Nhung Khai Niem Chung Ve Truyen Khoi

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truyen khoi

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<p>Slide 1</p> <p>Mn hcQU TRNH THITB TRUYN KHI</p> <p>GII THIU MN HCCHNG I: NHNGKHINIM CHUNG V TRUYN KHI CHNG II: HP THCHNG III. HP PH CHNG IV. CHNG CT CHNG V. TRCH LY CHNG VI. SY</p> <p>MC TIU MN HC</p> <p> Trnh by c nh ngha v phnloi c cc qu trnh truyn khi. Trnh by cc biu din thnh phnpha Trnh by c qu trnh khuch tn, ng lc khuch tn. Lm cc bi tp lin quan nchng.</p> <p>Chng 1: Nhng Kin Thc CBn Ca Qu Trnh Truyn KhiI. nh ngha v phn loi cc qu trnhtruyn khiII. Cc biu din thnh phn phaIII. Cn bng phaIV. Qu trnh khuch tnV. ng lc khuch tnVI. Phng php tnh thit b truynkhi</p> <p>I. nh Ngha &amp; Phn Loi1. nh ngha:Qu trnh di chuyn vt cht t pha ny sang pha khc khi hai pha tip xctrc tip vi nhau gi l qu trnh truyn khi hay qu trnh khuch tn.</p> <p>I. nh Ngha &amp; Phn Loi2. Phn loi:</p> <p>Hp thuChngHp phTrch ly</p> <p>Kt tinhSyHa tanTrao i ion</p> <p>II. Cc Biu Din Thnh Phn Pha 1.Cc loi nng thnh phn</p> <p>a. Thnh phn phn mol (x,y)b. Thnh phn phn khi lng (yc. Thnh phn t s mol (X,Y)</p> <p>, x)</p> <p>d. Thnh phn t s khi lng (Y , X)e. Nng mol (Gy , Lx)</p> <p>f. Nng khi lng Gy</p> <p>, Lx</p> <p>II. Cc Biu Din Thnh Phn PhaGiG, L : sut lng mol ca pha y (pha kh), pha x (pha lng), ,kmol/hGi , Li sut lng mol ca cu t ang xt trong pha y, pha x, kmol/hy, x :nng phn mol ca cu t ang xt trong pha y, pha x Y, X : nng t s mol ca cu t ang xt trong pha y, pha x Vx, VY : lu lng th tch pha x, pha y, m3/h</p> <p>II. Cc Biu Din Thnh Phn Pha</p> <p>G , L : sut lng k/lng ca pha y (pha kh), pha x (pha lng), ,kg/h</p> <p>G:i</p> <p>, Li</p> <p>:sut lng k/lng ca cu t ang xt trong pha y, pha x</p> <p>kmol/h</p> <p>y, x</p> <p>: nng phn k/lng ca cu t ang xt trong pha y,</p> <p>pha x</p> <p>Y , X</p> <p>: nng t s k/lng ca cu t ang xt trong pha y,</p> <p>pha xi: cu t bt kz ca hn hp</p> <p>II. Cc Biu Din Thnh Phn Pha</p> <p>Thnh phn khi lng</p> <p>x Li</p> <p>yGi</p> <p>XLi</p> <p>YGi</p> <p>Thnh phn phn molLGixiy LGLGNng t s molXLiYGiL LiG GiNng t s khi lng L LiG GiNng molLGCx iCiVyVxyNng khi lngLiGCCixVyVxy</p> <p>II. Cc Biu Din Thnh Phn Pha</p> <p>2. Quan h gia cc nng thnh phn pha</p> <p>II. Cc Biu Din Thnh Phn Pha2. Quan h gia cc nng thnh phn pha</p> <p>II. Cc Biu Din Thnh Phn Pha</p> <p>2. Quan h gia cc nng thnh phn pha</p> <p>II. Cc Biu Din Thnh Phn Pha</p> <p>2. Quan h gia cc nng thnh phn pha</p> <p>x Cxy CyC xxxM (1 x)MABC yyyM (1 y)MAB</p> <p>x Cxy CyC xM A yxM (1 x)MABC yM A yyM (1 y)MAB</p> <p>II. Cc Biu Din Thnh Phn Pha BI TPBi 1. Hn hp dung dch bao gm Etanol v nc, trong etanol chim 30% th tch, nhit lm vic 20 C. Xc nh:a. Thnh phn phn khi lng.b. Thnh phn t s molc. Thnh phn t s khi lngd. Nng mole. Nng khi lng</p> <p>II. Cc Biu Din Thnh Phn Pha BI TPTa c: Thnh phn thnh phn mol:</p> <p>XC2 H5OH</p> <p>= 0.3</p> <p>a, Thnh phn phn khi lng:</p> <p>x x * Me tan ol</p> <p>x * Me tan ol</p> <p> (1</p> <p>x)Mnuoc</p> <p>0.3* 460.3* 46 (1 0.3)18</p> <p> 0.523kg / kg</p> <p>II. Cc Biu Din Thnh Phn Pha BI TPb, Thnh phn t s mol</p> <p>X x1 x</p> <p>0.31 0.3</p> <p> 0.43mol /</p> <p>mol</p> <p>c, Thnh phn t s khi lng</p> <p>X x * Me tan ol</p> <p> 0.3* 46</p> <p> 1.1kg / kg</p> <p>(1</p> <p>x)Mnuoc</p> <p>0.7 *18</p> <p>II. Cc Biu Din Thnh Phn Pha BI TPd, Nng mol:</p> <p>T nhit 200 C</p> <p>tra bng ta c:</p> <p>e tan ol</p> <p> 789kg / m3</p> <p>nuoc </p> <p>998kg / m3</p> <p>1x</p> <p> 1 x</p> <p>924kg / m3</p> <p>Cx</p> <p>e tan ol</p> <p>nuocx</p> <p> 10.7kmol / m3</p> <p>xM e tan ol</p> <p> (1</p> <p>x)Mnuoc</p> <p>II. Cc Biu Din Thnh Phn Pha BI TPe, Nng khi lng</p> <p>Cx</p> <p>xM e tan ol </p> <p> 492,4kmol / m3</p> <p>xM e tan ol</p> <p> (1</p> <p>x)Mnuoc</p> <p>II. Cc Biu Din Thnh Phn Pha BI TP2. Chn n v ng ng vi loi thnh phnphn mola. kmol CO2 / kmol hn hp khb. mol CO2 / mol ncc. kg NaOH / kg hn hpd. kg NaOH / kg nc</p> <p>II. Cc Biu Din Thnh Phn Pha BI TPBi 3 (BTVN)Mt hn hp Etanol - Nc, trong t s gia s mol Etanol trn s mol Nc bng 52%. Xc nh t s khi lng, nng phn mol, nng khi lng ca Etanol trong hn hp.Ly kt qu t s khi lng, xc nh nng phn khi lng v t s mol, nng phn mol, ca etanol trong hn hp (xem nh d liu trn cha c).</p> <p>III. Cn Bng Pha 1.3.1. Khi nim v cn bng pha:</p> <p>PhaxPha y</p> <p>y M</p> <p>x My</p> <p>x</p> <p>III. Cn Bng Pha</p> <p>AMMONIAC + KHNG KH</p> <p>- Gi:x ,yln lt l pha lng v pha kh-x ,y l nng ca ammoniac trong pha lng v pha kh</p> <p>-vt , vn</p> <p>l vn tc</p> <p>NHIT V P SUT KHNG I</p> <p>NC</p> <p>ca pha kh volng, v ca lng vo khBan u, x = 0, y&gt;0</p> <p>III. Cn Bng Pha</p> <p>AMMONIAC+ KHNG KH</p> <p>Qa trnh truynkhi xy ra</p> <p> vt vn</p> <p>NHIT V P SUT KHNG I</p> <p>NC +AMMONIAC</p> <p>- y gim dn, x tng dn</p> <p>III. Cn Bng Pha</p> <p>Qa trnh cn bng ng</p> <p>AMMONIAC+ KHNG KH</p> <p>vt</p> <p> vn</p> <p>y ycbx xcb</p> <p>NHIT V P SUT KHNG I</p> <p>NC +AMMONIAC</p> <p>Ti trng thi cn bng pha, qu trnh di chuyn vt cht gia hai pha l bng nhau</p> <p>III. Cn Bng Pha 1.3.1. Khi nim v cn bng pha: Ti mi iu kin xc nh s tn