phân phối cocacola

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<p>MC LC</p> <p>I . LI M U II.PHN TCH HOT NG PHN PHI CA CNG TY COCACOLA 2.1 Gii thiu chung v cng ty 2.2 c im hot ng phn phi Vit Nam 2.2.1 Thnh vin knh 2.2.2 Mi lin kt gia cc trung gian 2.2.3 Cc ch tiu nh gi v la chn thnh vin knh 2.3 c im mi trng Marketing Vit Nam nh hng n nhng quyt nh v hot ng phn phi Vit Nam 2.3.1 Mi trng kinh t 2.3.2 Mi trng chnh tr, thng mi 2.3.3 Mi trng lut php 2.3.4 Mi trng vn ha III KT LUN</p> <p>1</p> <p>I . LI M U</p> <p>Phn phi l mt bin s quan trng ca Marketing hn hp. Bn cht hot ng phn phi gii quyt vn hng ha, dch v dc a nh th no n ngi tiu dung .Ngi ta v nu doanh nghip ging nh thn cy, th h thng phn phi l b r nui sng v pht trin doanh nghip. iu ny cho thy vic duy tr v pht trin h thng phn phi sao cho hiu qu l vn ct li khng th thiu c i vi bt c mt cng ty no .Tm quan trng chin lc ca n khng th khng c bit n v nhng nguyn nhn sau. Th nht, h thng phn phi l mi lin kt gia mt cng ty v khch hng ca n. Khng th bc b c rng d sn phm c c sn xut ra, c c xc nh gi, hay cc chng trnh xc tin vn khng th n c tay ngi tiu dng cui cng nu khng c h thng phn phi. Th hai, h thng phn phi tiu tn rt nhiu thi gian v u t vn xy dng n v vic bin i n th khng h nhanh chng v d dng. Nu cc bin s khc trong Markting nh sn phm, gi, cc chng trnh xc tin c th thay i nhanh chng v d dng th iu ngc li c thy h thng phn phi. C th v h thng phn phi ging nh nhng tin ng gi vai tr quyt nh trn con ng chinh phc th trng ca doanh nghip. Tuy nhin, mun xy dng mt mng li tin n mnh th nht thit phi c phng php, va mang tnh khoa hc, va i hi c mt ngh thut kho lo v sng to. Con ng a sn phm n khch hng v ngi tiu dng ch thnh cng khi no n tr thnh mt chin lc lu di ca cng ty ch khng phi hot ng n c ca i ng bn hng. Cc quyt nh v phn phi rt phc tp v c nh hng n cc lnh vc khc trong Marketing. Th ba, h thng phn phi v cu trc ca n quyt nh loi loi phn on th trng cng ty c th tip cn, v mt phn cc chin lc Marketing cng ty c th t ra v thc hin, c bit trong tng lai gn. Th t, h thng phn phi c nh hng quan trng n kh nng pht trin th trng mi v m rng cc th trng c ca cng ty. Trong mi trng kinh doanh quc t hin nay, h thng phn phi ngy cng ng vai tr quan trng hn, ngy cng c nhiu doanh quan tm n phn phi, coi phn phi nh l bin s Marketing to li th cnh tranh di hn cho doanh nghip. Mt thc t chng minh rng hu ht cc cng ty pht trin trn th gii nh Coacola, P&amp; G, Unilever, Nokia, Nestle..u l nhng cng ty c h thng phn phi pht trin mnh m. V d nh h thng phn phi ca Cocacola khng ch M m tri rng trn khp 200 quc gia khc nhau trn th gii, Unilever s hu 500 cng ty ti 90 quc gia trn th gii.