Predmet: Sintaksa Proste i Složene Rečenice Predavač

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<p>Predmet: Sintaksa proste i sloene reenice Predava : doc. dr. Nadira Aljovi</p> <p>Semestar : VI (Akademska 2008./2009. godina)</p> <p>Literatura: Quirk, R., S. Greenbaum, 1990. A Student's Grammar of the English Language, Longman. Quirk, R., S. Greenbaum, 1973. A University Grammar of English. Longman. Rianovi, M. 2007. Praktina engleska gramatika. Drugo izdanje. Sarajevo: ahinpai.</p> <p>Topics: 1. The verb and its complementation: Phrasal vs. Prepositional Verbs 2. Obligatory and optional elements of the sentence: Adjuncts vs. Complements a. Sentence adjuncts and VP adjuncts b. Adjuncts in VP/TP/CP: "adverbials" c. Connecting adverbials: conjuncts; peripheral adverbials: disjuncts; sentence internal adverbials: "adjuncts". 3. Compound vs. complex sentences a. Coordination b. Subordinate clauses (syntactic and semantic classes, internal structure) c. Complex transitive complementation: clausal analysis 4. Topic, focus: preposing, clefting, pseudo-clefting; extraposition. 5. Comparing English and Bosnian: Questions; Existential sentences; Negation; Agreement; Ellipsis. 6. Complex noun phrases a. determiners b. semantic aspect of noun modification; premodification, c. postmodification d. complements and adjuncts in noun phrases: X-bar theory of phrase structure; DP.</p> <p>1</p> <p>1. The verb and its complementation: Phrasal vs. Prepositional Verbslook at the girl run up the hill ring up a friend prepositional verbs</p> <p>phrasal verb</p> <p>If we say that at and , up from the first two examples are prepositions then [at the girl] is a PP.</p> <p>[At the girl] he was looking. [Up the hill] he ran. [At the girl] and [Up the hill] behave like full constituents (prepositional phrases). BUT : He [rang up] a friend. *[Up a friend] he rang. whom? *Up whom did you ring? Whom did you ring up? phrasal verb</p> <p>ring up } functioningtogether</p> <p>Phrasal verbs consist of two words. They are multi-word verbs, and they count as a single head (one phrase). Let's take a look at the possible analysis of a sentence containing a prepositional verb : S V DO 1. He looked at the girl. S V A 2. He looked at the girl. (Randolph Quirk) at the girl } according to R. Quirk; Adverbial Adverbials optional elements. In this case [at the girl] is not an optional element. Complements obligatory elements that complete the meaning of the verb</p> <p>2</p> <p>a) [at the girl] is not an adverbial, it is not optional</p> <p>A COMPLEMENT</p> <p>this is the 1st reason to reject the analysis above.b) this kind of analysis cuts the sentence in a wrong way :</p> <p>looked at } it is not a verbal part This can be proved by empirical evidence BUT : S V O He looked at the girl. O PP PNP</p> <p>Now, let's consider the following examples to make a contrast between phrasal and prepositional verbs. a) * She called up the girl and up the boy. b) She looked at the girl and at the boy. [up the boy] and [up the girl] are not constituents BUT : [call up the girl] is a constituent She [called up the girl] and [called up the boy]. [call up] PHRASAL VERB</p> <p>Similar strings of words cannot be coordinated!</p> <p>I look at the girl. look at her *look her at.</p> <p>look at</p> <p>the verb + preposition</p> <p>PREPOSITIONAL VERB</p> <p>The pronoun cannot come before the preposition. The pronoun is A COMPLEMENT of a preposition. look at prep. verb her complement of a preposition</p> <p>3</p> <p>The preposition must preceede the complemet. It is possible to separate the preposition and the verb but only by inserting an ADVERB.</p> <p>I looked strangely at the girl. They called early on their friends. Adverbs never split phrasal verbs. I rang up the girl. *rang up her rang her up rang up PHRASAL VERB (syntactic unity)</p> <p>The pronominal of the phrasal verb splits the verb It must be inserted betwen the verb and preposition.