PHÂN TÍCH PHẨM CHẤT GẠO CỦA TẬP ĐOÀN GIỐNG LÚA MTL

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<ul><li><p>Tp ch Khoa hc Trng i hc Cn Th Phn B: Nng nghip, Thy sn v Cng ngh Sinh hc: 38 (2015)(2): 106-112 </p><p> 106 </p><p>PHN TCH PHM CHT GO CA TP ON GING LA MTL (MIN TY LA) ANG LU GI TI NGN HNG GEN TRNG I HC CN TH </p><p>ng Hunh Nguyt nh1, Nguyn Hng Hu1 v Nguyn Vn Chnh1 1 Vin Nghin cu Pht trin ng bng sng Cu Long, Trng i hc Cn Th </p><p>Thng tin chung: Ngy nhn: 06/10/2014 Ngy chp nhn: 09/06/2015 </p><p>Title: Analysis of the rice grain quality of MTL (Mien Tay Lua) rice variety series stored in Can Tho University gene bank </p><p>T kha: Phm cht go, MTL variety, hm lng amylose, tr h, bc bng, mi thm </p><p>Keywords: Rice grain quality, MTL variety, amylose content, alkali digestion, charlkiness, aroma </p><p>ABSTRACT </p><p>Rice grain quality of the series of 835 rice varieties of Mekong Delta Development Research Institute, Can Tho University Gene Bank were analysed using IRRI 1996 criteria. Results show that the rice variety series have largely varied in their qualities, especially in chalkiness and amylose content. Amylose content was positively correlated to milled rice grain length in both ordinary and glutinous rice sub-series. Aroma was negatively correlated to milled rice grain weight, grain length, chalkiness and amylose content. Length of grain that longer than 7 mm while less chalkiness were found in MTL199, MTL124, MTL309, MTL331, MTL422, MTL512 and MTL513. The varieties those have the good quality of high aroma and low amylose content (</p></li><li><p>Tp ch Khoa hc Trng i hc Cn Th Phn B: Nng nghip, Thy sn v Cng ngh Sinh hc: 38 (2015)(2): 106-112 </p><p> 107 </p><p>ch nghin cu nhm tng cng d liu y cho lnh vc qun l, khai thc v s dng ngun gen cy la, ng thi bo v tc quyn thng mi ca cc tp on ging la v ging la mi chn to. </p><p>2 PHNG PHP NGHIN CU 2.1 Ngun vt liu Gm 835 ging la MTL do Ngn hng </p><p>Gen, Vin Nghin cu Pht trin ng bng sng Cu Long, Trng i hc Cn Th ang bo tn v cung cp, gm 771 ging la t v 64 ging la np. </p><p>2.2 Thi gian v a im thc hin Nghin cu c thc hin t thng 6-2013 n </p><p>thng 6-2014 ti Phng Th nghim Sinh ha v Kim nghim ht ging Vin Nghin cu Pht </p><p>trin ng bng sng Cu Long, Trng i hc Cn Th. </p><p>2.3 Phng php thc hin 2.3.1 Tin trnh nghin cu </p><p>Tng cng c 835 ging la MTL gm 771 ging la t v 64 ging la np c trng tr ha, phi kh v lm sch. Tin hnh phn tch vo thi gian sau thu hoch 30 ngy (L Xun Thi, 2003). Sau khi xay ch, thu c t l go