</p> <p>II. PHN TCH HOT NG PHN PHI CA CNG TY COCACOLA 2.1 Gii thiu chung v cng ty2</p> <p>Coca-Cola (cn c gi tt l Coke) l nhn hiu nc ngt c ng k nm 1893 ti M. Cha ca Coca Cola l mt dc s v theo cch hiu ca ngi dn M thi k Coke (Coca Cola) l mt loi thuc ung. Sau ny, khi mua li Coca Cola, Asa Candler - Nh lnh o ti ba bc nht ca Coca Cola bin chuyn suy ngh ca ngi dn nc M v hnh nh ca Coca Cola. ng cho nhng ngi tiu dng ca mnh hiu th "thuc ung" Coke l mt loi ung ngon lnh v ti mt. Cho n ngy nay, Coca Cola vn trung thnh vi tiu ch ny ca hng. Hnh dng chai Coca-Cola c ng k bo h nm 1960. Ci tn Coca-Cola xut pht t tn l coca v qu cola, hai thnh phn ca nc ngt CocaCola. Chnh iu ny lm Coca Cola c thi k khuynh o v ngi ta quy kt Asa Candler l ngi n ng gy nghin ca th gii. Cng ty Coca-Cola hin l cng ty nc gii kht ln nht th gii vi hn 450 thng hiu . Cng vi Coca-Cola - thng hiu c tha nhn l gi tr nht th gii nm 2010 vi gi tr thng hiu t 70,452 triu USD ( theo bnh chn ca Interbrand ). Danh mc vn u t ca cng ty cng bao gm 12 thng hiu khc tr gi hng t la l Diet Coke, Fanta, Sprite, Coca-Cola Zero, Vitaminwater, Pererade, Minute Maid v Georgia Coffee. Trn qui m ton cu, Coca-Cola l nh cung cp s 1 th gii v nc ung, nc p v cc ung lm t nc p, tr v c ph pha sn. Thng qua h thng phn phi nc gii kht ln nht th gii, mi ngy gn 2 t lt ngi thng thc cc loi nc gii kht ca Coca-Cola hn 200 quc gia. Vi cam kt lu di i vi vic xy dng cng ng lnh mnh, cng ty tp trung vo nhng sng kin gip bo v mi trng, bo tn ti nguyn v tng cng pht trin kinh t cng ng bt k ni no cng ty hot ng. Trn th gii, Coca-Cola hot ng ti 6 vng: Bc M ( Canada, M .) M Latinh ( Chile, Colombia, Peru, Paraquay, Ecuado, Brazil, Bolivia) Chu u ( Phn Lan, c, Php, Romani, Italy, Ireland, Hungary, B o Nha, Hi Lp.) Chu Thi Bnh Dng ( Malaysia, Nht Bn, Indonexia, Hong Kong, Phillipines, i Loan.) Trung ng ( Iraq, Kuwait, Oman, Syria ) Chu Phi ( Angola, Ai cp, Nigeria, Zimbabwe.)</p> <p>Lch s cng ty Coca Cola Vit Nam 1960: Ln u tin Coca-Cola c gii thiu ti Vit Nam. Thng 2 nm 1994: Coca-Cola tr li Vit Nam v bt u qu trnh kinh doanh lu di.3</p> <p>Thng 8 nm 1995: Lin Doanh u tin gia Coca-Cola ng Dng v cng ty Vinafimex c thnh lp, c tr s ti min Bc. Thng 9 nm 1995: Mt Lin Doanh tip theo ti min Nam mang tn Cng ty Nc Gii Kht Coca-Cola Chng Dng cng ra i do s lin kt gia Coca-Cola v cng ty Chng Dng ca Vit Nam. Thng 1 nm 1998: Thm mt lin doanh na xut hin ti min Trung - Coca-Cola Non Nc. l quyt nh lin doanh cui cng ca Coca-Cola ng Dng ti Vit Nam, c thc hin do s hp tc vi Cng ty Nc Gii Kht Nng. Thng 10 nm 1998: Chnh Ph Vit Nam cho php cc Cng ty Lin Doanh tr thnh Cng ty 100% vn u t nc ngoi. Cc Lin Doanh ca Coca-Cola ti Vit Nam ln lt thuc v quyn s hu hon ton ca Coca-Cola ng Dng, v s thay i ny c thc hin trc tin bi Cng ty Coca-Cola Chng Dng min Nam. Thng 3 n thng 8 nm 1999: Lin doanh ti Nng v H Ni cng chuyn sang hnh thc s hu tng t. Thng 6 nm 2001: Do s cho php ca Chnh ph Vit Nam, ba Cng ty Nc Gii Kht CocaCola ti ba min hp nht thnh mt v c chung s qun l ca Coca-Cola Vit Nam, t tr s ti Qun Th c Thnh Ph H Ch Minh. T ngy 1 thng 3 nm 2004: Coca-Cola Vit Nam c chuyn giao cho Sabco, mt trong nhng Tp on ng Chai danh ting ca Coca-Cola trn th gii. 2.2 c im hot ng phn phi Vit Nam 2.2.1 Thnh vin knh Cc loi knh marketing: Cc loi knh marketing thng dng nht c trnh by trong hnh 11.2</p> <p>4</p> <p>Hnh 11.2. Cc loi knh marketing Knh trc tip khng c trung gian, nh sn xut bn hng thng cho ngi tiu dng. C ba cch