</p> <p>V + PP PREPOSITIONAL VERBS</p> <p>or V + Adv + PP</p> <p>PHRASAL VERBS Phrasal verbs are followed by NP complemetation!</p> <p>V + NP the verbal part is COMPLEX the verb + particle the verb + particle + NP V + NP</p> <p>4</p> <p>Prepositional and Phrasal verbs : SIMILARITIES</p> <p>- These verbs can usually get a new (idiomatic) meaning. both prepositional and phrasal verbs have sometimes a specific meaning. listen to the particle to doesn't change the meaning of the verb. (compositional meaning) PREPOSITIONAL VERB (non - compositional meaning)</p> <p>look after } look + after new meaning</p> <p>look after someone PP look after their children</p> <p>(take care of someone)</p> <p>*look their children after *look them after There is a syntactic process when prepositional verbs seem to behave like phrasal verbs. Sometimes PREPOSITIONAL and PHRASAL verbs look very much alike. The most striking similarity between phrasal and prepositional verbs occurs with passivization. When passivizing, it is IMPOSSIBLE TO MOVE the PP, but only its COMPLEMENT. Take a look at the examples below : They called on their friends this morning . PASSIVE : Their friends were called on this morning.</p> <p>Their friends were [called [on NP ] ] this morning.</p> <p>PREPOSITIONAL VERB (visit)</p> <p>PREPOSITIONAL STRANDING Prepositional verbs resemble phrasal verbs.</p> <p>5</p> <p>He called up his friend early. PASSIVE : His friend was called up early</p> <p>His friend was [called [up NP ] ] early. (up stays with the verb)</p> <p>PHRASAL VERB (summon)</p> <p>Prepositional stranding does not occur with Phrasal Verbs.</p> <p>PREPOSITIONAL VERBS WITH DOUBLE OBJECTS (DITRANSITIVE) V + NP + PP accuse of advise about charge with compare with congragulate on deprive of explain to inform of introduce to persuade of prevent from protect from punish for sentence to suspect of thank for</p> <p>In general, ditransitive verbs require double complementation (they take two objects). Only the first object can become the subject of a passive sentence.-</p> <p>to remind someone of something Someone is reminded of something. *Something is reminded of someone</p> <p>MIXED VERBS : PHRASAL PREPOSITIONAL VERBS6</p> <p>Phrasal prepositional verbs have besides the lexical verb, both an adverb and a preposition as particles.a) I am looking forward to your party this weekend. b) We had to put up with a lot of teasing at school. c) We put our success down to hard work.</p> <p>S V DO A</p> <p>S</p> <p>S V DO O2</p> <p>S</p> <p>S V DO O2 S NP PRN We V put down (phrasal) DO NP our success O2 PP P NP</p> <p>d) He thinks he can get away with everything.</p> <p>The passivization is possible. With ditransitive verbs (c), only the active direct object can be made a passive subject : e) Our success can be put down to hard work.</p> <p>We had to put up PHRASAL VERB</p> <p>[with something] PP</p> <p>2. Obligatory and optional elements of the sentence: Adjuncts vs. Complements7</p> <p>VERB TYPE INTRANSITIVE COPULA</p> <p>SUB. FRAME [ ] compl. not poss. AP NP ___ PP NP ___ S (TP/CP) NP + NP ___ NP + PP PP ___ AdvP obligatory PP __ NP AdvP AP ___ NP NP</p> <p>EXAMPLE John snores. She is happy. She is a girl. She is in a good mood. Susan loves Bill. Mary says that Susan... She gave John the money. She have the money to John She is in London. She is upstairs. He put the money in a box. She called him foolish. She called him a fool.</p> <p>FUNCTION S[V] S [ V Pc ] S [ V DO ] S V DO IO IO DO S [ V Ac ]</p> <p>MONO TRANSITIVE DITRANSITIVE (copula) intr. + Ac adverbial compl. trans + Ac COMPLEX TRANSITIVE</p> <p>S [V DO Ac]] S [V DO Pc]</p> <p>Predicational complement vs. Adverbial complement Ac Adverbial complement the meaning is adverbial-like. It is not just an adverbial, it is obligatory, therefore it is ADVERBIAL COMPLEMET. Pc Predicational complement predicate and not of the object. instead of object complement The complement of the</p> <p>Adjuncts : elements that are not required to appear in the sentence, they are optional. They provide addittional information about process, time, etc. If they are left out, the sentence remains grammatical.