nguyn. Nhm go t c phn tch cc ch tiu nh kch thc v hnh dng ht, bc bng, tr h, hm lng amylose v mi thm. Nhm go np c phn tch cc ch tiu nh kch thc v hnh dng ht, tr h, hm lng amylose v mi thm. Tin trnh v ni dung nghin cu c trnh by nh Hnh 1. </p><p>Hnh 1: Tin trnh nghin cu v ni dung nghin cu 2.3.2 Phng php phn tch v nh gi ch tiu Phn tch v nh gi t l xay xt theo </p><p>phng php ca IRRI (1996): mi mu ging cn 200 g, 3 ln lp li, tch v tru bng my SATAKE v ch trng trong 3 pht, tnh t l go lc, go trng v go nguyn theo t l %. nh gi phm cht xay ch theo Bng 1. </p><p>Bng 1: nh gi t l xay xt (IRRI, 1996) </p><p>nh gi T l go lc (%) T l go </p><p>trng (%) T l go </p><p>nguyn (%) Rt tt - &gt;70 &gt;57 Tt &gt;79 65,1-70 46-56,9 Trung bnh 75-79 60-65 39-45,9 Km = 7,00 Thon: &gt; 3,0 </p><p>(2) Trung bnh: 20-30 Di: 6,00-6,99 TBnh: 2,1-3,0 </p><p>(3) Ht nh: </p></li><li><p>Tp ch Khoa hc Trng i hc Cn Th Phn B: Nng nghip, Thy sn v Cng ngh Sinh hc: 38 (2015)(2): 106-112 </p><p> 108 </p><p>Bng 3: Phn cp bc bng theo vt c trn ht go (IRRI, 1996) </p><p>nh gi ln vt bc bng Cp bc bng Khng Khng bc bng 0 Nh Vt c &lt; 10% din tch ht 1 Trung bnh Vt c 10% - 20% din tch ht 5 Ln Vt c &gt; 20% din tch ht 9 Ngun: Phm Th Phn, 2008 </p><p> Phn tch v nh gi tr h theo phng php IRRI (1996): ngm 6 ht go trong dung dch KOH 0,7% thi gian 23 gi nhit phng. nh gi v phn cp tr h theo m t Bng 4. </p><p>Bng 4: Phn cp tr h da trn tri rng ca ht go (IRRI, 1996) </p><p>Cp tri rng phn hy kim 1 Ht khng b nh hng Thp 2 Ht phng ln Thp </p><p>3 Ht phng ln ra hp khng r Thp/trung bnh 4 Ht phng ln ra rng v r Trung bnh 5 Ht b tch ri, ra rng v r Trung bnh 6 Ht tan v kt vi ra Cao </p><p>7 Ht tan hon ton v ho ln vo nhau Cao </p><p>Ngun: Phm Th Phn, 2008 Phn tch mi thm cm quan theo phng </p><p>php IRRI (1996): ngm 1 g go nguyn ca mi mu ging vo KOH 1,7%, y kn v nng nhit 50oC trong 15 pht, ngi v nh gi theo Bng 5, s dng Jasmine85 lm i chng rt thm v VND95-20 lm i chng khng thm. </p><p>Bng 5: nh gi mi thm cm quan (IRRI,1996) </p><p>Cp Mi thm 0 Khng thm 1 Hi thm 2 Rt thm </p><p>Ngun: Phm Th Phn, 2008 </p><p> Phn tch hm lng amylose: phn tch trn my quang ph theo phng php Cagampang Rodriguez (1980) v phn loi theo IRRI, 1996 (Bng 6). </p><p>Bng 6: Phn loi theo hm lng amylose trong ht (IRRI, 1996) </p><p>Hm lng amylose (%) nh gi Phn loi go </p><p>0-5 Np Np 5,1-12 Go do Rt thp </p><p>12,1-20 Go do Thp 20,1-25 Mm cm Trung bnh </p><p>&gt; 25 Cng cm Cao Ngun: Phm Th Phn, 2008 </p><p>2.3.3 Phng php phn tch s liu nh gi v phn tch bin ng cc ch </p><p>tiu phm cht