ti mt mi quan h cn bng gia nng ca cu t trong hai pha v c biu din bng ng cn bng Khi cn bng th s khuch tn tng cng ca haipha bng 0 Khi cha cn bng, s xy ra qu trnh khuch tn ca cu t gia hai pha a h v trng thi cn bng Gii hn ca qu trnh truyn khi l khi h ttrng thi cn bng</p> <p>III. Cn Bng Pha</p> <p>Chiu khuch tn ca cu t s tun theo quy lut:</p> <p> Nu nh y &lt; ycb </p> <p> Nu nh y &gt; ycb </p> <p>vt cht chuyn t pha x vo pha yvt cht chuyn t pha y vopha </p> <p>xCht phn b s i vo pha no cnng lm vic thp hn nng cn bng</p> <p>III. Cn Bng PhaBi 1: Trng hp no sau y vt chtch yu chuyn t pha x sang pha y?</p> <p>a. x &lt; xcbb. x = xcbc. x &gt; xcbd.Khng xc nh</p> <p>III. Cn Bng Pha 1.3.2.Quy tc phaQuy tc pha cho php xc nh c th thay i baonhiu yu t m cn bng khng b ph hy.C = k -+ n Trong :C: bc t do: s pha trong hk: s cu t c lp trong hn: s yu t nh hng n cn bng ca h</p> <p>1.3. Cn Bng Pha1.3.3. Cc nh lut v cn bng pha</p> <p> nh lut Henry: i vi dung dch l tng p sut ring phn p ca kh trn cht lng t l vi phn mol x ca n trong dung dchp = H.x</p> <p>H l hng s Herry, c n v l p sut, phthuc vo tnh cht ca kh, lng, nhit </p> <p>1.3. Cn Bng Pha1.3.3. Cc nh lut v cn bng pha</p> <p> nh lut Raoult: p sut ring phn ca mtcu t trn dung dch bng p sut hi bo ha ca cu t ( cng nhit ) nhn vi nng phn mol ca cu t trong dung dchp = Pbhi.x</p> <p>III. Cn Bng Pha trng thi cn bng, ta c: nh lut Henry: nh lut Raoult:p* = Po.x Theo Clapeyron v Dalton, ta c:p* = P.y* Phng trnh cn bng: y*=(H/P)x y*=(Po/P)x</p> <p>III. BI TP1. Mt dung dch l tng tun theo nh lut Henry c hng s Henry l 950 mmHg, p sut lm vic ca h 860 mmHg, nng pha lng bng 0,28 phn mol. Xc nh nng cn bng ca pha kh.Ta c:H = 950 mmHg = 1.25 atm P=860 mmHg = 1.13atm x= 0.28mol/mol Nng cn bng pha kh: ycb</p> <p>III. BI TPThng qua phng trnh ng cn bng ta c nng cn bng ca pha kh.</p> <p>y =(H/P)x= (1.25/1.13)0.28= 0.31 mol/mol</p> <p>III. BI TP2(BTVN). Mt dung dch l tng tun theo nh lut Raoult c p sut hi bo ha bng 680 mmHg, p sut lm vic ca h 735mmHg. Xc nh nng cn bng ca pha kh khi nng pha lng bng 0,33 phn mol.Ta c:</p> <p>pbh</p> <p>= 680 mmHg = 0.89 atm</p> <p>P = 735 mm Hg = 0.97 atmx = 0.33 mol/mol</p> <p>III. BI TPThng qua phng trnh ng cn bng ta cnng cn bng ca pha kh.</p> <p>ycb</p> <p>pbh P</p> <p>x 0.890.97</p> <p>0.33 </p> <p>0.3mol</p> <p>/ mol</p> <p>IV. Qu Trnh Khuch Tn1. Khuch tn phn t Xy ra trong lp mng ch chuynng dng ng lc l chnh lch nng gia hai b mt tip xc. Khuch tn t ni nng cao n ni nng thp trong lp mng Xy ra rt chm.