</p> <p>SENTENCE ADVERBIALS Sentence adverbials are adverbs that often appear at the beginning of the sentence, followed by a comma, although they can also be used in other positions. They can be realized by : adverbs and prepositional phrases</p> <p>In my opinion, she was one of the greatest singers. Certainly, she was one of the greatest singers.8</p> <p>SENTENCE ADVERBIALS and VP ADVERBIALS FOCUSING Sentence adverbials can't be focused, while VP adverbials can be focused. He walked down the road slowly, not quickly. } VP ADVERBIAL *She arrived home before dark fortunately, not unfortunately. } SENTENCE ADVERBIAL</p> <p>-</p> <p>He could do something about it, however. S ADVERBIAL *He could do something about it however not morever.</p> <p>FOCUSING BY WH QUESTIONS Q : How did he walk down the road? A: Slowly. Q: How was she a very unreasonable girl? A: *Certainly. VP ADVERBIAL SENTENCE ADVERBIAL</p> <p>VP Adverbials can be focused by WH questions. It is impossible to ask questions for sentence adverbials. Therefore, sentence adverbials cannot be focused by WH questions!</p> <p>CLEFTING</p> <p>IT + BE + FOCUS ELEMENT + CLEFT CLAUSE</p> <p>9</p> <p>Sentence adverbials cannot be focused. *It is only fortunately that she arrived home before dark. It is only recently that I saw him. / VP advebial / can be clefted.</p> <p>THE POSITION OF VP ADVERBIALS 1. [William [walked slowly down the road.]] inside the VP2. Down the road, [William [walked slowly].]</p> <p>Outside the TP, but it is somehow 'attached' to it.3. Slowly, [William [walked down the road.]] 4. He should dislike the girl intensely.</p> <p>*He should dislike intensely the girl.</p> <p>Normally, adverbials cannot split the sequence V Complement (V-DO)</p> <p>*</p> <p>V</p> <p>AdvP</p> <p>DP</p> <p>There are cases when an adverbial can split the Verb Complement sequence : when the DP is too long.</p> <p>We considered briefly the longterm solution to the problem. (very long and heavy complement)</p> <p>10</p> <p>English prefers the word order when a shorter adverbial preceedes the complement :</p> <p>*[He intensely should dislike the girl.] vs. [He should intensely dislike the girl.] *[He always is asking odd questions.] vs. [He is always asking odd questions]</p> <p>TP VP adverbials must be attached to the VP. They can be moved, but the connection with the VP must not be lost. VP</p> <p>S T'</p> <p>* these adverbials are 'above' T '</p> <p>*</p> <p>Aux</p> <p>The examples of the possible positions that a VP adverbial can occupy in a sentence :</p> <p>1. He should dislike the girl [intensely].</p> <p>VP Adv V DP</p> <p>11</p> <p>2. [Intensely], he should dislike the girl [</p> <p>]</p> <p>(The adverbial was moved)</p> <p>TP Adv S T'</p> <p>T</p> <p>VP</p> <p>3. He should [intensely] dislike the girl.</p> <p>VP (possible in certain cases) Adv V DP</p> <p>Adverbials are optional elements that do not combine the operation of merge(r). Adverbials do create a larger constituent, but the constituent remains of the same type.12</p> <p>The process (operation) of combining and joining adverbials (adjuncts) to create a larger constituent is called ADJUNCTION.</p> <p>THE POSITION OF SENTENCE ADVERBIALS Sentence adverbials are detached from the VP. These adverbials are attached to other elements which are positioned on higher level in the tree-diagram.1. [Certainly], he should ask the question.</p> <p>SENTENCE ADVERBIAL</p> <p>2. He should [certainly] ask the question.</p> <p>*He should ask [certainly] the question.</p> <p>cannot split the verb and its complement.</p> <p>3. He should ask the question, [certainly].