Rajasthani arts

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<ul><li> 1. KISHANGARH AND BIKANER Presentation by Abhilasha Sharma Aditi Biyani Akanksha Sinha Anupriya Saraswat Charul mishra Devanshi Shar,ma Rajasthani Arts </li></ul><p> 2. BIKANER Junagarh Fort Laxmi Niwas Palace Lalgarh Fort Maru Nayak Ji Laxmi Nath Temple Bhandasar Jain Temple Mukam Temple Kolayat Karni Mata Temple Shiv Bari Temple Rampuria Haveli 3. BIKANER Bikaner is a city in the northwest of the state of Rajasthan in northern India. The name of Bikaner was derived from the two names Bika and Nehra. It is located 330 kilometres (205 mi) northwest of the state capital, Jaipur. Bikaner city is the administrative headquarters of Bikaner District and Bikaner division. It was formerly the capital of the princely state of Bikaner. The city was founded by Rao Bika with the help of Nehra Jats. Bikaner in 1486 and 4. JUNAGARH FORT Junagarh Fort was originally called Chintamani and was renamed Junagarh or "Old Fort" in the early 20th century when the ruling family moved to Lalgarh Palace outside the fort limits. It is one of the few major forts in Rajasthan which is not built on a hilltop. The fort complex was built under the supervision of Karan Chand, the Prime Minister of Raja Rai Singh, the sixth ruler of Bikaner, who ruled from 1571 to 1611 AD. Construction of the walls and associated moat commenced in 1589 and was completed in 1594. It was built outside the original fort of the city, about 1.5 kilometres (0.93 mi) from the city centre. Some remnants of the old fort are preserved near the Lakshmi Narayan temple The 5.28 hectares large fort 5. The structures built within the Junagarh fort are the palaces and temples, which are made of red sandstone(Dulmera) and White Italian Carrara marble. The fort is built in the plains of Bikaner on a rectangular layout with a peripheral length of 1,078 yards (986 m). The fort walls are 14.5 feet (4.4 m) wide and 40 feet (12 m) in height. It has an area of 5.28 ha. It was surrounded by a moat which was 2025 feet deep . However, the moat no longer exists. The fort is well fortified with 37 bastions (burj in local language) and seven gates (two are main gates) to counter enemy attacks. The fort was built as a new stronghold outside of the ruins of an old fort built by Rao Bika and on the periphery of the Bikaner city walls (1.5 kilometres (0.93 mi) from the city centre); the old fort was demolished a century after it was built. The fort contains several palaces, pavilions and many Hindu and Jain temples - the 6. TIMELINE OF FORT ADDITIONS Karan Singh (1631 to 1639), under the suzerainty of the Mughals, built the Karan Mahal palace. Later rulers added more floors and decorations to this Mahal. Anup Singh, (166998), made substantial additions to the fort complex, with new palaces and the Zenana quarter (royal dwelling for females). He refurbished the Karan Mahal with a Diwan-i-Am (public audience hall) and called it the Anup Mahal. Gaj Singh (1746 to 1787) refurbished the Chandra Mahal 7. Following him, Surat Singh (1787 to 1828) and he lavishly decorated the audience hall with glass and lively paintwork. Dungar Singh (1872 to 1887) built the Badal Mahal (the weather palace) named so in view of a painting of falling rain and clouds (a rare event in arid Bikaner). Ganga Singh (1887 to 1943) built the Ganga Niwas Palace, which has towers at the 8. LAKSHMI NIWAS PALACE Laxmi Niwas Palace is a former residential palace of the king of the former Bikaner state, Maharaja Ganga Singh in Bikaner in the Indian state of Rajasthan. It was designed in 1896 in an Indo-Saracenic style by the British architect, Sir Samuel Swinton Jacob, and built between 1898 and 1902. It is built with red sandstone, and has been described as one of the most well proportioned buildings in India. It was one of the precursor building for the Indian (residential palace). 9. LALGARH PALACE Built in Rajput, Mughal and European architectural styles. The building was commissioned by Maharaja Ganga Singh (18891925) in memory of his father Maharaja Lall Singh and was designed by the British architect, Samuel Swinton Jacob. It is coated in red sandstone and has several grand halls, lounges, cupolas and pavilions. The building features magnificent pillars, elaborate fireplaces, Italian colonnades and intricate latticework and filigree work. The palace houses the Shri Sadul Museum as well as a large and important collection of Sanskrit manuscripts, the Anup Sanskrit Library. 10. RAMPURIA HAVELI More commonly known as Bhanwar Niwas. Commissioned by the late Seth Bhanwarlalji Rampuria in 1927, the architecture of the haveli and its interiors is a fascinating blend of Indian and European styles. 