-Phthucvobmt,thigian,nng </p> <p>IV. Qu Trnh Khuch Tn2. Khuch tn i lu Xy ra trong nhn pha ch chuynng xoy Xy ra l nh s xo trn ca cc phn ttrong dngng lc ca qu trnh khuch tn i lu l s chnh lch nng trong nhn v nng b mt tip xc.Khuch tn phn t quyt nh tc cho c qutrnh khuch tn</p> <p>IV. Qu Trnh Khuch TnBTVNQu trnh truyn khi xuyn pha l g?</p> <p>V. ng Lc Khuch TnNu tnh theo pha yy = y* yhayy = y y*Nu tnh theo pha xx = x* xhayx = x x*</p> <p>V. ng Lc Khuch Tn 1.Phng trnh truyn khi</p> <p>Vn tc ca mt qu trnh no cng t l thun vi ng lc v t l nghch vi tr lc.Trong qu trnh truyn khi ng lc l hiu s nng v tr lc l s cn tr cht khuch tn chuyn ng qua lu th</p> <p> Phng trnh truyn khi:</p> <p>G ky F ytb</p> <p> kx F xtb</p> <p>Trong : G: lu lng mol ca cu t truyn t phany sang pha kia kmol/h ???? ky, kx: h s truyn khi tnh theo nng pha kh v pha lng mol/s.m2 (n v ng lc)</p> <p>ytb , xtb</p> <p>: ng lc trung bnh ca qu trnh</p> <p>F: b mt tip xc pha, m2: thi gian truyn khi</p> <p>2.ng lc trung bnh- ng lc ca qu trnh thay i t u n cui nn khi tnh ton phi dng ng lc trung bnh.-Khi ng cn bng l ng cong th tnh theo ng lc trung bnh tchphn.</p> <p>y</p> <p>yd yc</p> <p>tbyddy</p> <p> y yc</p> <p>ycb</p> <p>2.ng lc trung bnh- Khi ng cn bng l ng thng</p> <p>tbth tnh theo ng lc trung bnh logarit.</p> <p>y</p> <p>yc yd</p> <p>y</p> <p>yc yd</p> <p>tb2,3lg</p> <p> ycyd</p> <p>ln ycyd</p> <p>2.ng lc trung bnhBI TP1. Qu trnh truyn khi ngc chiu c ng lm vic l ng thng y=0,35.x+0,6; nng phn mol ca dng lng vo v ra khi thit b ln lt l: 0,1mol/mol v 0,6mol/mol. Xc nh ng lc trung bnh ca qu trnh truyn khi theo pha kh, bit phng trnh ng cn bng y=1,1.x.</p> <p>2.ng lc trung bnhBI TPTa c:Phng trnh ng lm vic: y=0,35.x+0,6Phng trnh ng cn bng: y=1,1.x</p> <p>xd= 0.1 mol/molxc= 0.6 mol/mol</p> <p> Tnh ng lc trung bnh ca qu trnh</p> <p>truyn khi</p> <p>ytb</p> <p>ytb</p> <p> ycln yd ycyd</p> <p>2.ng lc trung bnhBI TPV y l qu trnh truyn khi ngc chiu nnTh</p> <p>vhvxdo pxcng trnh lm vic ta c:</p> <p>yd=0,35* xc</p> <p>+0,6</p> <p>= 0.35*0.6 +0.6= 0.81 mol/molyc=0,35* xd +0,6= 0.35*0.1 +0.6= 0.635 mol/mol</p> <p>2.ng lc trung bnhBI TPThvvo phng trnh cn bng ta c nngxdxc pha hi cn bng:</p> <p>*yd 1,1.xc</p> <p>*yc 1,1.xd</p> <p> 1.1* 0.6 1.1* 0.1 </p> <p>0.660.11</p> <p>ng lc truyn khi:</p> <p>yd</p> <p>yd</p> <p>y*d</p> <p> 0.81 0.66</p> <p> 0.15mol</p> <p>/ mol</p> <p>yc</p> <p>yc </p> <p>y*c</p> <p> 0.635 0.11</p> <p> 0.525mol</p> <p>/ mol</p> <p>2.ng lc trung bnhBI TPV ng cn bng l ng thng nn ng lc trung bnh ca qu trnh truyn khi tnh theo cng thc:</p> <p>ytb</p> <p> yc yd</p> <p> 0.525 0.15</p> <p>ln ycyd</p> <p>ln 0.5250.15</p> <p>2.ng lc trung bnhBI TP 2 (BTVN)</p> <p>Mt qu trnh truyn khi ngc chiu c ng lm vic l ng thng y=0,4.x+0,1; nng cn bng ca pha kh ti u vo v u ra ca thit b tnh theo phn mol ln lt l: 0,41mol/mol v 0,86mol/mol. Xc nh ng lc trung bnh ca qu trnh truyn khi theo pha lng, bit phng trnh ng cn bng y=1,1.x.