ca tp on ging la bng thng k m t qua cc s trung bnh, bin thin, lch chun. </p><p> Xc nh mi tng quan n gia cc c tnh phm cht ht bng phn tch tng quan theo h s Pearson. </p><p>3 KT QU V THO LUN 3.1 Tng quan tp on ging la MTL 3.1.1 S lng v c cu b ging ca tp </p><p>on ging la MTL </p><p>Tp on ging la gm 835 ging MTL thuc nhm indica, gm 771 ging la t v 64 ging la np. C 84 ging thuc nhm trung ma (121-140 ngy), 203 ging thuc nhm ging thi gian sinh trng A2 (106-120 ngy), 432 ging thuc nhm ging A1 (90-105 ngy) v 116 ging la A0 (ngn hn 90 ngy). Nhm ging A1 v A0 c xem l quan trng nht hin nay, p ng nhu cu sn xut ca cc vng thm canh ba v v vng u ngun trnh l. </p><p>C 21 ging MTL c cng nhn Ging Quc gia, 14 ging MTL c cng nhn ging Sn xut th. Trong , ging Quc gia MTL392 v ging la MTL372 t gii Go ngon Thng hiu Vit 2007 v 2011. </p><p>3.1.2 3.1.2 Ngun gc lai to ca tp on ging MTL </p><p>Ngun vt liu chn ging MTL bao gm cc dng quan st s khi nhp ni t IRRI v cc t hp c lai to v chn lc ti Vin Nghin cu Pht trin ng bng sng Cu Long, Trng i hc Cn Th. </p></li><li><p>Tp ch Khoa hc Trng i hc Cn Th Phn B: Nng nghip, Thy sn v Cng ngh Sinh hc: 38 (2015)(2): 106-112 </p><p> 109 </p><p>Qu trnh pht trin tp on ging MTL giai on t 1977-1992 vi u th ca ging nhp ni IRRI, lng ging ny t ra thch nghi vi sinh thi ng bng sng Cu Long v chim 94% s lng ging ca tp on. Sau , ging c ngun gc t lai to dn dn chim u th, t nm 2000 n nay th ging MTL c Vin Nghin cu Pht trin ng bng sng Cu Long lai to chim 100% s lng ging ca tp on. </p><p>3.2 nh gi cc ch tiu phm cht ca tp on ging </p><p>3.2.1 T l xay xt Nhm la t c nh gi c t l xay xt tt </p><p>hn nhm la np. Cc tr s trung bnh ca tp on v t l xay xt cho thy la t u tt hn la np (Bng 7). </p><p>La t c 73% ging c phn nhm v nh gi c t l go lc tt (khng c loi rt tt trong Bng phn cp go lc) v 78% c t l go nguyn c nh gi rt tt v tt. </p><p>Nhm la np lun c trng lng v tru cao hn, a s ging (74%) c t l go lc thuc nhm trung bnh. Theo , go nguyn ca la np cng thp hn la t, c 25% ging c nh gi rt tt v 54% c nh gi tt. </p><p>Bng 7: Kt qu nh gi phn loi t l xay xt </p><p>T l xay xt T l ging la t (%) T l ging la np (%) Lc Trng Nguyn Lc Trng Nguyn </p><p>Phn loi nh gi </p><p>Rt tt - 39 56 - 14 25 Tt 73 45 22 26 26 54 Trung bnh 24 12 14 74 60 21 Km 3 4 8 0 0 0 </p><p>Cc tham s thng k </p><p>Bin thin 50-81 39-72 9,5-67 76-80 64-75 45,5-63 Trung bnh 80,2 68,6 58,7 78 67,1 54,4 lch chun 2,90 3,17 7,10 2,71 2,23 3,12 </p><p>3.2.2 Kch thc v hnh dng ht </p><p>Trng lng 1000 ht ph bin ca cc ging la ng bng sng Cu Long