11. THE BIKANER SCHOOL OF ART This school originated in the times of Prince Rao Bika of Jodhpur (1488). It developed its recurring style with figures having an air of kindness and tenderness. This style has a habit of exquisitely detailed finish. The paintings are characterized by countless variations of patterns and symbols depicted in thin, watercolor-Li school. The subjects are taken from Indian Mythology and often includes an elephant's trunk in various forms. The colorful illuminations, which captured the fancy of the royalty and aristocracy, emerged in the medieval period. The illustrated manuscripts of Jains and Buddhists, and the flowering of the Mughal, Rajput, and Deccan Miniatures are noted for 12. KISHANGARH Kishangarh Fort Phool Mahal Palace Khoda Ganesh Ji Temple Roopangarh Fort 13. The Kishangarh Fort in Ajmer is an impressive composition that was made in the year 1653. Maharaja Roop Singh constructed the gigantic Kishangarh Fort. It is believed that a happening he saw once motivated him to get a fort built. He saw a sheep that was defending its lambs and wolves and got the idea to make a fort that would guard his empire. The huge Kishangarh Fort of Rajasthan is an unending symbol of brilliance that never fails to inspire visitors who come to Rajasthan. The interiors of the fort give you an idea of the glorious days of yore. Even by continual attacks by outside forces, the Kishangarh fort stayed undefeated. This fort stands proudly at the center of this beautiful city named Ajmer. KISHANGARH FORT 14. The interiors of the Kishangarh fort are wonderfully ornamented with widespread murals and paintings. It is from here that the Bani Thani style of painting happening and increased much recognition. One can get an idea of the abundant lifestyle of the leaders of Rajasthan. The fort includes of several courtyards and splendid quarters that are decorated with water fountains here and there. Kishangarh fort has a very significant role in the cultural and historical tradition of Rajasthan. This is a symbol of Raja Maharajas golden era and it depicts their living at that particular time. INTERIORS 15. The Phool Mahal Palace was established exactly in A.D. 1870 (19th century) in the region of the Kishangarh fort of Rajasthan. This royal palace was the Palace of the flowers (lotuses) for the imperial Maharajas of Kishangarh region Originally the Payandaz Bagh or the garden at the foot of the fort, this pleasure garden of the Maharajas of Kishangarh was a source of inspiration to a number of famous Kishangarh miniature artists like Nihal Chand and it's easy to identify it in many PHOOL MAHAL PALACE 16. In 1870 Maharaja Prithee Singh, the 15th Rural of Kishangarh constructed Phool Mahal as his monsoon palace. His son and successor Maharaja Shardul Singh added on various pavilions in 1885. After 1905 his son Maharaja Madan Singh completed the additions that we see today. For the viceroy's visit on 1907 was constructed the Madan Burj ( the round dome ) with filigree work pillars, which can be seen from all sides. The 'Kamal Burj' or the lotus Bastion which is part of this flower Palace "emerges" out of the lake and touches the heights of the impregnable fort behind it. All over whether it is the delicate pavilions in garden, the painted frescoes in the guest rooms, or some other architectural detail, the lotus motif is every where and surely this is a veritable PHOOL MAHAL 17. Constructed by Maharaja Roop Singh of Kishangarh in 1648 exclusively for defense, the Roopangarh Fort was originally a nine-turreted New additions were continuously made to it in due course. The different styles of architecture can be distinctly observed in the fort. It has recently been converted into a beautiful hotel by the Maharaja and Maharani of Kishangarh. Roopangarh, the capital of this province for 100 years, was never conquered despite repeated attempts by neighboring states. It became the hub of activity in Kishangarh. ROOPANGARH FORT 18. The best of architecture, music, poetry and painting were patronized and refined at a court where the delicate touch of its artists transcribed the beauty of living to exquisite miniature paintings, known today's as The Kishangarh School. KISHANGARH SCHOOL OF ART 19. ORIGIN AND BACKGROUND Bikaner developed as an important center of rajasthani painting in the 17th century under Raja Raj Singh. The only manuscript of meghdoot available in his time seems to be in Apabharansa style. Later on Bikaner accepted mughal sovernity. A number of artists from Arungzebs court migrated to Bikaner . Ruknuddin , after the death of Raja Karan Singh started painting under Raja Anoop Singh in pure Bikaner style. Bikaner adopted the mannerism of 20. SUBJECT MATTER Bikaner paintings have mostly been done on Ramayan,Mahabharat, Krishna legends, Ragmala, Love scenes of Radha and Krishna, Baramasa, and Rasik Priya. Ruknuddin also painted Rasik priya and Bhagvad Puran. There are both miniature and wall paintings. Hunting scenes have also been depicted beautifully by Bikaner artists. 