NGhiên cứu xử lý nước thải ngành in

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<p>Nghin cu x l nc thi ngnh in - o Th Hin - CNMT K49</p> <p>MC LCHnh I.1. S cng ngh in [5]................................................................................................5 Hnh I.2. Quy trnh in offset [11]................................................................................................6 Hnh II.1 : B aeroten thng thng.........................................................................................19 Hnh II.2. Mi quan h cng sinh gia to v vi sinh vt trong .............................................20 h hiu kh.................................................................................................................................20 Hnh III.1. Khi nim v lp in tch kp..............................................................................22 Hnh III.2. M t in th trn b mt ht keo.........................................................................22 Hnh III.5. C ch dnh bm [12].............................................................................................26 Hnh III.6. C ch kt ta qut [12].........................................................................................27 Bng III.1. Bng quan h gia h s K v nhit .................................................................28 Hnh III.7. Biu mi quan h gia t l cc hp cht ca nhm v pH [10]......................31 Hnh III.8. Mi tng quan gia c, liu lng cht keo t............................................33 (Al3+, Fe3+) c d [2]......................................................................................................33 Hnh III.9: S qu trnh bc cu ph v cn bng..............................................................37 h keo nh cc polymer [8]......................................................................................................37 Hnh IV.1: M hnh nghin cu th nghim Jartest..................................................................39 Bng IV.1. Kt qu xc nh nh hng ca pH.....................................................................40 th IV.1. Bin thin COD v hiu sut theo thay i pH...................................................41 th IV.2. Bin thin mu v hiu sut theo s thay i pH........................................41 Bng IV.2. Kt qu xc nh nh hng ca hm lng cht keo t......................................42 th IV.3. Bin thin COD v hiu sut theo ......................................................................43 th IV.4. Bin thin mu v hiu sut theo ...................................................................43 Bng IV.3. Kt qu xc nh nh hng ca hm lng cht tr keo....................................44 th IV.5. Bin thin COD v hiu sut theo ......................................................................45 th IV.6. Bin thin mu v hiu sut theo ...................................................................45 Bng IV.4: Kt qu xc nh nh hng ca pH.....................................................................46 th IV. 7. Bin thin COD v hiu sut theo s thay i pH.............................................47 th IV.8. Bin thin mu v hiu sut theo s thay i pH...........................................47 Bng IV.5. Kt qu xc nh nh hng ca hm lng cht keo t......................................48 th IV.9. Bin thin COD v hiu sut theo hm lng Al2(SO4)3..................................49 th IV.10. Bin thin mu v hiu sut theo .................................................................49 Bng IV.6 Xc nh nh hng ca pH...................................................................................50 th IV.11. Bin thin COD v hiu sut theo s thay i pH............................................51 th IV.12. Bin thin mu v hiu sut theo s thay i pH.........................................51 Bng IV.7. Xc nh nh hng ca cht keo t.....................................................................52 th IV.13. Bin thin COD v hiu sut theo ....................................................................53 th IV.14. Bin thin mu v hiu sut theo .................................................................53 Bng IV.8. Quan h gia cc yu t, h s v s th nghim .................................................57 Bng IV.9. c trng ch yu ca ma trn quy hoch quay...................................................57 Bng IV.10. Ma trn quy hoch quay vi ba yu t................................................................59 Bng IV.11. Gi tr cc h s a.................................................................................................59 Bng IV.12 . Cc bin s c lp v mc m ha...................................................................62 Bng IV.13. Ma trn quy hoch 23 v kt qu thc nghim...................................................62 Bng IV.14. Ma trn quy hoch thc nghim quay bc hai, ba yu t...................................64 Bng IV.15. Gi tr cc h s ca hm mc tiu trong thc nghim.......................................65 Bng IV.16. Gi tr cc phng sai ca hm mc tiu............................................................65</p> <p>Vin