l 20-30 g (Nguyn Ngc , 2008). Trong tp on hu ht cc ging la t c trng lng 1000 ht nm trong khong ny (93,5% s ging), c s t ging ln hn 30 g v nh hn 20 g. Tng t, la np c 95,1% ging c trng lng 1000 ht t 20-30 g </p><p>(Bng 8). </p><p>Chiu di go trng la t c ghi nhn c 37,4% ging c go rt di v 61,3% c ht di. La np c 91,8% ging c ht np di v khng c ht rt di. c tnh ny lun c quan tm trong chn to ging la nhm p ng th hiu tiu dng trong nc v xut khu. Mt s ging la c ht di hn 7 mm c trnh by Bng 9.</p><p>Bng 8: Kt qu nh gi phn loi trng lng v kch thc ht Trng lng v kch thc ht </p><p>T l ging la t (%) T l ging la np (%) TL ht Di ht D/R TL ht Di ht D/R </p><p>Phn loi nh gi </p><p>(1) 5,4 37,4 93,6 4,9 0 37,7 (2) 93,5 61,3 6,4 95,1 91,8 62,3 (3) 1,1 1,3 0,0 0 8,2 0 </p><p>Cc tham s thng k </p><p>Bin thin 19,4-31,8 5,3-7,9 2,6-4,1 21,3-31,3 5,5-6,9 2,5-3,4 Trung bnh 25,4 6,68 3,14 26,5 6,4 3,0 lch chun 1,95 0,33 0,15 2,5 0,31 0,20 </p><p>Ghi ch: - TL ht: trng lng 1000 ht - D/R: t l di/rng </p><p>3.2.3 T l bc bng </p><p>Tng t l bc bng cp 1, cp 5 v cp 9 c phn tch trn nhm go t cho thy c 37% ging la MTL c bc bng nhiu, 30% ging la MTL </p><p>c bc bng trung bnh v 33% ging la c bc bng t. Mt s ging la c t l bc bng rt thp, ht go rt di v dng ht thon l MTL199, MTL124, MTL309, MTL331, MTL422, MTL512, MTL513 (Bng 9). </p></li><li><p>Tp ch Khoa hc Trng i hc Cn Th Phn B: Nng nghip, Thy sn v Cng ngh Sinh hc: 38 (2015)(2): 106-112 </p><p> 110 </p><p>Bng 9: Mt s ging la MTL c go di v t l bc bng thp </p><p>STT Ging la T hp lai T l bc bng (%) Chiu di ht </p><p>(mm) T l </p><p>di/rng 1 MTL199 IR48525/ R28239 3,33 7,20 3,69 2 MTL124 IR25912/IR29723 1,66 7,30 3,66 3 MTL309 MTL119/ Khaodawk Mali 5,66 7,40 3,70 4 MTL331 IR62112/IR59606 4,66 7,40 3,68 5 MTL422 MTL156/Khao hom 1,00 7,00 3,33 6 MTL512 MTL233/AS996 6,66 7,10 3,22 7 MTL513 MTL233/AS996 8,33 7,30 3,31 </p><p>3.2.4 Phm cht cm </p><p>Phm cht cm trong nghin cu ny c phn tch thng qua cc ch s nh hm lng amylose, tr h v mi thm. </p><p>Hm lng amylose </p><p>Nhm la t c hm lng amylose bin ng t 12,7% n 32,5%. S ging c hm lng amylose trung bnh chim 46,6% (Bng 10). Ging c hm lng amylose thp chim 16,6%, y l ngun ging mang c tnh mm cm rt c quan tm pht trin. Cc ging la c cm mm do l MTL233, MTL241, MTL243, MTL372, MTL392, MTL422, MTL511 (Bng 11). </p><p>Nhm la np c hm lng amylose bin ng t 2,5 n 7,5%, trung bnh l 5%. C 67,2% ging </p><p>c hm lng amylose thp hn 5%. tr h tr h nhm la t phn b a dng t thp </p><p>n cao. tr h ca nhm la np c nh gi cao (ht go phn hy mnh trong KOH), c