh mua, chu nh hng bi nhiu yu t

    v b tc ng bi mt s nhn t nh vn ha, yu t x hi, yu t c nhn v yu t

    tm l.(Kotler & Ammstrong 2007).

    Mua sm trc tuyn l mt qu trnh m khch hng mua trc tip hng ha

    hoc dch v t mt ngi bn trong mt thi gian xc thc thng qua Internet, qu

    trnh ny khng qua dch v trung gian, y chnh l mt dng ca thng mi in t.

    Mua sm trc tuyn mang li li ch cho c ngi mua v ngi bn v phng din

    tm kim khch hng, thng qua sn phm , qu trnh tng tc v phn phi sn phm.

    Ngi bn nhn c thanh ton nhanh chng t pha ngi mua thng qua Internet

    v khng phi tn chi ph u t h thng phn phi. i vi ngi mua th c th

    mua hng bt c u, bt k thi gian no, ngay c khi nh v tip cn cc nh cung

    cp xa.

    Thng thng, mi ngi mua u c mt khon thu nhp gii hn, mt trnh

    hiu bit nht nh v sn phm v kinh nghim mua hng. Trong nhng iu kin

    nh vy, ngi mua s phi quyt nh chn mua nhng sn phm no, ca ai, vi s

    lng bao nhiu v chn mua theo hnh thc dch v nh th no nhm ti a ha s

    tha mn hay tng li ch ca h khi tiu dng cc sn phm .

    Tng li ch ca khch hng l ton b nhng li ch m khch hng mong i

    mi sn phm hay dch v nht nh, c th bao gm li ch ct li ca sn phm, li

  • 7

    ch t cc dch v km theo sn phm, cht lng v kh nng nhn s ca nh sn

    xut, uy tn v hnh nh ca doanh nghip,...

    nh gi ng xu hng la chn mua sn phm qua mng trc tuyn ca

    ngi tiu dng, ngoi vic xem xt mc m mt sn phm c th tha mn mong

    mun ca ngi mua, tc l nhng li ch m sn phm c th em li cho h, cn

    nh gi thng qua mc tin li khi mua trc tuyn; chng loi, mu m hng bn

    trc tuyn; mc tin tng ca ngi tiu dng khi mua hng trc tuyn; mc

    ch v gi, nh gi v vic khuyn mi khi mua hng trc tuyn.

    tin li l kh nng, thi lch s v mc nhanh chng trong vic mua

    hng. Ngi mua khng tn cng sc, thi gian i li, c th mua mi lc mi ni;

    hng ha d thy d tm; vic mua hng nhanh chng d dng; khng b nhn vin ca

    hng lm phin v khng ngi khi khng mua hay hy n hng.

    Phong ph v mu m, a dng v chng loi, hng ha lun y , ngun gc

    xut x, thng hiu r rng l nhng iu m thu ht ngi tiu dng nn y l mt

    trong nhng phng thc cn bn ngi bn hng trc tuyn nng cao sc cnh

    tranh trn th trng.

    Khng ch vy m ngi bn hng trc tuyn cn quan tm rt nhiu n vic

    xy dng lng tin i vi khch hng, khch hng tin tng v la chn mua hng

    qua hnh thc mua sm trc tuyn mi ny. tin tng l kh nng thc hin vic

    thanh ton, cam kt v cht lng sn phm, bo mt thng tin ca khch hng ng

    nh ha v chnh xc.

    Gi c l biu hin bng tin ca gi tr hng ha, ngha l s lng tin phi tr

    cho hng ha . Gi l mt yu t quan trng nh hng ti vic ngi tiu dng c

    quyt nh la chn mua trc tuyn hay mua hng trc tip: mua hng trc tuyn c r

    hn mua trc tip hay vic so snh gi gia cc nh cung cp khc nhau, gi bn ph

    hp vi cht lng hng ha v c c nim yt r rng...