Khoa hc v Cng ngh Mi trng (INEST) HBKHN - Tel: (84.4) 8681686 Fax: (84.4) 8693551</p> <p>i</p> <p>Nghin cu x l nc thi ngnh in - o Th Hin - CNMT K49</p> <p>DANH MC CC BNGBng III.1. Bng quan h gia h s K v nhit .................................................................28 Bng IV.1. Kt qu xc nh nh hng ca pH.....................................................................40 Bng IV.2. Kt qu xc nh nh hng ca hm lng cht keo t......................................42 Bng IV.3. Kt qu xc nh nh hng ca hm lng cht tr keo....................................44 Bng IV.4: Kt qu xc nh nh hng ca pH.....................................................................46 Bng IV.5. Kt qu xc nh nh hng ca hm lng cht keo t......................................48 Bng IV.6 Xc nh nh hng ca pH...................................................................................50 Bng IV.7. Xc nh nh hng ca cht keo t.....................................................................52 Bng IV.8. Quan h gia cc yu t, h s v s th nghim .................................................57 Bng IV.9. c trng ch yu ca ma trn quy hoch quay...................................................57 Bng IV.10. Ma trn quy hoch quay vi ba yu t................................................................59 Bng IV.11. Gi tr cc h s a.................................................................................................59 Bng IV.12 . Cc bin s c lp v mc m ha...................................................................62 Bng IV.13. Ma trn quy hoch 23 v kt qu thc nghim...................................................62 Bng IV.14. Ma trn quy hoch thc nghim quay bc hai, ba yu t...................................64 Bng IV.15. Gi tr cc h s ca hm mc tiu trong thc nghim.......................................65 Bng IV.16. Gi tr cc phng sai ca hm mc tiu............................................................65</p> <p>Vin Khoa hc v Cng ngh Mi trng (INEST) HBKHN - Tel: (84.4) 8681686 Fax: (84.4) 8693551</p> <p>ii</p> <p>Nghin cu x l nc thi ngnh in - o Th Hin - CNMT K49</p> <p>DANH MC CC HNH V, THHnh I.1. S cng ngh in [5]................................................................................................5 Hnh I.2. Quy trnh in offset [11]................................................................................................6 Hnh II.1 : B aeroten thng thng.........................................................................................19 Hnh II.2. Mi quan h cng sinh gia to v vi sinh vt trong .............................................20 h hiu kh.................................................................................................................................20 Hnh III.1. Khi nim v lp in tch kp..............................................................................22 Hnh III.2. M t in th trn b mt ht keo.........................................................................22 Hnh III.5. C ch dnh bm [12].............................................................................................26 Hnh III.6. C ch kt ta qut [12].........................................................................................27 Hnh III.7. Biu mi quan h gia t l cc hp cht ca nhm v pH [10]......................31 Hnh III.8. Mi tng quan gia c, liu lng cht keo t............................................33 (Al3+, Fe3+) c d [2]......................................................................................................33 Hnh III.9: S qu trnh bc cu ph v cn bng..............................................................37 h keo nh cc polymer [8]......................................................................................................37 Hnh IV.1: M hnh nghin cu th nghim Jartest..................................................................39 th IV.1. Bin thin COD v hiu sut theo thay i pH...................................................41 th IV.2. Bin thin mu v hiu sut theo s thay i pH........................................41 th IV.3. Bin thin COD v hiu sut theo ......................................................................43 th IV.4. Bin thin mu v hiu sut theo ...................................................................43 th IV.5. Bin thin COD v hiu sut theo ......................................................................45 th IV.6. Bin thin mu v hiu sut theo ...................................................................45 th IV. 7. Bin thin COD v hiu sut theo s thay i pH.............................................47 th IV.8. Bin thin mu v hiu sut theo s thay i pH...........................................47 th IV.9. Bin thin COD v hiu sut theo hm lng Al2(SO4)3..................................49 th IV.10. Bin thin mu v hiu sut theo .................................................................49 th IV.11. Bin thin COD v hiu sut theo s thay i pH............................................51 th IV.12. Bin thin mu v hiu sut theo s thay i pH.........................................51 th IV.13. Bin