PHÂN TÍCH PHẨM CHẤT GẠO CỦA TẬP ĐOÀN GIỐNG LÚA MTL

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  • Tp ch Khoa hc Trng i hc Cn Th Phn B: Nng nghip, Thy sn v Cng ngh Sinh hc: 38 (2015)(2): 106-112

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    PHN TCH PHM CHT GO CA TP ON GING LA MTL (MIN TY LA) ANG LU GI TI NGN HNG GEN TRNG I HC CN TH

    ng Hunh Nguyt nh1, Nguyn Hng Hu1 v Nguyn Vn Chnh1 1 Vin Nghin cu Pht trin ng bng sng Cu Long, Trng i hc Cn Th

    Thng tin chung: Ngy nhn: 06/10/2014 Ngy chp nhn: 09/06/2015

    Title: Analysis of the rice grain quality of MTL (Mien Tay Lua) rice variety series stored in Can Tho University gene bank

    T kha: Phm cht go, MTL variety, hm lng amylose, tr h, bc bng, mi thm

    Keywords: Rice grain quality, MTL variety, amylose content, alkali digestion, charlkiness, aroma

    ABSTRACT

    Rice grain quality of the series of 835 rice varieties of Mekong Delta Development Research Institute, Can Tho University Gene Bank were analysed using IRRI 1996 criteria. Results show that the rice variety series have largely varied in their qualities, especially in chalkiness and amylose content. Amylose content was positively correlated to milled rice grain length in both ordinary and glutinous rice sub-series. Aroma was negatively correlated to milled rice grain weight, grain length, chalkiness and amylose content. Length of grain that longer than 7 mm while less chalkiness were found in MTL199, MTL124, MTL309, MTL331, MTL422, MTL512 and MTL513. The varieties those have the good quality of high aroma and low amylose content (

  • Tp ch Khoa hc Trng i hc Cn Th Phn B: Nng nghip, Thy sn v Cng ngh Sinh hc: 38 (2015)(2): 106-112

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    ch nghin cu nhm tng cng d liu y cho lnh vc qun l, khai thc v s dng ngun gen cy la, ng thi bo v tc quyn thng mi ca cc tp on ging la v ging la mi chn to.

    2 PHNG PHP NGHIN CU 2.1 Ngun vt liu Gm 835 ging la MTL do Ngn hng

    Gen, Vin Nghin cu Pht trin ng bng sng Cu Long, Trng i hc Cn Th ang bo tn v cung cp, gm 771 ging la t v 64 ging la np.

    2.2 Thi gian v a im thc hin Nghin cu c thc hin t thng 6-2013 n

    thng 6-2014 ti Phng Th nghim Sinh ha v Kim nghim ht ging Vin Nghin cu Pht

    trin ng bng sng Cu Long, Trng i hc Cn Th.

    2.3 Phng php thc hin 2.3.1 Tin trnh nghin cu

    Tng cng c 835 ging la MTL gm 771 ging la t v 64 ging la np c trng tr ha, phi kh v lm sch. Tin hnh phn tch vo thi gian sau thu hoch 30 ngy (L Xun Thi, 2003). Sau khi xay ch, thu c t l go nguyn. Nhm go t c phn tch cc ch tiu nh kch thc v hnh dng ht, bc bng, tr h, hm lng amylose v mi thm. Nhm go np c phn tch cc ch tiu nh kch thc v hnh dng ht, tr h, hm lng amylose v mi thm. Tin trnh v ni dung nghin cu c trnh by nh Hnh 1.

    Hnh 1: Tin trnh nghin cu v ni dung nghin cu 2.3.2 Phng php phn tch v nh gi ch tiu Phn tch v nh gi t l xay xt theo

    phng php ca IRRI (1996): mi mu ging cn 200 g, 3 ln lp li, tch v tru bng my SATAKE v ch trng trong 3 pht, tnh t l go lc, go trng v go nguyn theo t l %. nh gi phm cht xay ch theo Bng 1.

    Bng 1: nh gi t l xay xt (IRRI, 1996)

    nh gi T l go lc (%) T l go

    trng (%) T l go

    nguyn (%) Rt tt - >70 >57 Tt >79 65,1-70 46-56,9 Trung bnh 75-79 60-65 39-45,9 Km = 7,00 Thon: > 3,0

    (2) Trung bnh: 20-30 Di: 6,00-6,99 TBnh: 2,1-3,0

    (3) Ht nh:

  • Tp ch Khoa hc Trng i hc Cn Th Phn B: Nng nghip, Thy sn v Cng ngh Sinh hc: 38 (2015)(2): 106-112

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    Bng 3: Phn cp bc bng theo vt c trn ht go (IRRI, 1996)

    nh gi ln vt bc bng Cp bc bng Khng Khng bc bng 0 Nh Vt c < 10% din tch ht 1 Trung bnh Vt c 10% - 20% din tch ht 5 Ln Vt c > 20% din tch ht 9 Ngun: Phm Th Phn, 2008

    Phn tch v nh gi tr h theo phng php IRRI (1996): ngm 6 ht go trong dung dch KOH 0,7% thi gian 23 gi nhit phng. nh gi v phn cp tr h theo m t Bng 4.