    Khuyn mi l hot ng xc tin thng mi ca cc doanh nghip nhm xc

    tin vic mua bn hng ha, cung ng dch v bng cch dnh cho khch hng nhng

    li ch nht nh. Khuyn mi c cc doanh nghip p dng kh linh hot v c s

    kt hp gia nhiu hnh thc mt lc, nh va gim gi va tng qu, va gim gi

  • 8

    va bc thm trng thng, gim gi hoc tng qu trong nhng gi vng mua sm

    nht nh trong ngy( thng l gi thp im kch thch tiu dng)... Gim gi

    thng l hnh thc c cc doanh nghip p dng nhiu nht.

    1.2. Cc ti nghin cu trc y

    David & cng s ( 2002), cho rng khch hng mua sm trc tuyn thng bao

    gm nhng ngi tiu dng c t thi gian nn h mun s dng Internet mua sm

    nhm tit kim thi gian. Nhng ngi khng thch i mua sm ti cc ca hng, h

    s dng Internet trnh ch n o, sp hng hay phi ch i.Nhng ngi hiu bit

    cng ngh thch mua sm trn mng v n ph hp vi ngnh ngh. Hnh vi mua sm

    trc tuyn ca khch hng b tc ng bi nhiu nhn t nh c im c nhn ( gii

    tnh, tui, hn nhn, gio dc, tn gio, ngh nghip v thu nhp , tnh cch , li sng);

    nhn t mi trng ( gia nh, x hi v cng ng); nhn t tc ng t pha ngi

    bn bao gm: gi c, qung co, xc tin thng mi, thng hiu, nhng hot ng

    h tr k thut qua trang website, giao hng, thanh ton v cc dch v khch hng.

    Nhng nhn t ny trc tip v gin tip tc ng n nh mua sm ca khch hng.

    Nghin cu hnh vi mua sm trc tuyn trong dp l M nm 2009 ca

    cng ty Nielsen. Nghin cu cho thy ngi tiu dng mua hng qua mng khng

    phi v gi c , m ch yu v tnh tin li. C th l:

    Ngi tiu dng mua hng qua mng v:

    Tit kim chi ph i li: 53%

    D dng so snh gi c gia cc nh bn l trc tuyn so vi cc ca hng

    thc : 51%

    C th mua sm bt c khi no mnh thch: 69%

    Khng thch chen ln ti ca hng vo nhng dp l hi: 57%

    Ngi tiu dng khng thch mua hng qua mng v:

    Chi ph giao nhn v vn chuyn: 53%

    Thch nhn tn mt v s tn tay sn phm: 51%

    Thch i ngm v tm sn phm yu thch: 44%

    D dng tr li sn phm: 40%

  • 9

    Nghin cu Xu hng mua sm trc tuyn ca sinh vin trn a bn

    TP.HCM nm 2012 ca nhm sinh vin trng i hc M TP.HCM. Nghin cu

    cho s ngi thng mua qun o, giy dp, ph kin thi trang qua mng c s ln

    mua sm trc tuyn nhiu hn nhng hng ha khc ( sch, hng in t, gia dng,

    v,v..). Nghin cu cng ch ra mt s yu t nh hng n xu hng mua hng qua

    mng ca sinh vin thnh ph HCM nh yu t v s tin tng v hng ha trn mng,

    tnh thoi mi, gi c, kh nng chn la hng ha, kh nng p ng trang web...

    Nghin cu v Nhn thc ri ro tc ng n nh mua sm trc tuyn ca

    khch hng ca TS. Bi Thanh Trng, Trng i hc Kinh t TP.HCM. Kt qu

    nghin cu ch ra nhn thc ri ro tc ng nghch chiu n nh mua sm trc

    tuyn ca khch hng bao gm 4 nhn t theo th t t ln n nh: (1) Ri ro ti

    chnh, (2) ri ro sn phm, (3) ri ro bo mt thng tin, v (4) ri ro v s gian ln ca

    ngi bn.