21. CHARACTERISTICS In human figures a little tight lips were painted, eyes are half open, chin small, wrist are very thin, chest in comparison to other Rajput style seems underdeveloped and moustaches of men a little downward bent. Ghagharas of women are decorated with diagonal stripes, and clouds are painted in special circular style. The architecture shown in the painting is modern and sophisticated and tonal variation and perspective 22. KISHANGARH Kishangarh is a picturesque place near Ajmer, and was established by Raja Kishan Singh, the ninth son of Raja Uday Singh, ruler of Jodhpur. Kishangarh painting emerged as a distinctive style in the middle of 18th century under the patronage of Maharaja Sawant Singh. Nihal Chand, a gifted artist in the Maharaja's court, produced some highly individualistic Radha and sophisticated works. He was the chief artist of his court. The Kishangarh School of miniature 23. USTA &amp; CHADHWA ART Bikaner was and is the centre for Usta Art, a generic term for the Manoti- Naqqashi (embossed and unembossed floral and geometric patterned objects layered with gold) media produced by Usta family master artistans of Bikaner. The Usta artists and artisans also controlled all production of the Bikaner School "miniature" paintings using translucent and opaque vegetable and mineral watercolours from the late-16th to late- 19th Century. Famous painters of the Bikaner School were Hamid Rukn-ud-din, Ahmad, Nathu ji, Nure, Rahim, Isa, Iso, Sahab-ud-din, Rehim ji and Murad. Usta art is a characteristic art form of Naqqashi and Manoti art practiced by the traditional artisans of Bikaner. It deals with creating miniature paintings on various objects including camel skin using water and oil colors and gold. The Golden Usta Art used in Junagarh fort 24. KRISHNA ON SWING 25. OTHER ARTS The thriving carpet weaving industry of Bikaner earns a lot of revenue to the local Bikaneri craftsmen. Woven in camel hair these colorful and warm carpets locally known as durries comprise the major export item of Rajasthan. Meenakari is yet another ancient art of Bikaner that involves decorating the jewellery items using shiny and precious stones. The markets of Bikaner bursting with an assortment of novelty articles viz. camel leather products, Mojari, Rangi dupatta, Cotton fabrics with Sanganeri prints, Kundan work, carpets, Nokha quilts, durries, cushion covers, beaded and sequined gorbandhs, paintings, wooden antiques, marble handicrafts, silver animal figures, ethnic furniture, Meenakari Art 26. KISHANGARH Kishangarh is a picturesque place near Ajmer, and was established by Raja Kishan Singh, the ninth son of Raja Uday Singh, ruler of Jodhpur. Kishangarh painting emerged as a distinctive style in the middle of 18th century under the patronage of Maharaja Sawant Singh. Nihal Chand, a gifted artist in the Maharaja's court, produced some highly individualistic Radha and sophisticated works. He was the chief artist of his court. The Kishangarh School of miniature Rajasthani Painting is one of the richest and popular forms. 27. SUBJECT MATTER Hunting scenes and court scenes in the earlier paintings painted in fine style. Portraits of Kings, nawabs, emporars and saints have been beautifully painted by the painters of kishangarh school. Portrayal of Radha and Krishna in elongated faces is a common subject of Kishangarh paintings. The romantic life of Radha and Krishna described in geet Govind by Jaydev. Stories from Bhagavad puran, Bihari chandrika by Nagridas, nayak Nayika bheda with nayak 28. CHARACTERISTICS The chief attraction of this school is the depiction of women. The women have been beautifully painted. The faces are soft without being heavy and dry They have been painted slim , flexible and tall like creepers Their faces with high and sloping foreheads, pointed long nose, bulging out well cut lips and long chins. The long drawn eyes curved upward in shape of wag tail (Khanjan pakshi) and bow like eyebrows have beautifully painted Long neck and long fingers , a lock hair near the ear especially found in kishngarh style only , enhance 29. STYLE The characteristic of the Kishangarh School is defined through the fine quality of brushwork and a distinctive portrayal of women. Radha is highly ornamented with three lines of white pearls and square emeralds. The figures are tall, slim and have a slender waist. The eyes are almond shaped and half closed to lend an enigmatic quality and they do cover a large part of the face. Radha is dressed in the Indian attire of Ghaghra Choli and a transparent veil on the head and with a flower in her hand. Krishna wears a turban with jewels and feather and is painted blue. 30. COLOUR In the Kishangarh school, the dominant colours are blue, red, yellow, shades of green, orange and white. In the beginning, they used natural dyes. That is, red was obtained from the madder-root, black from iron and vinegar, and yellow from turmeric-root. Colours were also made from plants and fruits. 31. BANI THANI Maharaja Sawant Singh of Kishangarh, (1748-1757) a princlely s...</p>