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.

P: . - a, 2003 .

: . - , . - , .. , .. - , . . - , . . - , . . -

2

: . - , - , ; . - ; . . , ; . . - , . . - ; . . - . . . - . . - . . . ... , .

3

5

I. , 6 II. . 1. . 15 2. . 23 3. . 29 4. . 34 5. . 40 6. . 47 7. . 52 8. . 59 9. - . 65 10. . 71 11. . 75 12. . 80 13. . 85 14. . 91 15. . 99 16. . 104 III. . IV. . 110 111

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, , , , . 16 , . : 1) , , 2) 3) . ( ), ( , - .), ( , ), ( ). , ( , ), ( ) ( ). , ( , ). , () ( ).

5

I. , I.I. e , , () 104109 m. , 380 760 nm, . . , 90% . , - 400 nm ( = 1 400 nm) , - 400 nm ( = 760 105 nm). , . . : , : . , . , , . , . . . , . . . , - , . , . , . , . : 1. 2. 3. 4. . . .6

, , . , , , , ( ). , , , . , , . , , . I.II. : a(,T) A B b c d E ! EE0i i E r r II E

: , ; () ; ; a ; ; ; , , : () ; 7

F F ! H h i im iB I k l m n n21

r(,T) R ! S s s T u() u(,T)d v V y y

, , ; ; - () , , ; , , ;

I.III. I.III.I. :

= 2c/ = c/v= cT, n = c/v, = nl,T ! ! ! 1 ! I = S = E H = Sdt T0

(1) (2) (3)

,

(4)

2 I ~ E0 .

(5)

8

I.III.II.

1 n 1 i

2 n

2

. 1. .

:sin n2 i = = n21 sin n1

(6) : im = arcsin n 21 . (7)

:r E II =

tg ( i ) i E II tg ( i + )

r E =

sin( i ) i E sin( i + )

(8)

: iB = /2 r , ( E 0 ) : sin i B sin i B (9) n21 = = = tgi B . sin cos i B

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I.III.III. 1 3 y 2 F f f 3 2 s s H F 1 y M M

.2.

1 1 1 (10) = = s s f () : y s (11) = = y s , d , . f ' , : f = '

f 1 . f 2 f 1 + f 2 d

(12) (13)

= 1 + 2 d 1 2

I.III.IV. : I , , 10

I = I 0 cos 2 , I0 e .

(14)

: - - C, %, d, :

= [ ]d C 100

(15)

[] e , , d . ( ): (16) = Vd , , V , , d . I.III.V. ( ) , . ( ) = m. (17) ( ) = (m+1/2) (18) I.III.VI. ( ) (n k) , . . . n() k(). : dn/d < 0. . : b (19) n ( ) = a + 2 , a b .

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, : dn/d > 0. n . I.III.VII. . . . . . : (20) bsin m = m m ( ) m - . , . () d. , , , : (21) dsin m = m , I.III.VIII. , I d : I = Ioexp[k()d]. (22) I.III.IX. . : (23) E = h 34 h = 6,6261937.10 J.s . : 2 24) h = 1 mv max + A 212

2 1 mv max Emax 2 .

I.III.X. u() u (T ) = u ( , T )d .0

(25)

: r ( ,T ) (26) = f ( ,T ) . a ( ,T ) : 4 (27) R = T . 8 2 4 = 5,6687.10 W/m K . : 8h 1 , (28) u = 3 exp(h kT ) 1 c k = 1,38.1023 J/deg . , , , : (29) maxT = const. I.III.XI. . 1 . 1 lm = W t W

13

I = d/d E = d dS R = S

cd

I e = e d

W/sr

lx lm/m2

E = d e dS R = e S

W/m2 W/m2

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II. 1. : . P . . n e c v : n = c/v. To , , , . e. o ( = 2c/). . (1 2) (n1 n2), , , (. 1).1 n 1 i

2 n

2

.1. .