bn hng trc tip: Bn n tng nh, bn ti ca hng gii thiu sn phm v bn theo th hoc in thoi t hng Knh 1 cp ch c mt trung gian bn hng trong th trng hng tiu dng, l ngi bn l. Trong th trng hng cng nghip, l ngi mi gii hay i din bn hng. Knh 2 cp c 2 trung gian marketing. Trong th trng hng tiu dng, thng l nh bn s v bn l. Trong th trng k ngh th l b phn phn phi ca cng ty v cc nh bun. Knh 3 cp c 3 trung gian phn phi. Th d: Trong ngnh nc ngt, ru bia c th c thm tng i l hay i l bn bun-ngi bn s v ngi bn l. Cc thnh vin ca knh phn phi thc hin cc chc nng sau y: 1. iu nghin: Thu thp thng tin cn thit hoch nh chin lc v to thun li cho s trao i. 2. C ng: Trin khai v ph bin nhng thng tin c sc thuyt phc cao v nhng mn hng ang kinh doanh v cc sn phm mi. 3. Tip xc: Tm ra v thng tin c vi khch hng tng lai.5</p> <p>4. Phn chia, ng gi, phn loi hng ha. 5. Thng lng: C gng i ti tho thun v gi c v cc vn khc quanh mn hng m khch nh mua c th bn c. 6. Ti tr: Huy ng v phn chia tin bc thanh ton chi ph ca knh, cp tn dng cho khch hng. 7. Chu may ri: Chp nhn cc ri ro lin quan ti vic iu hnh hot ng ca knh. Cc chc nng trn c th thay i c gia cc thnh vin trong knh. Nu nh sn xut thc hin c cc chc nng ny th chi ph s tng v gi c s cao hn. Khi mt s chc nng c chuyn sang cho gii trung gian th chi ph v gi c ca nh sn xut s thp hn, nhng phi tnh thm chi ph cho nh trung gian. Vn ai phi thc hin mi chc nng trn ca knh, chnh l do nng sut v hiu qu quyt nh. 1)Nh sn xut : L thnh vin u tin ca knh phn phi chc nng sn xut v phn phi sn phm cho th trng, h phi m bo sn phm ph hp vi nhu cu th trng bao gm cc yu t ( gi, thi gian, a im, cht lng). Nh sn xut phi nh k nh gi hot ng ca ngi trung gian theo nhng tiu chun nh nh mc doanh s t c, mc lu kho trung bnh, thi gian giao hng cho khch, cch x l hng ha tht thot hoc h hng, mc hp tc trong cc chng trnh qung co v hun luyn ca cng ty v nhng dch v h phi lm cho khch. Mc doanh s t c ca cc trung gian c th c so snh vi mc h t c trong thi k trc . T l tng tin trung bnh ca c nhm c th dng nh mt tiu chun nh gi. Thng hiu cocacola ti Vit Nam c thi gian pht trin rt lu di t nhng nm 1960 cho n nay. Nh vy vi mt khong thi gian di gii thiu sn phm ti th trng Vit Nam cng ty nhn nhn c tc pht trin tim nng ca n vi nhng thun li , th nht Vit Nam ang c mt nn chnh tr n nh. Th hai l c cu dn s tr, ham hc hi, rt thch hp pht trin ngnh nc gii kht. Sau cng l tim nng di do v nng ng ca ngun nhn lc trong nc. V cocacola tng cng u t nhm chim lnh th trng tim nng ny. Cho n ht nm 2013 cng ty s a ra th trng thm 5 loi thc ung mi. Coca-Cola vi vic thc hin kinh doanh sn phm ung bao gm nc c gas, nc ung, nc c cn cng ty to ra nhiu sn phm ung khc nhau tha mn nhu cu ca khch hng v cng ty ngin cu v a ra nhiu sn phm mi ph hp vi nhu cu ngi tiu dng Vit Nam. Cc sn phm nc gii kht ca Cocacola c sn xut ti ba nh my k trn trong nm 2001 lut Vit Nam dng cho ba cng ty sp nhp hot ng vi cng ty ti thnh ph H Ch Minh ng vai tr qun l v hai cng ty hot ng nh chi nhnh ca cng ty Coca-Cola ti khu vc th trng min bc v min trung Vit Nam. Vi ba nh my sn xut ti ba min Cocacola m rng mng