RoboCup-97.. Robot Soccer World Cup 1 conf

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<ul><li><p>Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence </p><p>Subseries of Lecture Notes in Computer Science </p><p>Edited by J. G. Carbonell and J. Siekmann </p><p>Lecture Notes in Computer Science Edited by G. Goos, J. Hartmanis and J. van Leeuwen </p><p>1395 </p></li><li><p>Hiroaki Kitano (Ed.) </p><p>RoboCup - 97". Robot Soccer World Cup I </p><p>Springer </p></li><li><p>Series Editors </p><p>Jaime G. Carbonell, Carnegie Mellon University Pittsburgh, PA, USA J6rg Siekmann, University of Saarland, Saarbrticken, Germany </p><p>Volume Editor </p><p>Hiroaki Kitano Sony Computer Science Laboratory 3-14-13 Higashi-Gotanda, Shinagawa Tokyo 14t, Japan E-mail: kitano @ </p><p>Cataloging-in-Publication Data applied for </p><p>Die Deutsche Bibliothek - CIP-Einheitsaufnahme </p><p>RoboCup : Robot Soccer World Cup I / RoboCup-97. Hiroaki Kitano (ed.). - Berlin ; Heidelberg ; New York ; Barcelona ; Budapest , Hong Kong ; London ; Milan ; Paris ; Santa Clara ; Singapore ; Tokyo : Springer, 1998 </p><p>(Lecture notes in computer science ; Vol. 1395 : Lecture notes in artificial intelligence) ISBN 3-540-64473-3 </p><p>CR Subject Classification (1991): 1.2, C.2.4, D.2.7, H.5, 1.5.4, 1.6, J.4 </p><p>ISBN 3-540-64473-3 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg New York </p><p>This work is subject to copyright. All rights are reserved, whether the whole or part of the material is concerned, specifically the rights of translation, reprinting, re-use of illustrations, recitation, broadcasting, reproduction on microfilms or in any other way, and storage in data banks, Duplication of this publication or parts thereof is permitted only under the provisions of the German Copyright Law of September 9, 1965, in its cun'ent version, and permission for use must always be obtained from Springer -Verlag. Violations are liable for prosecution under the German Copyright Law. </p><p> Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1998 Printed in Germany </p><p>Typesetting: Camera ready by author SPIN 10636984 06/3142 - 5 4 3 2 1 0 Printed on acid-free paper </p></li><li><p>Preface </p><p>In the history of artificial intelligence and robotics, the year 1997 will be remembered as a turning point. In May 1997, IBM Deep Blue defeated the human world champion in chess. Forty years of challenge in the AI community came to a successful conclusion. On July 4, 1997, NASA's pathfinder mission made a successful landing and the first autonomous robotics system, Sojourner, was deployed on the surface of Mars. Together with these accomplishments, RoboCup made its first steps toward the development of robotic soccer players which can beat a human World Cup champion team. </p><p>RoboCup is an international initiative devoted to advancing the state of the art in AI and robotics. The particular goals of the project and potential research directions are numerous. The most ambitious and long range goal can be stated a s : </p><p>to build a team of robot soccer players, which can beat a human World Cup champion team. </p><p>The accomplishment of the goal requires decades of extensive efforts and se- ries of innovative technologies must be developed. In addition, a broad range of technologies need to be integrated. However, because of the difficulties of the challenges, and the potential breadth of the technological domains affected, research toward RoboCup's ultimate goal is expected to generate numerous spin- off technologies. For details of the goals and technical issues of RoboCup, see the article "RoboCup: A Challenge AI Problem" in this volume. </p><p>This preface outlines tile progression of robotic soccer over the course of the past 5 years from a basis for research in a few individual laboratories scattered around the world to a full-blown international initiative. </p><p>The idea of robots playing soccer was first mentioned by Professor Alan Mackworth (University of British Columbia, Canada) in a paper entitled "On Seeing Robots" presented at VI-92, 1992, and later published in a book Computer Vision: System, Theory, and Applications, pages 1-13, World Scientific Press, Singapore, 1993. A series of papers on the Dynamo robot soccer project was published by his group. </p><p>Independently, a group of Japanese researchers organized a Workshop on Grand Challanges in Artificial Intelligence in October, 1992 in Tokyo, discussing possible grand challenge problems. This workshop led to a serious discussions of using the game of soccer for promoting science and technology. A series of inves- tigation were carried out, including a technology feasibiiity study, a social impact assessment, and a financial feasibility study. In addition, rules were drafted, as well as prototype development of soccer robots and simulator systems. As a re- sult of these studies, we concluded that the project is feasible and desirable. In June 1993, a group of researchers, including Minoru Asada, Yasuo Kuniyoshi, and Hiroaki Kitano, decided to launch a robotic competition, tentatively named