a brief overview of the definitions and measurement of poverty and inequality
1.Poverty and Inequality in a Changing Context
2. Outline 1.What is poverty? What is inequality? A definition and link2.Assessments of Poverty 2.1 Recent changes in global geography of poor3.MDGs post 2015 Macro and micro economic measures4.Activity and Discussion 3. What is Poverty? It is possible to define and measure poverty in a variety of waysMonetary Utility, basic needs Capabilities Wellbeing, functionings (Sen 1999) Inequalities Relative, social exclusion Participatory self defined, NGO, CBO 4. Defining and Assessing Poverty We must initiate and design policies to impact povertyThis can only be done if we can measure povertyMeasurements can only be done if poverty is clearly defined 5. Ways of Measuring Poverty Monetary poverty: Consumption, Poverty line measures: definition of the poverty line, headcount index, poverty severity Capability: Basic needs, mortality, literacy, water, child malnutrition Inequality: Income inequality, size distribution, Lorenz curve, Gini coefficientParticipatory: Not yet adapted 6. New Geography of the Global Poor - Most of the worldspoor now live in middle- income countries (MIC), e.g. India - Shift from LIC (low income) to MIC Need for a new model of development assistance No justification to exlude MICs from aid programmes future of MDG after 2015?Tax evasion is also becoming a big issue 7. What are the MDGs? Engaging targets with comprehensible objectivesEradicate extreme poverty and hungerImprove maternal healthAchieve universal primary educationCombat HIV/AIDS and other diseasesPromote gender equality and empower womenEnsure environmental sustainabilityReduce child mortalityGlobal partnership for development 8. MDGs post 2015A new framework? MACRO ECONOMIC- Foreign aid eases pressure to mobilize resources within country - Correctives to make existing rules less unfair (aid, repayment) - Need for positive discrimination/ affirmative action - More equal partnership between developed and developing countries - Focus on means rather than ends Means rather than endsMICRO ECONOMIC- Framework for states to reshape policies in national context - Employment creation Public provision of services i.e. education, healthcare - Accountability of government people are actors not beneficiaries - Participatory development 9. MDGs from different perspectives 1. Read the article and identify the organisation/perspective it is written from 2. Critically evaluate according to these points: a) Criticisms/failures b) Positive points/successes c) Possible solutions/new ideas3. Identify the discourse used4. Feedback 10. Any Questions?