li phn phi ti ba min cung cp y sn phm cho cc i l ti ba min. T y gip nng cao kh nng nhn din thng hiu ca sn phm.6</p> <p>Nh vy nh sn xut ca cocacola trong knh phn phi ng vai tr rt quan trng trong knh v n c tham gia trong tt c cc chc nng ca thnh vin knh phn phi vi cc mc ng gp khc nhau. Nh sn sut thc hin tt v thu c nhng thnh cng ln cho cocacola ti th trng Vit nh hin nay, Coca-Cola c ba nh my ti Thnh ph H Ch Minh, H Ni v Nng vi i ng nhn vin l 1.600 ngi. Nm 2010 Coca-Cola Vit Nam t mc tng trng trn 26%, ngi tiu dng Vit Nam s dng hn 900 triu cc sn phm nc gii kht ca Coca-Cola 2) Tng i l ( i l bn bun, i l bn s): ng vai tr l cu ni gia ngi sn xut v khch hng, l i din phn nh nhu cu ca ngi tiu dng vi nh sn xut. i l thc hin hot ng sn xut kinh doanh ca mnh do c c doanh thu nh vo khon chnh lch gi do i l nhp s lng sn phm ln v bn vi s lng sn phm nh hn. Coca-cola thc hin hot ng thu ht cc i l c quyn bng nhng chnh sch u i hp dn, to s gn b gia cng ty v i l. Theo , cc i l khng c bn cc sn phm ca cc i th cnh tranh, b li Coca-Cola s tr cho cc i l tin chit khu c quyn 1.000 ng/kt. Tin chit khu ny c quy ra sn phm thanh ton. Cc i l c quyn mua hng theo phng thc mua t bn on, khng c tr hng li nhng trc mi t gim gi, cng ty s phi bo trc vi ngy cc i l kp thi gii phng hng tn... Theo cc i l, ban u Coca-Cola sn sng b l cho cc i l lc gim gi khuyn mi; sn sng b hng thiu m khng h cp n thi hn tr... Thm ch, cc i l gn nh c php mn u heo nu cho. Bc tip theo, Coca-Cola a ra cc iu kin v s lng mua hng v cng n trong hn mc, khuyn khch cc i l tr thnh i tc kinh doanh chin lc c hng chnh sch 5+1 (mua nm tng mt) Bn cnh nhm tng mi lin h gia cng ty v cc i l cocacola cn thc hin rt nhiu cc hot ng khc nhm h tr trong phn phi, nh lp t bng hiu, bng qung co ca sn phm. Bn cnh thng qua hot ng ca mnh cc l m bo cung cp cc sn phm ng hng n ngi tiu dng do h cn chi s qun l v ging buc ca hng v a ra nhng li ch thit thc cho khch hng nh: Giao hng tn ni trong thi gian nhanh nht. Nu hng ho khng ng quy cch, cht lng s i li. Qu khch ly hng vi s lng ln s c gim gi. Trong qu trnh thc hin nu gi c c thay i, i l s kp thi thng bo cho khch hng. Hin ti cocacola c 50 nh phn phi ln, 1.500 nhn vin, trn 300 ngn i l phc v ngi tiu dng Vit Nam. Vi s lng ln m bo phn phi sn phm nhanh chng v tin li h thng nh bn bun trong knh phn phi ca Coca-cola thc y qu trnh lu thng sn phm n tay khch hng. 3) Nh bn l:7</p> <p>L cu ni gia sn xut v tiu dng song nh bn l l ngi tip xc trc tip vi Bn l l mt ngnh quan trng. So vi cc c s sn xut v bn s, h ng gp 7 ln v l ngun cung cp vic lm rt ln. Cc nh bn l M t doanh s ti hng ngn t la. Mi hng, bn l hng u t doanh s t 8 t n 40 t la hng nm. Cc hnh thc bn l rt phong ph v a dng. 1. Theo mc phc v, gm c: - Bn l t phc v - Bn l phc v c gii hn - Bn l phc v ton phn 2. Theo mt hng kinh doanh, c cc loi: - Ca hng chuyn doanh - Ca hng bch ha - Cc siu th v i siu th - Cc ca hng thc phm tin dng 3. Theo gi bn, ngi ta phn bit - Ca hng chit khu. Cc ca hng ny bn hng t tiu chun vi gi thp. H chp nhn mc li thp nhng khi lng bn ra ln. - Ca hng kho (bn s lng ln vi gi h). 