the Robot J-League (J-League is the name of the newly established Japanese Professional soccer league). Within a month, however, we received overwhelm- ing reactions from researchers outside of Japan, requesting that the initiative be </p></li><li><p>vI </p><p>extended as an international joint project. Accordingly, we renamed the project as the Robot World Cup Initiative, "RoboCup" for short. </p><p>Concurrent to this discussion, several researchers were already using the game of soccer as a domain for their research. For example, Itsuki Noda, at Elec- troTechnical Laboratory (ETL), a government research center in Japan, was conducting multi-agent research using soccer, and started the development of a dedicated simulator for soccer games. This simulator later became the official soccer server of RoboCup. Independently, Professor Minoru Asada's Lab. at Os- aka University, and Professor Manuela Veloso and her student Peter Stone at Carnegie Mellon University had been working on soccer playing robots. Without the participation of these early pioneers of the field, RoboCup could not have taken off. </p><p>In September 1993, the first public announcement of the initiative was made, and specific regulations were drafted. Accordingly, discussions on organizations and technical issues were held at numerous conferences and workshops, including AAAI-94, JSAI Symposium, and at various robotics society meetings </p><p>Meanwhile, Noda's team at ETL announced the Soccer Server version 0 (LISP version), the first open system simulator for the soccer domain enabling multi-agent systems research, followed by version 1.0 of Soccer Server (C++ Version) which was distributed via the R~)boCup's World Wide Web home page. The first public demonstration of this simulator was made at IJCAI-95. </p><p>During the International Joint Conference on ArtificiM Intelligence (IJCAI- 95) held at Montreal, Canada, August, 1995, the announcement was made to organize the First Robot World Cup Soccer Games and Conferences in conjunc- tion with IJCAI-97 Nagoya. At the same time, the decision was made to organize Pre-RoboCup-96, in order to identify potential problems associated with orga- nizing RoboCup on a large scale. The decision was made to provide two years of preparation and development time, so that initiM group of researchers could start robot and simulation team development, as well as giving lead time for their funding schedules. </p><p>Pre-RoboCup-96 was held during International Conference on Intelligence Robotics and Systems (IROS-96), Osaka, November 4 - 8, 1996, with eight teams competing in a simulation league and demonstration of real robots for middle size league. While limited in scale, this competition was the first competition using soccer games for promotion of research and education. </p><p>The official first RoboCup games and conference was held in 1997 with great success. Over 40 teams participated (real and simulation combined), and over 5000 spectators attended. As results of the game, AT-Humboldt (Humboldt Uni- versity, Germany) became the World Champion for the simulator league, runner- up was AndHill (Tokyo Institute of Technology, Japan), the third place was ISIS (Information Science Institute / University of Southern California, USA), and the fourth place was CMUnited (Carnegie Mellon University, USA). For the small-size reM robot league, CMUnited (Carnegie Mellon University, USA) be- came the World Champion, by beating the NAIST (Nara Advanced Institute for Science and Technology, Japan). The World Champion for the middle-size </p></li><li><p>vIf </p><p>league was awaded to Deamteam (Information Science Insti tute / University of Southern California, USA) and Trackies (Osaka University, Japan) because both the final game and a preliminary game ended in draws. </p><p>Apart from the winners of the competition, RoboCup awarded two Engineer- ing Challenge Awards and one Scientific Challenge Award. RMIT Raiders (Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology, Australia) and Uttori United (a joint team of Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN), Toyo University, and Utsunomiya University, Japan) received the Engineering Challenge Award for their innovative design of omni-directional driving mechanisms. The Scientific Challenge Award was given to Scan Luke (University of Maryland) for demon- strating the utility of an evolutionary computing approach by evolving a soccer team using genetic programming. These challenge award were created in order to encourage scientific and engineering innovations. Often the use of new ideas and technologies work negatively for the results of the competit ion in the short run. Put t ing too much emphasis on winning or lost potentially hampers the incentives for using new and innovative ideas. The challenge award is created to solve this problem. We consider this award to be equally prestigious to the World Championship. </p><p>This book is the first official archival publication of the long-range interna- tional research initiative. It is composed of three parts: overview papers, techni- cal