pruning & plucking in tea garden

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A paper on pruning & plucking in tea gardens.


<p>Definition:Pruning is a vital operation for tea management to limit the top growth and to stimulate the growth of the bush. Pruning is a process to the tea bush at a certain height to control the vertical growth and allow it expanding horizontally for comfortable plucking with renewed and vigorous branching pattern.</p> <p>Fig: Pruning operation</p> <p>Objectives of Pruning:Some objectives of pruning are: to check the reproductive growth and provide stimulus for vegetative growth especially for the production of young shoot that constitute the crop. to remove the dead wear and unproductive wood. to renew the actively growing branches which can support the sufficient volume of maintenance foliase on it. to maintain the height and dead frame for economic plucking. to increase the growth hormone for vegetative growth. to derive store energy for the production of the growing shoot. to improve bush hygienic.</p> <p> to reduce the incidence of pest and diseases which help to rejuvenate the bushes for the maximum cross production.1</p> <p> to regulate the crop harvest. to renew the growing branches and maintenance the foliage to meet physiological needs</p> <p>of the plant. minimizing formation of banjhi and spreading of pests and diseases. controlling crop during rush period and to achieve better crop distribution.</p> <p> maintaining quality in the processed Tea. to help the structure of flush. easy to plucking of the Tea leaf.</p> <p>Types of Pruning:According to the age of the tea population pruning may be two types: Pruning in immature Tea plant. Pruning in mature Tea plant.</p> <p>Pruning in immature Tea plant may be divided into three parts: Decentering Breaking Bending</p> <p>Pruning in maturing Tea plant may be divided into six types: Collar prune [cp] Heavy prune[hp] Medium prune[mp] Light prune[lp]\Top prune[tp]\Cut across prune. Skiff prune [sp]\Lung prune[lp]</p> <p>Skiff prune may be divided into five types :2</p> <p> Deep skiff [DSK] Medium skiff [MSK] Light skiff [LSK] Level of skiff [LOSK] Unpruned [UP]</p> <p>Light prune {LP}: Initial light pruning operation is generally given at 60-75 cm. and regulatedin such a way that the maximum plucking level is restricted to 96-100cm. for 15-20 years before medium pruning is done. Light pruning should be given at 4-5cm. above the previous pruned level and it is the most important operation in a pruning cycle. This will ensure the development of strong new shoots with minimum die-back.</p> <p>Objectives of Light prune: To renew the wood. To regulate the distribution of crop. To get rid of excessive crop. To maintain the dead and drought branches.</p> <p>Collar Prune: Collar pruning is the most severe operation in which the bole of the bush is cutat the ground level or even 5 cm. below ground level.It helps to remove the dead and defunct wood and development of good ,healthy and new primary frames.It also important for restoration of plant density by in filling or interplanting. For this perform carbohydrate content needs 18.5%.</p> <p>Objectives of Collar prune: To maintain shape/size of the plant or bush when it is out of shape. If the structure of growthness of plant doesnt properly, need CP. When plants are diseased collar prune is needed. When plant bush structure destroyed then collar prune is needed for rejuvenation.</p> <p>Medium Prune:Medium pruning is performed at level between 45-65 cm. The main object is to reduce the plucking table for efficient maintenance when it attains the height of 95 cm. The exact height on3</p> <p>which a section should be reduced depends on the average form and if previous cut has been satisfactory ,the cut may be between 55-68 cm. from the ground level. But the height should not be lower than necessary to remove the knots and congestion.</p> <p>Objectives of Medium prune: To reduce frame height of bush. Medium prune is effective for produce new branch and leaf. To reduce incidence of pest and disease. To reduce the incidence of excess biomass of bush frame. To remove knot renew wood. When to create a problem/abnormal problem, then it is needed. To facilitate consolidation by infilling vacancy.</p> <p>Heavy or Low Pruning:Heavy pruning is a varient of collar pruning and when the height of the frame of the bushes that they are difficult to pluck and when the branches have formed snags and knots then heavy pruning become necessary.The height of heavy pruning dependson the type of Tea and condition of the frame.Generally the bole is cut at 15-45 cm.</p> <p>Skiffing Prune:It is performed just at the top of the plant.</p> <p>Finger / lung prune:It may be performed between 70-80 cm.</p> <p>Skiffing Prune: Deep skiff(DSK): Deep skiff is to cut the bush half way between the last pruning mark andthe tipping height, usually 75-85 cm. or it should be cut 12-15 cm. above the last light prune so as to leave a fork on the stem to increase the number of new plucking shoots.