4. Bn l khng dng ca hiu, gm c: - Bn qua bu in - Bn qua catalog - Bn qua in thoi - Bn hng bng my bn hng t ng - Bn l tn nh Cocacola khi bc chn vo th trng Vit Nam nghin cu rt k vn ha nn c bit coi trng n v tr ca cc nh bn l trong knh phn phi sn phm nhm tng kh nng nhn din v tip xc ca ngi tiu dng vi sn phm v thng hiu Cocacola.8</p> <p>Nh ta bit Pepsi xm nhp vo th trng Vit Nam sm hn Cocacola v Ngay khi Vit Nam m ca th trng, Pepsi k hp ng xm nhp. Lp tc, vi th lc hng hu ca mnh, Pepsi thng lnh th trng Vit t Nam ra Bc.Vi gi qu r, cng thm uy tn, cht lng hng u th gii, Pepsi bp cc i th Vit Nam trong vng khng qu... mt thng. Sau , Pepsi thit lp h thng phn phi trn ton ci Vit Nam. Ngoi cc i l v tng i l, Pepsi cn tip cn hu ht cc qun c ph (ni qung b v tiu th mt lng rt ln nc ngt ca Pepsi). V trong giai on Pepsi thng li Coca do Pepsi khng nhng c c mt h thng phn phi tt trn ton x (nh ti trc) m h cn c c nhng nh qun l v iu hnh gii, am hiu tm l ca ngi Vit - iu ny rt quan trng. Xong khng chi t b do vo xut hin ti th trng Vit Nam mun hn v h a ra mt s nhng chnh sch c bit l chnh sch tp trung vo i tng ngi bn l Coca-cola vn bn b trong chin dch xm ln th phn ca mnh. H s dng nhng ngi bn l, y do nhng chic xe 3 bnh nh i bn do trn h ph, ng thi i su vo tn hang cng ng hp ca Thnh ph (ni c th nhng vi bch tuc ca h thng phn phi ca Pepsi cn b st).</p> <p>Nhng ngi bn do bng xe y ca coca-cola bn ra mt chai coca vi gi ch c 2 ngn ng, trong khi ngoi qun c-ph mt chai Pepsi c gi l 5 ngn ng, cn nh hng l 9 ngn ng. D nhin, Coca-cola khng t hy vng vo doanh thu ca tng chai nc ngt (c bn do), m ch yu h tip th khu vcho khch hng, ng thi tip th lun nhng qun cc nh b trong hm ly hng ca Coca vi gi u i, bng cch to ra th phn cho hng Coca.</p> <p>Vi tnh hnh cnh tranh trn, ngi Thnh ph c dp chng kin hai hnh nh tri ngc nhau. Trong khi nhng chic xe ti nh mang hnh nh ca thng hiu Pepsi ung dung ch hng ti b cho cc i l v qun c-ph th ngi ta li thy nhng chic xe 3 bnh nh xu ca Coca-cola c y i bn do trn h ph v trong cc con hm... y c l cng l mt chiu thc c o trong vic chim th phn ca Coca, v y xe bn do l mt trong nhng hnh nh thn quen trong cuc sng th ca ngi Vit... 4) Ngi tiu dng: y l i tng tiu dng sn phm v mi hot ng ca hng u nhm tha mn nhu cu ca i tng ny. Vi th trng Vit Nam c nh gi tng doanh s qung co ca th trng nc gii kht Vit Nam tng trng n 93% so vi cng k 2008, t 36,1 triu USD trong na u nm 2009. Trong , nc ngt c gas t doanh s qung co 4,1 triu USD, nhng n thng 11.2009 tng gn 100% so vi na u nm, t 8 triu USD.Vi tc tng trng ny, ngnh cng nghip nc gii kht vn ln v tr th 4 trong s cc ngnh c doanh thu ln nht Vit Nam trong 6 thng u nm 2009, xp sau vin thng, thc phm v chm sc sc p.Trong khi , cng nghin cu v th trng nc gii kht Vit Nam, tp on nghin cu th trng Euromonitor International (Anh) cho bit, lng tiu th nc gii kht ca Vit Nam nm 2008 ch mc 9,5 lt/ngi. Tuy nhin, con s ny s tip tc tng trng v gi bn trung bnh ca cc sn phm tng gn 20% trong nm ngoi. Cng theo Euromonitor International, trong nm 2008, tng doanh s bn ca th trng nc gii kht Vit...</p>