</p> <p>VI. Phng Php Tnh TBTK1. Tnh ng knh</p> <p>D V0,785w0</p> <p>Trong , V, 0</p> <p>l lu lng th tch (m3/s) v vn tc</p> <p>trung bnh (m/s) ca pha lin tnh trn ton b tit dinthit b.Thng thng trong cc qu trnh truyn khi th pha kh l pha lin tc. Ngoi ra, nhng qu trnh khng c pha kh th pha lng c xem l pha lin tc.</p> <p>Lphnchiucaolmvicca thp, kch thc phn trn v di ty thuc nhng b phn c lp .</p> <p>2.Tnh chiu cao</p> <p>2.1.Tnhchiucaotheophng trnh truyn khi</p> <p> nng Bc thay i nng ng trn th x-y l mt khong th tch no ca thit b trong tin hnh qu trnh truyn cht sao cho nng ca cu t phn b khi ra khi th tch bng nng i vo th tch ny</p> <p>2.2. Tnh chiu cao theo bc thay i</p> <p> S bc thay i nng gi l s mm l thuyt (hay cn gi l s a l thuyt) c xc nh bng phng php th. Trc ht phi xc nh bng ng cn bngv ng lm vic . Xc nh bc l thuyt:Trong l h s hiu chnh thng ly t 0.2 n 0.9</p> <p>2.2. Tnh chiu cao theo bc thay i nng </p> <p> Chiu cao thit b c xc nh nh sau: i vi thp mm:</p> <p> i vi thp m:</p> <p>h: Khong cch gia haimm</p> <p>H h0 :</p> <p>ho .Nt , mChiu cao tng ng vi bcthayi nng </p> <p>CUHI N TP1. Truyn khi l g?Yu t no quyt nh n tc truyn khi?ng lc ca qu trnh truyn khi l g? Khi qu trnh truyn khi xy ra , ng lc ca qu trnh truyn khi s xy ra nh th no?o2. Khuch tn i lu l g? ng lc ca qu trnhkhuch tn i lu l g?3. Khuch tn phn t l g? ng lc ca qu trnh khuch tn phn t l g?Cc yu t nh hng n qu trnh khuch tn phn t?</p> <p>CUHI N TP- Qu trnh khuch tn no xy ra trong qu trnhtruyn khi rt nhanh. Qu trnh khuch tn no quyt nh tc qu trnh truyn khi?4. Hy cho bit chiu khuch tn ca qu trnh truyn khi: hp thu, chng, trch ly lng-lng, trch ly lng rn, hp ph. syo?5. Cc biu din thnh phn pha?6. Gi x, y l nng lm vic trong pha x, y. Trong trng hp no, vt cht di chuyn t pha x sang pha y? Trng hp no vt cht di chuyn t pha y sang pha x? (x* v y* l nng cn bng trong pha x v y).</p> <p>CUHI N TP7. Trong cng thc tnh ng knh thit b truyn khi, lu lng s dng l lu lng ca pha no?8. Biu thc ca nh lut Henry?Hng s Henry ph thuc vo yu t no? Biu thc ca nh lut Raoult?(ghi r n v tnh)9. Ti trng thi cn bng pha, nng cu t trong hai pha c c im g? Qu trnh khuch tn xy ra nh th no?10. Cch xc nh s mm l thuyt trong tnh chiucao thit b theo s bc thay i nng ?</p>