</p> <p>Objectives of Deep skiff:4</p> <p>To regulate the distribution of crop. To reduce the ill effect of drought. To get rid of excessive creep. To reduce height of plucking table. To longer the vegetative life of the plants.</p> <p>Medium skiff (MSK): Medium skiff is to cut the bush at the mid way of deep skiff andtipping level,usually between 85-95 cm. or 5 cm. above the deep skiff.Its object is to cut below the majority crows feet to remove the most of the conjested growth above the junction of red and green wood.</p> <p>Objectives of Medium skiff: To regulate the distribution of crop. To reduce the ill effect of drought. To reduce the incidence of excessive bungee formation. To reduce height of plucking table. To longer the vegetative life of the plants.</p> <p>Light Skiff (LSK): Light skiff is to cut the bush at the mid way of the medium skiff andtipping height,usually 20 cm. above frome the last light pruning.It is performed at the current years tipping level to remove the creep foliase.</p> <p>Level off skiff (LOSK):It is performed to level the the bush at the end seasons plucking level.It is to cut at the 8 cm. from the top of the bush of the current years tipping level.In the skiffed section pruning litters should be removed from the top of the bush to avoid infection of horse hair blight and thred blight diseases.</p> <p>Unpruned(UP):</p> <p>5</p> <p>It is the most top layer of a tea population which portion is not cut.This portion may be found at the intervel period between two pruning practices.</p> <p>Pruning administration:Pruning administration consists of following factors(1) Measuring stick supply. (2) Sharp knife and saw. (3) Cut should be parallel to the slope of ground. (4) Pruning litters preserved as mulch. (5) Advanced P,K (20-40) kg. above normal dose in spring season. (6) Winter wash oil for demossing. (7) The bitumine point in large cut. (8) Caustic wash for firm cleaning.</p> <p>Pruning factors:Some factors are affected in pruning types and pruning cycle, such as:6</p> <p>(1) Sun scorch damage. (2) Drought damage/Blister damage. (3) Growth time desired. (4) Rest period required. (5) Crop required. (6) Nutrient status. (7) Pest damage. (8) Yield required. (9) Well equipment.</p> <p>Crop distributiona) The high treatment, UP, LOS, LSK, MSK, increase the first flush. b) LP and DSK increase second flush and main crop. c) HRP, MP, heavy prune and young tea increase the autumn crop.</p> <p>Pruning Cycle:The interval time between two successive prune is called the pruning cycle.7</p> <p>It varies from 1-6 years based on the following criteria:-Varity to variety. -Season to season. -Growth pattern of tea garden. -Soil climatology conditions. -Height of plucking level. -Quality and quantity of crop pattern. -Availability of pluckers.</p> <p>Various pruning cycle:Specially in Bangladesh two pruning cycles are followed, such as:-Three years pruning cycle. -Four years pruning cycle.</p> <p>Consequences of Pruning Cycle:The consequence of three years pruning cycle are as follows:LP:LSK:DSK The consequences four years pruning cycle are as follows:LP:MSK:DSK:LSK / LP:MSK:DSK:MSK</p> <p>Time of pruning:According to the seasons different times of pruning are followed which are given as follows : In two seasons pruning operations can be performed.</p> <p>8</p> <p>Winter Season Pruning:In this season respiration rate low,rainfall and moisture suitable so that plant growth enough and light pruning and skiff pruning are performed.</p> <p>Summer Season Pruning:In this season rainfall off, respiration high, rains and soil moisture low so collar type prune usually performed.</p> <p>Pruning schedule of immature Tea population:Year 0 1 2 3 4 5 Months/Time April-May Types of pruning Planting Plucking height _ Above 50 cm. Above 50 cm. Above 52-55 cm. Above 70-75 cm. Above 78-80 cm.</p> <p>January-February. Decentering, at 15-23 cm, height. Do Do Do Do Prune ,at 40 cm. Prune, above 50-55 cm. Prune,at 45-55 cm. Prune,at 75 cm.</p> <p>Pruning schedule of mature Tea population:Pruning schedule of mature Tea population:</p> <p>9</p> <p>Types of prune Light prune (LP)</p> <p>Months/ Time First DecemberEnd December (Week)</p> <p>Deep skiff (DSK)</p> <p>First FebruaryEnd February (Week)</p> <p>Medium skiff (MSK) Light skiff (LSK)</p> <p>Mid JanuaryFirst February (Week) End JanuaryWhole February (Week)</p> <p>Medium prune (MP)</p> <p>2430 Years.</p> <p>Requirements of pruning:Some requirements should be fullfiled in order to successful pruning programme such as: (1) Pruning programme. (2) Sample inspection. (3) Starch test: Particularly starch test is used in young tea and that has not been rested until dormancy. (3 g iodine crystale + 6g potassiumm +1 litre water)/ Weak hospital iodine solution.Observation:- Dark black color.Decision:- Starch present. (4) To select pruning expert labour. (5) To select chemical reagents and equipments : such as measuring stick, soda or quicklime.