thin COD v hiu sut theo ....................................................................53 th IV.14. Bin thin mu v hiu sut theo .................................................................53</p> <p>Vin Khoa hc v Cng ngh Mi trng (INEST) HBKHN - Tel: (84.4) 8681686 Fax: (84.4) 8693551</p> <p>iii</p> <p>M UCng vi s pht trin ca khoa hc k thut cng chnh l nhng bc pht trin vt bc ca cc ngnh cng nghip c v quy m v cng ngh. i km theo l nhng tc ng tiu cc ca n i vi mi trng. c bit l nhim ngun nc. Ngnh in l mt ngnh xut hin rt sm trn th gii (xut hin u tin Trung Quc v th k VI). Vit Nam, n l mt ngnh trc tip sn xut v pht trin mnh trong nhng nm gn y vi hng trm c s in cng nghip trong c nc. Ngnh in tuy khng thi ra mi trng lng ln nc thi nhng nc thi ca n cha nhiu tc nhn gy nhim, cc cht c hi gy nhim ngun nc v cc loi sinh vt thu sinh. c trng nc thi ngnh in l c mu cao, cha nhiu du m, cc cht l lng kh tan trong nc, cc dung mi hu c v c th cha c kim loi v cc cht hu c, v c rt c. D o vn nc thi ngnh in cng l vn rt cn c quan tm. T nhng c s , ti: Nghin cu kh nng x l nc thi ngnh in bng phng php keo t c tin hnh nhm tm ra gii php gim thiu mu, COD ca nc thi in gim thiu nh hng n con ngi, mi trng. Em xin chn thnh cm n s hng dn tn tnh ca PGS.TS Nguyn Ngc Ln, v ca Ths Th Tuyt Loan gip em hon thnh n ny.</p> <p>CHNG I</p> <p>TNG QUAN V NGNH INI.1. Gii thiu chung v ngnh inCng nghip in c t lu i v ngy nay vn gi vai tr quan trng trong vic gp phn pht trin vn ha c ca x hi. Ngy nay, tuy cc phng tin truyn t thng tin, vn ha ngy cng a dng nh internet, TV, bo giy, nhng cc sn phm in nh bo, tin,vn chim v tr quan trng. cnh tranh tt th sn phm ny cng cn phi bn, p v c hnh thc v ni dung. iu i hi cng ngh in cn ci tin ngy cng hon thin. Trn th gii hin nay p dng rt nhiu cng ngh in khc nhau nh: cng ngh in flexo, cng ngh in ng ng, cng ngh in offset Cng ngh in trong nhng nm qua pht trin rt mnh, hin i, tin tin v lun thay i lm cho mi trng lao ng ca chng ta cng thay i lin tc. Tiu biu cho s pht trin mnh l vic ci tin thit b v cng ngh t vic trc kia chng ta in bng cc ch c bng ch c sp xp li vi nhau thnh bn in n nay bn in c thay bng bn in ca cng ngh in offset, tip ti trong tng lai cng ngh in ng ng v cng ngh in flexo s c p dng rng ri v ph bin. Hai cng ngh trn s c p dng rng ri v bn in c ch to r, bn, cht lng hnh nh p v sn lng in ln. Bn cnh vic thay i cng ngh th vic ci tin cc thit b cng t nhng thnh tu ln nh h thng cng ngh Computer to plate (my tnh trc tip sn xut ra bn in, b qua khu trung gian t phim ra bn) v cng ngh Computer to print (my tnh iu khin my in to ra sn phm in m khng cn ch ra bn in). Vi loi thit b ny, cc cng on ghi phim, hin bn c loi b hoc c lm mt cch t ng, con ngi phi iu khin chng thng qua mn hnh my tnh ch khng phi trc tip thao tc, tc ng nh trc y na. Bn cnh thit b ny cng hn ch c cc sai hng, hn ch c s lng nhn cng tham gia sn xut, hn ch c cc nh hng tiu cc ca ho cht n mi trng v sc kho ca con ngi. i vi khu vc ng Nam ni chung v Vit Nam ni ring do hn ch ca nn kinh t nn chng ta cha c iu kin u t cc loi thit b tin tin ng b nh cc nc pht trin khc m nc ta ch mi u t c mc bn t ng. Cng ngh ch yu c nc ta p dng l cng ngh in offset, bn cnh cng p dng cng ngh in flexo cng ngh in ng ng nhng mc hn ch. Vi cc thit b mc trung bnh th cc cng on ch yu cha c t ng ho m phn ln u do ngi cng nhn tc ng trc tip v cc loi vt liu th cha c quan tm ci thin nhiu lm, vn dng cc loi ho cht m mt s rt c hi v mt s</p> <p>th tng i c hi. Cng on hin bn v ra phim l cng on m ngi cng nhn phi tip xc vi nhiu ho cht th vn cha c ci tin. ng thi do kinh ph cn eo hp, nn vic quan tm ti mi trng trong nh my cn cha c coi trng v u t thch ng. Do tc ng v nh hng ca mi trng ti sc kho ca ngi lao ng l rt ln.</p> <p>I.2. Cng ngh inHin nay c rt nhiu cng ngh in hin i v khc nhau. V nguyn tc, quy trnh in c bn tri qua ba cng on [11]: I.2.1. Cng on chun b Giy c d ti cho vo khay ng giy. Giy nn nhy nhit c lp mt ln vo my theo v tr c nh, nh h thng l, c b phn ct t ng v bn t ng, nn ta c th ct 1 on giy nn nhy nhit ban u to phng v vung gc cho t giy nn u tin ri t mi ln lnh cho b phn ch bn lm vic, ta c mt bn nn in gn trc tip vo my in, b phn ct nn t ng ct vi chiu di bng chu vi m ng ca qu l. Khi t nn cui cng cn li, my s t ng bo ht cun nn in v tin hnh lp cun khc vo, c nh vy vn hnh tip tc chu trnh lp li. Mc in c lp vo v tr cp mc nh h thng bm khi mc t mt ngng nht nh no th my mi hot ng in sn lng nh h thng tn hiu cnh bo v ra lnh cho c cu chp hnh m kho bm mc hot ng. I.2.2. Cng on ch bn in Bn mu (Makt) c t ln mt tm knh nh my Fotocopy. Nh h thng quang hc m nhng tn hiu quang t cc phn t in bin thnh tn hiu in qua b vi s l. Nhng tn hiu in ny, bin thnh nhit nng u nhit, t lp ph nha do trn b mt t giy nn bn in nhng ch l phn t in, l ra h thng vi l t cc phn t in, cho mc chui qua, to ra cc phn t in trn vt liu in khi c p in, cn cc phn t khng in th khng b t chy. Cng on ch bn in c th kt ni c vi my tnh iu khin qu trnh ch bn, ang dn tng bc hin i ho cng on ny. Khu ch bn ny l rt quan trng, n quyt nh n cht lng sn phm rt ln v n iu chnh h thng vi l xp trn b mt t...</p>

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