</p> <p>It is possible to split verb complement sequence only if the complement is long and heavy.</p> <p>13</p> <p>CONJUNCTS, DISJUNCTS, ADJUNCTS Connecting adverbials: conjuncts; Peripheral adverbials: disjuncts; Sentence internal adverbials: adjunctsCONJUNCTS (Connecting adverbials)</p> <p>As their name implies, conjuncts serve to conjoin two utterances or parts of an utterance, and they do so by expressing at the same time the semantic relationship obtaining between them.a) She is a student. At the same time, she works in a pizzeria.</p> <p>These adverbials connect two separate sentences.b) So you're feeling better again, Bill!</p> <p>Conjuncts can be the discourse initiators.c) I see her regularly because she is, by the way, a friend of my brother's.</p> <p>Conjuncts can semantically endorse a connection already expressed by grammatical subordination.SEMANTICS OF CONJUNCTS :</p> <p>LISTING : In the first place, the economy is recovering, and secondly .... She has the ability, the experience, and above all the courage to tackle the problem. ... In addition to this problem, we have to admit that the mistake will not be repeated. ... On top of that, I believe that this man is more than perfect for this job. SUMMATIVE: The professor was in a bad bood. All in all, it was a bad day for the students. We had lost a huge sum of money. Therefore, we will not repeat our mistakes. APPOSITIVE : I will compare his stlye, for example, one of the greatest American authors. She was beautiful, in other words, he had to keep his eyes on that woman. RESULTIVE : I got there very late, so I missed the party. I thought that everything she said was truth. Of course, I didn't know her well.</p> <p>14</p> <p>DISJUNCTS (Peripheral adverbials) Disjuncts are adverbials that are somewhat detached from the sentence. STYLE DISJUNCTS CONTENT DISJUNCTS two classes of disjuncts</p> <p>modality and manner Style respect DISJUNCTS relating to certainty content relating to evaluation</p> <p>STYLE DISJUNCTS</p> <p>Frankly, I am tired. If I may say so without giving you offence, I think you're not so intelligent. To be frank, I think you're not so intelligent.CONTENT DISJUNCTS Full clausal form (usually non-finite)</p> <p>Disjuncts can be expressed by a wide range of adverb phrases, prepositional phrases or clauses. The play was written by Shakespeare. perhaps The play was undoubtely written by Shakespeare. apparently Wisely, Mrs. Jensen consulted her lawyer. Naturally, my he husband expected me home by ten.15</p> <p>Predictably, they have lost the match. Hopefully, we will see the show. To my regret, she did not come to see me. What was especially fortunate, the child was unhurt. We were not, which is surprising, invited to meet the new members of the staff.1. John will come back soon as far as I know.</p> <p>DISJUNCT</p> <p>ATTACHED TO TP it is not a VP adverbial2. Philip doesn't like it here, if I'm not mistaken.</p> <p>DISJUNCT</p> <p>'ADJUNCTS' (Sentence internal adverbials: adjuncts) Adjuncts are a class of adverbials that are integrated into the structure of the clause, unlike disjuncts and conjuncts which are peripheral to it. Several contexts reveal the way in which adjuncts differ from disjuncts and conjuncts : - Negation: eg.: *Quickly they didn't leave for home. (adjunct) To my regret, they didn't leave for home (disjunct) - Questions: eg.: Does he write to his parents because he wants to (or because...)? *Does he write to his parents to my regret or to my relief. Adjuncts can be realized by:1. Adverbial phrases: eg. 2. a noun phrase: eg.</p> <p>slowly last week on Monday</p> <p>3. a prepositional phrase: eg.</p> <p>4. non-finite clauses: a. infinitive cl.: Peter was playing to win.b. ing clause: Wishing to encourage him, they asked him to sing. c. ed participle cl.: If urged by our friends, we will go to their party. d. verbless clause: Peter was playing, unaware of the...</p>