    Trn y l nhng nghin cu chnh m chng em s dng xy dng m

    hnh nghin cu ca nhm, cng nh k tha mt s kt qu c sn lm cho

    nghin cu ca chng em ng tin cy hn.

    T nhng nghin cu ny v nhng thng tin nhm thu thp, phn tch c,

    nhm la chn s dng 5 nhn t c lp l : tin li; Chng loi, mu m; tin

    tng; Gi v Khuyn mi tin hnh thu thp, phn tch s tc ng ti xu hng

    mua sm trc tuyn.

  • 10

    CHNG 2: THC TRNG V GII PHP CA VN NGHIN CU

    2.2. Tng quan v th trng thng mi in t

    2.2.1. Cc khi nim v Thng mi in t

    Cho n hin ti c nhiu nh ngha khc nhau v thng mi in t. Cc

    nh ngha ny xem xt theo cc quan im, kha cnh khc nhau nh:

    Thng mi in t l tt c cc hnh thc giao dch c thc hin thng qua

    mng my tnh c lin quan n chuyn quyn s hu v sn phm hay dch v.

    Theo Din n i thoi xuyn i Ty Dng, thng mi in t l cc giao

    dch thng mi v hng ha, dch v c thc hin thng qua cc phng tin in

    t.

    nh ngha ca WTO, Thng mi in t bao gm vic sn xut, qung co,

    bn hng v phn phi sn phm c mua bn v thanh ton trn mng Internet,

    nhng c giao nhn c th hu hnh hoc giao nhn qua Internet di dng s ho.

    UN a ra nh ngha y nht cc nc c th tham kho lm chun,

    to c s xy dng chin lc ph hp: thng mi in t l vic thc hin ton b

    hot ng kinh doanh bao gm marketing, bn hng, phn phi v thanh ton thng

    qua cc phng tin in t.

    2.2.2. Th trng thng mi in t Vit Nam

    Nm 2006 c ngha c bit i vi thng mi in t Vit Nam, l nm

    u tin thng mi in t c php lut tha nhn chnh thc khi Lut Giao dch

    in t, Lut Thng mi (sa i), B lut Dn s (sa i) v Ngh nh

    Thng mi in t c hiu lc. Nm 2006 cng l nm u tin trin khai K

    hoch tng th pht trin thng mi in t giai on 2006-2010 theo

    Quyt nh s 222/2005/Q-TTg ngy 15 thng 9 nm 2005 ca Th tng Chnh

    ph.

    S pht trin ca thng mi in t gn cht vi thnh tu pht trin kinh t

    nhanh v n nh. Thng mi tip tc tng trng mnh m v l mt nhn t

    quan trng thc y tng trng kinh t. Tin trnh hi nhp kinh t quc t i hi

  • 11

    cc doanh nghip phi quan tm thc s n vic nng cao kh nng cnh

    tranh. Trong bi cnh , thng mi in t l mt cng c quan trng c

    nhiu doanh nghip quan tm ng dng.

    S quan tm ca doanh nghip i vi thng mi in t trc ht c th

    hin qua hot ng giao dch mua bn ti cc sn thng mi in t (e-

    Marketplace) si ng hn, dch v kinh doanh trc tuyn phong ph v doanh thu

    tng mnh. ng thi, s lng cc website doanh nghip, c bit l website mang

    tn min Vit Nam (.vn) tng nhanh, s lng cn b t cc doanh nghip tham

    gia cc kha o to k nng thng mi in t ln hn so vi nm trc. ng

    o doanh nghip nhn thy nhng li ch thit thc ca thng mi in t

    thng qua vic ct gim c chi ph giao dch, tm c nhiu bn hng

    mi t th trng trong nc v nc ngoi, s lng khch hng giao dch qua

    th in t nhiu hn. Nhiu doanh nghip k c hp ng vi cc i tc

    thng qua sn giao dch thng mi in t....