PHOTPHO VÀ AXIT PHOTPHORIC

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<p>PHOTPHO V AXIT PHOTPHORIC</p> <p> 1. PHOTPHO V CC HP CHT QUAN TRNG CA PHOTPHO2. SN XUT PHOTPHORIC THEO PHNG PHP NHIT</p> <p>GVHD: Ts.Bi Th Vn AnhSVTH: Nguyn Th Vn Anh L c Anh Th Chi Thnh Cng Vit CngNguyn Vn ChinTrng i hc Bch Khoa H NiVin k thut ha hc</p> <p>Tm tt ni dung: PhotphoCc hp cht quan trng ca photpho</p> <p>12H3 PO4 , v sn xut H3 PO4 theo phng php nhit</p> <p>3Gii php kim sot nc nhim1. Photpho V tr v cu hnh e nguyn t</p> <p>1. Photpho</p> <p>1. Photpho v hp cht1.1 PhotphoPhotpho trngPhotpho Cu toCc tnh cht vt lCu trc mng tinh thTonc : 44,1o CTobh : 280.8o CKhng tan trong nc, tan trong dung mi khng phn cc nh benzen, toluenRt c, gy bng nng khi ri vo daCu trc polimeTonc : 500-600o CThng hoa p sut thpKhng tan trong bt k dung mi no</p> <p>Khng c</p> <p>51.1 PhotphoS chuyn ha gia photpho v photpho trng</p> <p>250o CLm lnhtoDng tn ti trong t nhinTn ti trong qung apatit, photphorit</p> <p>Qung apatit Ca5(PO4 )3 FQung photphorit Ca3 (PO4 )2Dng tn ti trong t nhinCn tn ti trong protein ng thc vt, v trong xng ng vt</p> <p>Hin tng ma tri</p> <p>Hp cht PH3 , P2 H4 hnh thnh nh hot ng ca vi khun, hn hp ny c Kh nng bc chy k thng khi tip xc vi kk to ngon la mu xanh 2PH3 + 4O2 -&gt; P2 O5 +3 H2 O P2 H4 + 3O2 -&gt; P2 O5 +H2 Ong dngSn xut dimiu ch cc hp cht photphoDng trong qun s6P +5KClO3 -&gt; 5KCl + 3P2 O52. Cc hp cht quan trng ca photpho2.1 P2 O5L tinh th mu trng ht m mnhB thng hoa 359o C, hi bay ln to thnh phn t kp P4 O10L thnh phn dinh dng ch yu trong phn lnt P to ra P2 O5 : 4P + 5O2 -&gt; 2P2 O5 </p> <p>2. Cc hp cht quan trng ca photpho2.2 axit photphoricCu trc v tnh cht vt lL tinh th rn khng muTonc : 42,35o CDng H3PO4.2H2O ctnc : 29.32o CTan v hn trong nc v trong etanol, dung dch m c snh nh nc ng</p> <p> 2.2 axit PhotphoricHng s phn ly H3PO4 H+ + H2PO4- K1 = 7,52.10-3H2PO-4 H++ HPO42- K2 = 6,31.10-8 HPO42- H+ + PO43- K3 = 1,26.10-12- tan H3PO4 trong nc thay i theo nhit c biu din qua gin </p> <p> nht</p> <p> nht</p> <p>Khi lng ring</p> <p>Gin lng-hi</p> <p>Gin pha h H3PO4 H2O</p> <p>Nhit si</p> <p> dn in</p> <p>2.2 axit photphoricTnh cht ha hcTnh oxh-kh: H3 PO4 kh b kh nhit thng, c tnh oxh yu nhit caoTc dng bi nhit: di tc dng ca nhit axit photphoric b mt nc to ra cc dng axit khc 260o C: 2H3 PO4 -&gt; H4P2O7 + H2O 300o C : H3 PO4 -&gt; HPO3 + H2OTnh axit: L mt a axit, c tnh axit trung bnh, lm qu, tc dng vi bazo, oxit bazo, mui</p> <p>21ng dng ca H3PO4Nguyn liu sn xut phn bn, thu tinh gch men, x l nc, xi mng, sn xut cht git ty.