    Bng 4: Phn cp tr h da trn tri rng ca ht go (IRRI, 1996)

    Cp tri rng phn hy kim 1 Ht khng b nh hng Thp 2 Ht phng ln Thp

    3 Ht phng ln ra hp khng r Thp/trung bnh 4 Ht phng ln ra rng v r Trung bnh 5 Ht b tch ri, ra rng v r Trung bnh 6 Ht tan v kt vi ra Cao

    7 Ht tan hon ton v ho ln vo nhau Cao

    Ngun: Phm Th Phn, 2008 Phn tch mi thm cm quan theo phng

    php IRRI (1996): ngm 1 g go nguyn ca mi mu ging vo KOH 1,7%, y kn v nng nhit 50oC trong 15 pht, ngi v nh gi theo Bng 5, s dng Jasmine85 lm i chng rt thm v VND95-20 lm i chng khng thm.

    Bng 5: nh gi mi thm cm quan (IRRI,1996)

    Cp Mi thm 0 Khng thm 1 Hi thm 2 Rt thm

    Ngun: Phm Th Phn, 2008

    Phn tch hm lng amylose: phn tch trn my quang ph theo phng php Cagampang Rodriguez (1980) v phn loi theo IRRI, 1996 (Bng 6).

    Bng 6: Phn loi theo hm lng amylose trong ht (IRRI, 1996)

    Hm lng amylose (%) nh gi Phn loi go

    0-5 Np Np 5,1-12 Go do Rt thp

    12,1-20 Go do Thp 20,1-25 Mm cm Trung bnh

    > 25 Cng cm Cao Ngun: Phm Th Phn, 2008

    2.3.3 Phng php phn tch s liu nh gi v phn tch bin ng cc ch

    tiu phm cht ca tp on ging la bng thng k m t qua cc s trung bnh, bin thin, lch chun.

    Xc nh mi tng quan n gia cc c tnh phm cht ht bng phn tch tng quan theo h s Pearson.

    3 KT QU V THO LUN 3.1 Tng quan tp on ging la MTL 3.1.1 S lng v c cu b ging ca tp

    on ging la MTL

    Tp on ging la gm 835 ging MTL thuc nhm indica, gm 771 ging la t v 64 ging la np. C 84 ging thuc nhm trung ma (121-140 ngy), 203 ging thuc nhm ging thi gian sinh trng A2 (106-120 ngy), 432 ging thuc nhm ging A1 (90-105 ngy) v 116 ging la A0 (ngn hn 90 ngy). Nhm ging A1 v A0 c xem l quan trng nht hin nay, p ng nhu cu sn xut ca cc vng thm canh ba v v vng u ngun trnh l.

    C 21 ging MTL c cng nhn Ging Quc gia, 14 ging MTL c cng nhn ging Sn xut th. Trong , ging Quc gia MTL392 v ging la MTL372 t gii Go ngon Thng hiu Vit 2007 v 2011.

    3.1.2 3.1.2 Ngun gc lai to ca tp on ging MTL

    Ngun vt liu chn ging MTL bao gm cc dng quan st s khi nhp ni t IRRI v cc t hp c lai to v chn lc ti Vin Nghin cu Pht trin ng bng sng Cu Long, Trng i hc Cn Th.

  • Tp ch Khoa hc Trng i hc Cn Th Phn B: Nng nghip, Thy sn v Cng ngh Sinh hc: 38 (2015)(2): 106-112

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    Qu trnh pht trin tp on ging MTL giai on t 1977-1992 vi u th ca ging nhp ni IRRI, lng ging ny t ra thch nghi vi sinh thi ng bng sng Cu Long v chim 94% s lng ging ca tp on. Sau , ging c ngun gc t lai to dn dn chim u th, t nm 2000 n nay th ging MTL c Vin Nghin cu Pht trin ng bng sng Cu Long lai to chim 100% s lng ging ca tp on.

    3.2 nh gi cc ch tiu phm cht ca tp on ging

    3.2.1 T l xay xt Nhm la t c nh gi c t l xay xt tt

    hn nhm la np. Cc tr s trung bnh ca tp on v t l xay xt cho thy la t u tt hn la np (Bng 7).

    La t c 73% ging c phn nhm v nh gi c t l go lc tt (khng c loi rt tt trong Bng phn cp go lc) v 78% c t l go nguyn c nh gi rt tt v tt.