n 68,9% ging c tr h cp 6 hoc cp 7. Ch tiu ny t l nghch vi nhit ha h, ngha l nhng ging c phn hy kim cao th nhit ha h thp v ngc li. </p><p>Mi thm C 27 ging (3,5%) thuc nhm go t v 8 </p><p>ging (12,5%) thuc nhm np c ghi nhn c mi thm cp 2 khi phn tch cm quan (Bng 10). Ngun gen ny rt trin vng lai to sau khi kt hp vi phn tch DNA. Cn li a s ging khng c mi thm hoc thm nh. </p><p>Bng 10: Kt qu nh gi phn loi phm cht cm </p><p>Phm cht cm T l ging la t (%) T l ging la np (%) </p><p>Amylose (%) </p><p>Tr h (cp) </p><p>Thm (cp) </p><p>Amylose (%) </p><p>Tr h (cp) </p><p>Thm (cp) </p><p>Phn loi nh gi </p><p>Cao 36,8 28,3 3,5 0 68,9 12,5 Trung bnh 46,6 50,4 16,3 0 31,1 32,8 Thp 16,6 21,3 80,2 31,8 0 54,7 Rt thp 0 - - 67,2 - - </p><p>Cc tham s thng k </p><p>Bin thin 12,7-32,5 1,0-7,0 0-2,0 2,5-7,5 4,0-7,0 0-2,0 Trung bnh 23,18 4,01 0,26 5,0 5,9 0,59 lch chun 3,54 2,41 0,44 1,27 0,88 0,48 </p><p>Bng 11: Mt s ging la MTL c hm lng amylose thp v mi thm. </p><p>STT Ging la T hp lai Amylose (%) tr h </p><p>(cp) Mi thm </p><p>(cp) 1 MTL233 IET10364/ IR54950 19,27 1 2 2 MTL241 IR54950/IR72 19,41 1 1 3 MTL243 IET10364/ IR5858115 18,97 2 1 4 MTL250 IR58029/ IR59522 24,12 2 2 5 MTL372 MTL142/T Thm 18,88 6 2 6 MTL392 T Thm/OM1723 24,37 2 2 7 MTL422 MTL156/Khao hom 13,05 3 0 8 MTL511 MTL156/Khao hom 16,64 7 0 9 MTL512 MTL233/AS996 24,32 5 2 </p></li><li><p>Tp ch Khoa hc Trng i hc Cn Th Phn B: Nng nghip, Thy sn v Cng ngh Sinh hc: 38 (2015)(2): 106-112 </p><p> 111 </p><p>Cc ging go t v ging np rt thm l MTL233, MTL250, MTL392, MTL372 v MTL512 (Bng 11). </p><p>3.3 Tng quan gia cc c tnh phm cht go </p><p>Hu ht cc ging la MTL u c ht go thon di nn chiu di ht go tng quan cht ch vi trng lng ht vi r = 0,576. Chiu di go cng tng quan thun vi hm lng amylose mc ngha 5%, nhng ging la MTL c ht qu di thng cng cm. (Bng 12). </p><p>Ch s tr h tng quan nghch vi t l bc bng. Ging c bc bng cng nhiu khuynh hng c tr h cng thp. Tuy nhin, mt kho st thm cho thy khng c s khc bit tr h gia go bc bng v khng bc bng trong cng mt ging la. </p><p>c bit, phn tch cm quan mi thm cho thy c s tng quan nghch vi trng lng ht, chiu di ht, bc bng v hm lng amylose (Bng 12). Thc t cng cho thy nhng ging la c ht t nh n trung bnh, go trong v mm cm d c mi thm hn v ngc li </p><p>Bng 12: Tng quan gia cc ch tiu phm cht ca nhm go t MTL TL ht Di go Bc bng Amylose tr h Mi thm </p><p>TL ht 1 Di go 0.576** 1 Bc bng 0.082ns -0.024ns 1 Amylose 0.079ns 0.106* 0.047ns 1 tr h -0.006ns 0.005ns -0.134** 0.096ns 1 Mi thm -0.229** -0.182** -0.169** -0.260** -0.031ns 