</p> <p>ng dng ca H3 PO4Axit Phosphoric c s dng lm nc ngt, mt, thch rau cu, pho mt hoc to hng thm cho thc phm.</p> <p>ng dngCc mui natri ca axit photphoric, natri phosphat (NaH2PO4) l axt yu, v c s dng vi natri bicarbonate lm cho bt n.</p> <p>ng dng X l b mt kim loi, lm cht ty ra cng nghip </p> <p>2. Cc hp cht quan trng ca photpho2.3 Cc mui ca axit photphoricAxit photphoric c th to ra thnh 3 dy mui</p> <p>ng dng ca cc mui3. Sn xut H3 PO4 theo phng php nhit3. Sn xut H3 PO4 theo phng php nhitNguyn l qu trnh sn xutT P ch to P2O5 theo phn ng</p> <p>Theo phng php 1 cp th c P v CO b oxy ha</p> <p>Hydrat ha P2O5 khong 800oC 1000oC to thnh anhydrit photphoric</p> <p>Sau HPO3 b hydrat ha thnh H3PO4</p> <p>P4O10P4+ 5 O2P4O10P4+ 10 O2+ 10 CO+ 10 CO2P2O54 HPO3 + 2 H2OHPO3H3PO4 + H2OCh </p> <p> trnh s to thnh hypophotphoro th khi t chy photpho phi tin hnh vi lng khng kh gp 2 ln Vi nhit 450oC 540oC trong v cung cp 120 130% khng kh so vi l thuyt th c th oxy ha gn nh hon ton P</p> <p>Nh vy thc cht ca qu trnh l :</p> <p>P2O5PHPO3H3PO4+O2 +H2O +H2OCng ngh sn xut photpho trngPhng php: dng than kh Ca3 (PO4)2 Nhit : 1400-1600oCPhotpho to thnh thng hoa cng vi COPtpu:2Ca3 (PO4 )2 + 10C + 6SiO2 -&gt; 4P + 10CO +6 CaSiO3S sn xut</p> <p>S cng ngh sn xut theo phng php tun hon 1 thp</p> <p>1: Ming phun; 2: Thp t chy; 3: Thit b lc in; 4: Qut; 5: B cha axit; 6: My bm; 7: Thit b lm mtS n gin</p> <p>Thp t chyThit b lc inB cha H3PO4P lngKo khkhoS cng ngh sn xut theo phng php tun hon 2 thp ring bit1: Thng nu chy photpho; 2: Thng cung ng; 3: Thng hon xung; 4: Vi phun; 5: Bung t; 6,9: ng dn kh; 7: Thp hydrat ho; 8: ng phun nc; 10: thp lc in; 11: in cc ngng t; 12: in cc phng in</p> <p>Ngi ta t chy photpho trong thng (1)c ti bng axit photphoric, hi photpho c a ln thng cung ng (2) ri a qua thng hon xung (3).Sau c phun vo l t (5) lm bng gch chu axit qua h thng vi phun (4).Photpho chy trong khng kh to thnh P2O5 qua ng dn kh (6) vo thp hydrat ha (7).Nc hoc axit long c phun vo trong thp.Axit ngng t y thp (7) c tho ra ngoi, phn kh t thp hydrat i vo lc in lm sch ln cui trc khi phng khng.u - Nhc imTun hon 2 thp ring bitTun hon 1 thpChi ph thit b thp hnTn hao nc v nng lng thp hnTo ra axit tinh khit hnKhi cn thit c th ch to photpho vngThit b cng knh, tn nhiu chi phTn hao nhiu nng lngAxit to ra c tinh khit kmTnh hnh sn xutPhng php ngy cng t s dng trn th gii do tn rt nhiu nng lngTuy nhin khi s dng H3 PO4 cho ph gia thc phm th vn dng H3 PO4 nhit</p>