    Nhm la np lun c trng lng v tru cao hn, a s ging (74%) c t l go lc thuc nhm trung bnh. Theo , go nguyn ca la np cng thp hn la t, c 25% ging c nh gi rt tt v 54% c nh gi tt.

    Bng 7: Kt qu nh gi phn loi t l xay xt

    T l xay xt T l ging la t (%) T l ging la np (%) Lc Trng Nguyn Lc Trng Nguyn

    Phn loi nh gi

    Rt tt - 39 56 - 14 25 Tt 73 45 22 26 26 54 Trung bnh 24 12 14 74 60 21 Km 3 4 8 0 0 0

    Cc tham s thng k

    Bin thin 50-81 39-72 9,5-67 76-80 64-75 45,5-63 Trung bnh 80,2 68,6 58,7 78 67,1 54,4 lch chun 2,90 3,17 7,10 2,71 2,23 3,12

    3.2.2 Kch thc v hnh dng ht

    Trng lng 1000 ht ph bin ca cc ging la ng bng sng Cu Long l 20-30 g (Nguyn Ngc , 2008). Trong tp on hu ht cc ging la t c trng lng 1000 ht nm trong khong ny (93,5% s ging), c s t ging ln hn 30 g v nh hn 20 g. Tng t, la np c 95,1% ging c trng lng 1000 ht t 20-30 g

    (Bng 8).

    Chiu di go trng la t c ghi nhn c 37,4% ging c go rt di v 61,3% c ht di. La np c 91,8% ging c ht np di v khng c ht rt di. c tnh ny lun c quan tm trong chn to ging la nhm p ng th hiu tiu dng trong nc v xut khu. Mt s ging la c ht di hn 7 mm c trnh by Bng 9.

    Bng 8: Kt qu nh gi phn loi trng lng v kch thc ht Trng lng v kch thc ht

    T l ging la t (%) T l ging la np (%) TL ht Di ht D/R TL ht Di ht D/R

    Phn loi nh gi

    (1) 5,4 37,4 93,6 4,9 0 37,7 (2) 93,5 61,3 6,4 95,1 91,8 62,3 (3) 1,1 1,3 0,0 0 8,2 0

    Cc tham s thng k

    Bin thin 19,4-31,8 5,3-7,9 2,6-4,1 21,3-31,3 5,5-6,9 2,5-3,4 Trung bnh 25,4 6,68 3,14 26,5 6,4 3,0 lch chun 1,95 0,33 0,15 2,5 0,31 0,20

    Ghi ch: - TL ht: trng lng 1000 ht - D/R: t l di/rng

    3.2.3 T l bc bng

    Tng t l bc bng cp 1, cp 5 v cp 9 c phn tch trn nhm go t cho thy c 37% ging la MTL c bc bng nhiu, 30% ging la MTL

    c bc bng trung bnh v 33% ging la c bc bng t. Mt s ging la c t l bc bng rt thp, ht go rt di v dng ht thon l MTL199, MTL124, MTL309, MTL331, MTL422, MTL512, MTL513 (Bng 9).

  • Tp ch Khoa hc Trng i hc Cn Th Phn B: Nng nghip, Thy sn v Cng ngh Sinh hc: 38 (2015)(2): 106-112

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    Bng 9: Mt s ging la MTL c go di v t l bc bng thp

    STT Ging la T hp lai T l bc bng (%) Chiu di ht

    (mm) T l

    di/rng 1 MTL199 IR48525/ R28239 3,33 7,20 3,69 2 MTL124 IR25912/IR29723 1,66 7,30 3,66 3 MTL309 MTL119/ Khaodawk Mali 5,66 7,40 3,70 4 MTL331 IR62112/IR59606 4,66 7,40 3,68 5 MTL422 MTL156/Khao hom 1,00 7,00 3,33 6 MTL512 MTL233/AS996 6,66 7,10 3,22 7 MTL513 MTL233/AS996 8,33 7,30 3,31

    3.2.4 Phm cht cm

    Phm cht cm trong nghin cu ny c phn tch thng qua cc ch s nh hm lng amylose, tr h v mi thm.

    Hm lng amylose

    Nhm la t c hm lng amylose bin ng t 12,7% n 32,5%. S ging c hm lng amylose trung bnh chim 46,6% (Bng 10). Ging c hm lng amylose thp chim 16,6%, y l ngun ging mang c tnh mm cm rt c quan tm pht trin. Cc ging la c cm mm do l MTL233, MTL241, MTL243, MTL372, MTL392, MTL422, MTL511 (Bng 11).

    Nhm la np c hm lng amylose bin ng t 2,5 n 7,5%, trung bnh l 5%. C 67,2% ging

    c hm lng amylose thp hn 5%. tr h tr h nhm la t phn b a dng t thp

    n cao. tr h ca nhm la np c nh gi cao (