</p> <p>Choice of Pruning System:The pruning system chosen must ideally be related to growth characteristics of plant types, general health of the bushes, quality and quantity of crop needed. The other related but important factors that need consideration are climatological conditions and susceptibilities to pests and diseases ( Rahman10</p> <p>and mitra, 1973). With so many interacting factors in operation, it is often difficult to generalise anything on an ideal pruning system, but it is perhaps reasonable that crop requirement, crop distribution and crop quality are the important attributes of an ideal pruning cycle. The principle axiom for requirements is the fact that the lighter the cut during pruning, the more is the yield and vice versa. Moreover, continuous high treatment also congestion at the top, apart from a general decline in productivity and resultant crop loss. Although the earlier practise was to go for annual pruning to stimulate growth, it caused a major stagnation in yield level. When this situation was overcome by the introduction of selective unpruning between pruned years as in unpruned tea, the level of yield was generally high. This essentially was the rationale behind the introduction of the so called longer pruning cycle with a combination of pruned and unpruned years (Dutta, 1956). But keeping tea continuously unpruned (with appropiate height reduction) had it own drawbacks, because this led to the formation of large knots on the branches accompanied by general thickening and reduction of number of pruning sticks, and severe congestion at the top. The physiological basis for this complex morphological change is not known, except perhaps that more of the dry matter goes into the stems (Magambo and Waithaka, 1985; Banerjee, 1988) but the net effect is a serious decline in yield. However, as pointed out earlier, long term productivity of the plants their intrinsic abilities to yield should be overriding importance. The rule of thumb in selecting the form of skiffing is the quantum of possible yield increase very light prune tea; this would be in the region of the 10 to 15 with deep skiff, 15 to 20 percent with medium skiff, 20 to 25 percent with light skiff and if tea is kept unpruned the possible yield increase would be in the region of 30 to 35 percent over pruned tea. It is important that these apparent gains over light pruned tea are neither cumulative nor continuous. The second important consideration in selecting a pruning cycle is the pattern of crop distribution. Unlike the tea growing areas close to the equator, crop distribution in north-east India being somewhat erratic the only way to get more of early equality crop is to go for skiffing, and perhaps to an extent unpruned tea as well. The crop distribution under different forms of pruning and skiffing (Table 1.1) suggests that a varying measure of early crop is possible by differential pruning but the best results come only from a realistic combination of different forms of pruning and skiffing.</p> <p>Table: 1.1 Relative crop distributions in different forms of pruning and skiffing MONTH</p> <p>11</p> <p>Type of skiffing J F M A M J J A S O N D Light prune 1 5 11 15 16 20 20 11 1 Deep skiff 3 9 11 17 18 18 15 9 12Medium</p> <p>Plucking:Plucking tea leaves is crop harvesting. It is an artistic job. Production of a tea estate depends upon accurate plucking. Wrong plucking leads to crop loss because of creation of uneven plucking table due to rough plucking. The objective of plucking is to produce the maximum sustainable yield of a standard sufficient to maximize the profitability per hectare of plantation. Standard plucking may be defined as taking all growths on the plucking table. Leaving the Jan am, buds, and small one leaf and a bud shoots. Standard plucking should be practiced on 7 days round. This will result in making maximum sale able crop with the best potential. As growth slows down towards the end of the season, the round may be gradually extended to around 10 days by the end of October. All banjo shoots must be removed at the time of plucking all throughout the season. When standard plucking is practiced, the plucking table will gradually rise during the season. However, this rise, known as creep, should be kept to a maximum of 5cm. This may necessitate breaking back if the round has fallen behind. Light skiffed and unprimed areas should be plucked hard to restrict creep; to not more than 3cm. Removal of bush side growth by puckers must be strictly forbidden. Where there is a considerable space between bushes, this is even more important so that bushes are encouraged to spread and fill up the unit area allocated to them.</p> <p>Objective of plucking:</p> <p>The main objectives of plucking are harvesting the leaf. Ensure the produce again shoot after plucking round. By the regular plucking maintaining the high quality. By help the physiological activities in the bush. To ensure the maximum no. of shoot for manufacturing. To ensure the harvest of leaf for multiple event on a year. To maintain the plucking round/plucking interval. After tipping, by the plucking of leaf tea maintain the plucking table.</p> <p>13</p> <p>Plucking system:A plucking system is ideal only when it is based on growth of shoots. This growth rate varies with...</p>