15

. : 1. , , . 2. i, , , . 3. i , , : sin i n 2 = = n 21 , sin n1 (1)

. n21 . n2 > n1, - , i . n2 < n1 , . e. - , - i i, sin i n 21 . im, /2, (1): (2) im = arcsin n21 - (i > im) , . (). . , , , . , . , . . ( ). , . . 2. , nm > 1.7. . . . n. 1, a - = 90. , 16

a b . 2 , . . . , a, , - 90, , , , - . 2 , 3 .

f n b

3

B

2 a

C

nm

A

1

.2. .

no 1. 3 . , , . , . 3 , . n, (1). 1 2 sin n (3) = n m sin 90 0 (3) n= nm sin . a 2 3: n m sin . (4) = n 0 sin n0 1. (4) nm sin = sin . . 2 ,

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(5) = +, . (5), (4') (3'). (3') n n = sin n m sin 2 cos . sin .2

(6)

, n , nm. nm , , n, (6), . : , . . 3 , , . , . . . , , . . .. , , (), - . , , , R1 R2. , . , , . . , . . . , . . . , , . . , , . , . n , . ,

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D = 589,3 nm. , , , Z..

O.

R2

O

R1

A

C

.3. .

nD Z, , , D: (7) D = nF nC. nF F F = 486,1 nm a nC C C = 656,3 nm. nD D : 1 n F nC (8) = nD 1 : n 1 (9) = D n F nC , D . . , . , , , . , n = 1,658, - nm , - . 19

. , . . , . , . . 4.

. 4. . 1 , 2 , ,

1. . o nD Z . . 1 2 , . D D = A + B. . ( , , , , .). . . . 2. .20

. , . nD Z 5 15 50. . . dn/dt .

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1. nD 1.30 1.31 1.32 1.33 1.34 1.35 1.36 1.37 1.38 1.39 1.40 1.41 1.42 1.43 1.44 1.45 1.46 1.47 1.48 1.49 1.50 1.51 1.52 1.53 1.54 1.55 1.56 1.57 1.58 1.59 1.60 1.61 1.62 1.63 1.64 1.65 1.66 1.67 1.68 1.69 1.7022

B 0.03188 0.03174 0.03159 0.03143 0.03125 0.03105 0.03083 0.03060 0.03036 0.03010 0.02982 0.02953 0.02922 0.02889 0.02855 0.02819 0.02781 0.02741 0.02699 0.02656 0.02611 0.02563 0.02513 0.02461 0.02407 0.02350 0.02290 0.02235 0.02163 0.02095 0.02024 0.01949 0.01870 0.01784 0.01699 0.01606 0.01507 0.01403 0.01288 0.01164 0.01028

nD

2. Z Z 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30

A 0.02473 0.02468 0.02462 0.02457 0.02452 0.02447 0.02442 0.02438 0.02434 0.02429 0.02425 0.02422 0.02418 0.02415 0.02411 0.02408 0.02406 0.02403 0.02401 0.02399 0.02397 0.02396 0.02394 0.02393 0.02393 0.02393 0.02393 0.02394 0.02395 0.02396 0.02398 0.02401 0.02404 0.02408 0.02413 0.02419 0.02426 0.02435 0.02445 0.02458 0.02458

1.000 0.999 0.995 0.988 0.978 0.966 0.951 0.934 0.914 0.891 0.866 0.839 0.809 0.777 0.743 0.707 0.669 0.629 0.588 0.545 0.500 0.454 0.407 0.358 0.309 0.259 0.208 0.156 0.10 0.052 0.000

Z 60 59 58 57 56 55 54 53 52 51 50 49 48 47 46 45 44 43 42 41 40 39 38 37 36 35 34 33 32 31 30

2. : , , . . , - . . , ! . E . . ! ! E H , ! . E , ! ! H k , , . , ! - -. , o k ! E . ! , E ! . E - - . ! , E , , . . . , - - . v v , . - - ! E (.1). z, ! ! x . : E = E 0 exp i t . - v - , , . t = 0 - , , . t = to, , = to, a = to, = , (.1). , , t>to, , v v (. 1). :

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z z = t , a = t (1) v v : 1 1 1 1 = = z = z (n n ) , (2) 2 2 v v 2 c , n = c/v n = c/v. . . - , n n.

'

.1. .

, - - C, %, d, : = [ ]dC / 100 , (3) [] e , . = 589,3 nm. d - . [] , (3) . , -, , - . .dC 100

24

: = Vd , (4) V ,