1 </p><p>Ghi ch: - TL ht: trng lng 1000 ht </p><p>Tng t nh la t, cc ging np MTL u c ht go thon di nn trng lng ht tng quan cht ch vi chiu di ht go vi r = 0,524 (Bng 13). </p><p>Hm lng amylose tng quan thun vi </p><p>trng lng v chiu di ht np (Bng 13). iu ny cho thy nhng ging np c ht t nh thon n trung bnh thon s mm do hn nhng ging np c ht to. Trng lng ht tng quan nghch vi tr h, ht np cng nh th tan r trong dung dch kim cng cao </p><p>Bng 13: Tng quan gia cc ch tiu phm cht ca nhm go np MTL TL ht Di go Amylose Mi thm tr h </p><p>TL ht 1 Di go 0.524** 1 Amylose 0.301* 0.311* 1 Mi thm -0.035ns 0.118ns -0.144ns 1 tr h -0.297* -0.097ns -0.065ns 0.041ns 1 </p><p>Ghi ch: - TL ht: trng lng 1000 ht </p><p>4 KT LUN V XUT 4.1 Kt lun Tp on ging la MTL c s bin ng </p><p>ln cc c tnh phm cht go nh t l xay xt, kch thc ht, hm lng amylose v bc bng. y l ngun gen rt a dng v phong ph ang c bo tn ti Ngn hng Gen, Trng i hc Cn Th. </p><p> Nhiu c tnh phm cht qu c trong tp on ging la nh hm lng amylose thp, go khng bc bng, c mi thm. Mt s ging la c t l bc bng rt thp, ht go rt di l MTL199, MTL124, MTL309, MTL331, MTL422, MTL512, MTL513. Cc ging la rt thm l MTL233, </p><p>MTL250, MTL392, MTL372 v MTL512. Cc ging la c hm lng amylose thp l MTL233, MTL241, MTL243, MTL372, MTL392, MTL422, MTL511. </p><p> Phn tch tng quan gia cc c tnh phm cht cho thy nhm la t c tnh mi thm tng quan nghch vi trng lng ht, chiu di ht, bc bng v hm lng amylose. C hai nhm la t v la np cho thy hm lng amylose tng quan thun vi chiu di ht go. </p><p>4.2 xut Tin hnh phn tch s bin ng ca cc </p><p>tnh trng cht lng trong qu trnh lu tr v bo </p></li><li><p>Tp ch Khoa hc Trng i hc Cn Th Phn B: Nng nghip, Thy sn v Cng ngh Sinh hc: 38 (2015)(2): 106-112 </p><p> 112 </p><p>qun ti Ngn hng Gen nhm gp phn nng cao hiu qu cng tc bo tn ngun gen. </p><p>TI LIU THAM KHO </p><p>1. Bi Ch Bu v Nguyn Th Lang, 2013. Ci tin ging la phm cht go tt tip cn chin lc mi. Hi tho Nng cao gi tr go xut khu Vit Nam. Ngy 12/9/2013, TP H Ch Minh. Hip hi Lng thc Vit Nam v Thi bo Kinh t Vit Nam. </p><p>2. IRRI, 1996. Standard Evaluation System for Rice. Genetic Resources Center. International Rice Research Institute. Philippines. </p><p>3. L Xun Thi, 2003. Tnh n nh ca cc c im phm cht ca 8 ging la cc vng sinh thi ng bng sng Cu Long. Lun vn Tt nghip Thc s ngnh Nng nghip. i hc Cn Th. </p><p>4. Nguyn Ngc , 2008. Gio trnh cy la. Nh xut bn i hc Quc gia Thnh ph H Ch Minh. </p><p>5. Phm Th Phn, 2008. Gio trnh Thc tp Cy la. Trng i hc Cn Th. Xut bn ln 2. </p></li></ul>