Recode DEQ Presentation 5.29

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    http://www.deq.state.or.us/wq/onsite/docs/RETData.pdf

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    http://www.deq.state.or.us/wq/onsite/docs/RETData.pdf

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    Swedens PerformanceRequirements

    normal areas:70% P reduction & reuse if possible

    high risk areas:90% P reduction, 50% N reduction andreuse if possible

    calculation:N and P calculated based on mean yearlydischarge.

    La Pine PerformanceRequirements

    existing development:35% N reduction to 30mg/L

    future development:79% N reduction to 10mg/L

    calculation:reduction compared to averageconcentration,no maximum loading.

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    Treatment

    Infiltration

    Drainage

    Prefabricated filters

    Spray filters

    Chemical precipitation

    Phosphorus filter

    Large phosphoric filters

    Mini Sewage

    Holding Tank

    Toilets

    Urine diverting dry toilet

    Compost toilets

    Combustion Toilet

    Dry toilets

    Common WC

    Extremely low-flush toilet

    Vacuum Toilet

    Urine diverting flush toilet

    Pre-Treatment

    Septic tank

    Approved Onsite Components

    Swedens One Stop Shop for Onsite Education:

    Swedens Performance Requirementsnormal areas: 70% reduction in P & Reuse if possiblehigh risk areas: 90% P reduction, 50% N reduction and Reuse if possible

    Environmental Protection Agencys general advice to small drainage devices, NFS 2006:7

    Finishing

    Biofilterdike

    Resorptionsdike

    Precipitation

    Wetland / pond

    Irrigation

    Rootzone infiltration

    Infiltration

    Drainage

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    Septic with Woodchip Filter (Nitrex)

    Installation in Harvard, Massachusetts.. Lombardo Associates.

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    Septic with Woodchip Filter (Nitrex)

    Diagram of Nitrex passive sand and wood chip filter system. Lombardo Associates.

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    Septic with Woodchip Filter (Nitrex)

    Cost: $20-28,000Impact: 80-90% nitrogen reduction

    Potential:

    Patent expired, maybe less expensive to

    construct on site.

    Problems:not legal without

    WPCF permit (difficult)

    Nitrex being shipped

    from massachusetts

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    Dry Composting Toilet

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    Dry Composting Toilet

    Cost: $1,200-6,000 +2/3 scale septic systemImpact: 80-90% nitrogen reduction

    Potential:

    lowest cost system for nitrogenreduction.

    Problems:

    not recognized as a nitrogenreducing system in Oregon,

    must be coupled with septic.

    Vera Environmentals Carousel Dry Toilet www.vera.no

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    Stenstroem, Thor-Axel. REDUCTION EFFICIENCY OF INDEX PATHOGENSIN DRY SANITATION COMPARED WITH TRADITIONAL ANDALTERNATIVE WASTEWATER TREATMENT SYSTEMS. Swedish Institute

    for Infectious Disease Control. 2002. p 2

    How Does Composting compare as a treatment method?

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    16/34San Franscisco Greywater Design Manual, 2011

    Graywater Reuse

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    San Franscisco Greywater Design Manual, 2011Photo Credit: Josh Lowe

    Graywater Reuse

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    Fecal Loading in Graywater by Indicator

    Indicator Organism Fecal Load(grams/person/day)

    E. coli 65g

    Faecal enterococci 5.4gcholesterol .22g

    coprostanol .04g

    "The measurement of the two different sterols, however,gives a concentration span of potential faecal input that ismore realistic than... the indicator bacteria. "

    Stenstroem & Ottoson, 2003. Faecal contamination of greywater and

    associated microbial risks. Water Research 37 (2003) pg 652.

    Realistic Load

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    Graywater Filter and infiltration system

    Potential:less expensive than septic system for graywater treatment.

    Problems:

    must be coupled witha redundant septic

    system.

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    Jetsgroup 2009

    Vacuum Flush System

    Problems:

    Cluster systemsnot permitted by

    Planning Bureauand requiresvariance fromPlumbing Code.

    Potential:

    Uses 1/5 the water of ultra low flow toilets.

    More concentrated effluent lowers

    treatment costs.

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    Wostman Ecology's Vacuum Flush ''EcoVac"

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    2" piping allows for easier installation

    Roedigger 2007.

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    Gloskow, Poland. vacuum station. Roedigger. roevac.com

    Vacuum Sewers along the Rhine inGermany. Roevac.com

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    Septic Tank with Urine Diverting Toilet

    Costs: $3,900-6,500 for retrofit with existing septic. $150-300/year for once a year pumping of urine and septic.

    Impact: Reduces nitrogen in effluent by 80%.

    Potential: Low cost means to meet strict nitrogen standards.Urine can be used as fertilizer.

    Problems:

    Requires plan forbeneficial reuse.

    Holding tanks not allowed

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    User Acceptance of Urine Diversion

    Peter-Frhlich, Bonhomme, Oldenburg, 2007. Sanitation Concepts for Separate

    treatment of Urine, Faeces, and Greywater (SCST)- Results. Berlin: KompentzzentrumWasser Berlin.

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    Operations and Maintenance in France

    Intestinale Members, France

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    Portable Dry Toilets

    Cost: 10-20% higher than portable chemical wet toilets.Impact:All nutrients can be reused through compostinginstead of adding to treatment plant.

    Potential:Lower treatment costs.

    Diversifies income for dry

    toilet installers.

    Problems:

    Limited treatment facilities in

    Oregon.

    Biocappi portable dry toilets. Yverdon, Switzerland. Photo by Molly Danielsson.

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    1m3 portable dry toilets, Lausanne, Switzerland.

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    Portable Vacuum Toilets

    Cost: Ultra high-end

    Image Credit: Flexiloo UK

    Barriers: none

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    Fact sheets

    Case Studies

    Information on CodesTour Updates

    www.recodeoregon.org

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    230 liters wastewater per person per day (60 gallons): USEPA 2002: EPA/625/R-00/008, Onsite Treatment Systems Manual, 3.31.

    40mg/L nitrogen transported to aquifer: based on 10-40% removal N during infiltration USEPA 2002, Figure 3-17

    Human excrement production:

    843g/week feces: Digestive Diseases and Sciences, Vol. 43, No. 11: 1998, 2358

    2 pints/day urine. Gotaas, Composting-Sanitary Reclamation of Organic Wastes. World Health Organization, Monograph No. 31. Geneva: 1953.

    Nitrogen transport to aquifer from manure spreading, 5-87mg/L, averaging to 46mg/L: Saskatchewan Watershed Authority 2009: SH/SWA H01-2009, Onsite WastewaterTreatment Systems in Subdivisions, Pg 18.

    58 liters manure per 1000kg beef cattle: American Society of Agricultural Engineers, 2003: ASE D384.1 FEB03, Manure Production Charateristics, page 683.

    Full grown Steer 750lb (340kg): Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service: AGEC-579, Steer-Heifer Feeder Cattle Basis by Weight Groups

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