railway track sleepers

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types of sleepers on a railway track

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    MINISTRY OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

    DEPARTMENT OF TECHNICAL AND VOCATIONAL EDUCATION

    DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING

    CE4017-RAILWAY ENGINEERING

    (SAMPLE QUESTINS AND SOLUTIONS)

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    SAMPLE QUESTIONS

    CHAPTER 1

    HISTORY AND DEVELOPMENT

    1. Discuss the advantages of railways.2. Give a classification of transportation. Discuss in brief.3. Enumerate the advantages and disadvantages of railway transport over other modes of

    transport facilities.

    CHAPTER 2

    TRACKALIGNMENT

    4. (a) Write a small note on the need of construction of a new railway line.(b) List the factors influencing the selection of a good railway track alignment.

    5. Discuss the requirements of a good rail alignment.CHAPTER 3

    RAILWAY SURVEYS

    6. Explain the reconnaissance survey for a new railway lines.7. Explain the preliminary survey for a new railway lines.8. Explain the location survey for a new railway lines.

    CHAPTER 4

    RAILS

    9. (a) Define the rail and describe the functions of rail.(b) What are the causes for the wear of rails?

    10.Describe the main requirements of an ideal rail section.11.Compare the flat-footed rail and bull headed rails.12.(a) Write the advantages and disadvantages of flat-footed rails.

    (b) Write the advantages of welding of rails.

    13.Describe the corrugated rail and the possible factors, which contribute to thecommencement and development of the corrugations.

    CHAPTER 5

    SLEEPERS

    14.What are the function of sleepers and requirements of a good sleeper?15.(a) List the types of sleeper.

    (b) Describe the advantages and disadvantages of timber sleepers.

    16.(a) Define the sleeper.(b) Describe the advantages and disadvantages of concrete sleepers.

    17.Describe the advantages and disadvantages of the steel sleepers.

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    CHAPTER 6

    BALLAST

    18.(a) List the requirements of good ballast.(b) Describe the functions of ballast.

    19.What is ballast? Why is ballast used for in the railway track? Write briefly on thedifferent types of ballast used.

    CHAPTER 7

    RAIL FIXTURES AND FASTENINGS

    20.(a) List the various types of fixtures and fastenings in a permanent way.(b) Describe the functions of fish plates in a rail joint

    21.Explain briefly the following.(a)Spikes and Chairs(b)Keys, Cotters and Tie Bars(c)Bearing Plate(d)Check Rails and Guard Rails(e)M.C.I Inserts and Rubber Pads

    CHAPTER 8

    GEOMETRIC DESIGN OF TRACK

    22.(a) What do you understand by the following terms for the section of the track?i.Grade compensation on curves

    ii.Widening of gauge

    (b) List the various types of gradients that are adopted in laying a railway track.

    23.What are the elements of a simple circular curve?24.(a) A five degree curve diverges from a main curve of 4 in an opposite direction in

    the layout of a B.G. yard. If the speed on the main curve is restricted to 54.53 kmph,

    determine the speed restriction on the branch line. Assume permissible cant

    deficiency as7.5 cm.

    (b) What do you understand by cant deficiency? If an 8 curve track diverges from

    main curve of 5 in an opposite direction in the layout of a B.G. yard, calculate the

    super elevation and the speed on branch line, if the maximum speed permitted on the

    main line is 45 kmph.

    25. (a) Explain why super elevation is necessary on a curve alignment.

    (b) Explain briefly types of classification of horizontal curves.

    CHAPTER 9

    POINTS AND CROSSINGS

    26.Write short notes in the followings:(i) Left hand and right hand turn outs(ii) Theoretical nose of crossing and Actual nose of crossing(iii) Splice rails and Wing rails(iv) Point rails and Stock rails(v) Tongue rails and Stretcher bar

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    27.(a) On a straight B.G. track, a turnout takes off as an angle of 6 42 35Angle of switch = 1 34 27

    Length of switch rail = 4.37 m

    Heel divergence = 11.43 cm

    Length of straight arm = 0.85 m.

    Determine the radius and the crossing lead.(b) A 1 in 12 turn out is to be provided on a B>G> straight track, calculate (i) radius

    of the curve lead rail (ii) lead distance, and (iii) over all length of the turn out.

    Data given:

    Heel divergence = 133 mm

    Actual length of switch rail = 6001 mm

    Theoretical length of switch rail = 6743 mm

    Distance between toe of crossing and theoretical nose of crossing = 2415 mm

    Distance between toe of crossing and theoretical nose of crossing = 1498 mm

    Distance between theoretical nose of crossing and heel of crossing = 3810 mm

    CHAPTER 10TRACK MAINTENANCE

    28.Describe the followings:(vi) Necessity of track maintenance(vii) Essentials of good track maintenance(viii) Advantages of proper track maintenance

    29.Calculate the necessary data for setting out a semi permanent diversion 20 m awayfrom the B.G. track.

    Assume: radius of the curves = 440 m

    Gradient along diversion = 1 in 100

    Straight proportion of diversion = 50 m

    Straight length between reverse curve = 30.5 m.

    30.Design the layout of a 2 m high BG semi permanent diversion for rebuilding a 4 x 6.1m bridge on 4 m high line track. Adopt economical specifications.

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    SOLUTIONS

    CHAPTER 1

    HISTORY AND DEVELOPMENT

    1. Discuss the advantages of railways.

    Solution

    Advantages of Railways

    1. Political Advantages2. Social Advantages

    3. Economical Advantages

    1. Political AdvantagesThe political advantages of railways are as under:

    a) Railways help to unite the people of different religions, castes, customs andtraditions.

    b) Railways network has enabled the central administration to become more easyand effective.

    c) Railways have helped in the migration of the population from one region tothe other for employment opportunities.

    d) Railways have contributed a lot for developing national integration.e) Railways have helped during wars for transportation of war equipments and

    armies.

    2. Social AdvantagesThe social advantages of railway are as under:

    a) Railways provide a convenient, safe and cheap mode of transport for thecountry.

    b) Railways have broadened the social out-look of the people.c) Railways have eradicated the untouchability as passengers of different castes

    travel in the same compartment.

    3. Economical Advantages

    The economical advantages of railway are as under:

    a) Rails help in transporting the labor from places of unemployment to industrialcenters.

    b) The finish products and the goods can be speedily transported by the railwayst the places of their consumption.

    c) Industries have been developed even far from the places of the raw materials.d) During famines, the railways play a vital role of transporting the food grainsand cloths to the affected area.

    e) Rails have provided employment to millions of people and thus, rails havehelped in solving the unemployment problem.

    f) The land cost increases due to opening of railway lines.g) Rails have helped in fair distribution of population.

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    2. Give a classification of transportation. Discuss in brief.

    Solution

    4 major type of transportation system,

    1) Land Transport2) Water Transport3) Air Transport4) Continuous flow system

    Land Transport

    (1)Highways(2)Rail Transport

    Highways

    A rubber-tired wheel on a smooth, firm roadway features the technology used by auto,trucks, busses, bicycles, motorcycles, taxis, etc.

    Railways

    Flanged-wheel- on rail (steel wheeled of rubber wheeled). Railroads rail transit (MRT, MTR, METRO, etc.)Water Transport

    (1)Inland(2)Costal(3)Ocean Nature of artificial channels and bodies of water serve as roadways. Ships, barges, pleasure craft, submarines, etc.

    Air Transport

    (1)Domestic(2)International Use of air space at a more than nominal height above the ground Jest, helicopter, etc.

    Continuous Flow Systems

    Oil Gas OtherPipelinesProvides transportation for water, sewage, petroleum, gas, steam, heat, etc.

    Belts, cable.

    Conveyors-people movers, escalators, etc.

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    3. Enumerate the advantages and disadvantages of railway transport over other modes oftransport facilities.

    Solution

    Sr. No. Item Highway Transport Rail Transport1.

    2

    3.

    4.

    5.

    6.

    7.

    8.

    Tractive

    resistance

    Right of way

    Cost analysis

    Gradients

    curves

    Flexibility of

    movement

    Population

    Organization

    Suitability

    Pneumatic tires on road experience

    tractive resistance five times as

    compared to that of the railways.

    It is open to all types of vehicular

    vehicles including pedestrians.

    Cost of construction and its

    maintenance is less.

    Steeper gradients up to 1 in 30 and

    relatively sharper curves may be

    provided.

    Being more flexible it may even

    serve door to door.

    It pollutes the environment more.

    Highway transport of controlled

    mostly by private sectors.

    It is suitable for lighter goods and

    for passengers traveling over short

    distances.

    Tractive resistance is less

    and hence hauling capacity

    is more.

    The track being defined by

    two rails is suitable to

    trains designed for the