papers on focused topic, and team desciriptions. Overview papers provides overall perspectives on RoboCup. It also contains RoboCup Challenge papers, which are a method of evaluating short-range technical challenges. Apart from competitions, such a method of quantitative evaluation is necessary to mea- sure scientifically the progress in the field. ~iit~ehnical papers on focused topics are largely based on long papers presented at the RoboCup-97 Workshop. Pa- pers focus of specific technical aspects involved in robot players. In addition, several papers discuss infrastructures for RoboCup such as a three-dimensional visualization system, a Java-based soccer simulator, and an automated commen- tary generation system. An educational perspective is also included. The team descriptions are papers describing the technical and strategic aspects of partici- pating teams. Authors were requested to include an analysis of their team based on the results of RoboCup-97. Some teams, however, decided to write longer technical papers instead of team descriptions papers. Also, for editing reasons, some papers originally presented as technical papers were located in the team description section. This is particularly the case for the winners of each league (refer to the corresponding papers in the description of these teams). I hope this volume contributes to the progress of the field, and accomplishment of our dream some day. This volume is the first archival publication recording our voyage. </p><p>Hiroaki Kitano Chair, The RoboCup Federation Senior Researcher, Sony Computer Science Laboratory, Inc. </p></li><li><p>VIII </p><p>RoboCup-97 Organization R o b o C u l &gt; - 9 7 O r g a n i z i n g C o m m i t t e e M e m b e r s : </p><p>(Chairs and other members in alphabetical order) Hitoshi Matsubara (Chair, ElectrotechnicM Laboratory) Itsuki Noda (Simulation league chair, Electrotechnical Laboratory) Sho'ji Suzuki (Real Robot league chair, Osaka University) Minoru Asada (Osaka University) Hajime Asama (RIKEN: The Institute of PhysicM and Chemical Research) Hidenori Ishihara (Nagoya University) Hiroaki Kitano (Sony Computer Science Laboratory) Kenji Kimura (Chubu Bureau of International Trade and Industry) Akihiro Matsumoto (Toyo University) Akihiko Morita (NIHON Keizai Shinbun, INC.) Tatsuya Narisawa (NIHON Keizai Shinbun, INC.) Susumu Shimada (Chukyo University) Atsushi Shinjo (IAMAS: International Academy of Media Arts and Sciences) Mutsumi Sugisaki (Fujita Corporation) Yoichi Yazawa (NIHON Keizai Shinbun, INC.) </p><p>O r g a n i z e r : - RoboCup Japanese NationM Committee - Nihon Keizai Shinbun Inc. </p></li><li><p>f X </p><p>RoboCup-97 Sponsors and Supporting Organizations </p><p>S p e c i a l S p o n s o r s </p><p>- N a m c o L imi ted </p><p>- Sony Corpora t ion </p><p>S p o n s o r s </p><p>- Nihon Sun Microsys tems K.K. </p><p>- I toehu Techno-Science Corpora t ion </p><p>I n C o o p e r a t i o n w i t h </p><p>- E lec t ro technica l Labo ra to ry </p><p>- Sof topia J A P A N </p><p>- I A M A S </p><p>- J a p a n Socie ty of Artificial Intel l igence </p><p>- Robot ics Society of J apan </p><p>- I E E E Robot ics and A u t o m a t i o n Socie ty </p><p>- Nihon Silicon Graphics -Cray K.K. </p><p>- Fu j i t a Corpora t ion </p><p>- J a p a n Airl ines </p><p>- Net One Systems Co. Ltd. </p><p>- S O U M Coope ra ton </p><p>S u p p o r t e d b y </p><p>- Chubu Bureau of In te rna t iona l Trade and Indus t ry </p><p>- Aichi Prefec tura l Government </p><p>- Ci ty of Nagoya </p><p>- New Technology Founda t ion </p></li><li><p>Table of Contents </p><p>Overview Papers </p><p>RoboCup: A Challenge Problem for AI and Robotics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Hiroaki Kitano, Minorxt Asada , Yasuo Kuniyoshi, Itsuki Noda, Eiichi Osawa, and Hitoshi Matsubara </p><p>Overview of RoboCup-97 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Itsuki Noda, Shoji Suzuki, Hitoshi Matsubara, Minoru Asada, and Hiroaki Kitano </p><p>The RoboCup Physical Agent Challenge: Goals and Protocols for Phase I . Minoru Asada, Peter Stone, Hiroaki Kitano, Alexis Drvgoul, Dominique Duhaut, Manuela Veloso, Hajime Asama, and Sho ~i Suzuki </p><p>42 </p><p>The RoboCup Synthetic Agent Challenge 97 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 Hiroaki Kitano, Milind ~)~rnbe, Peter Stone, Manuela Veloso, Silvia Coradeschi, Eiichi Osawa, Hitoshi Matsubara, Itsuki Noda, and Minor~u Asada </p><p>Technical Papers </p><p>Playing Soccer by Modifying and Combining Primitive Reactions . . . . . . . . 74 Jukka Riekki and Juha RSning </p><p>Learning, Deciding, Predicting: The Soccer Playing Mind . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 Andrew Price, Andrew Jennings, John Kneen, and Elizabeth Kendall </p><p>Using Decision Tree Confidence Factors for Multiagent Control . . . . . . . . . . 99 Peter Stone and Manuela Veloso </p><p>A Role-Based Decision-Mechanism for Teams of Reactive and Coordinat- ing Agents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112 </p><p>Silvia Coradesehi and Lars Karlsson </p><p>Using an Explicit Model of Teamwork in RoboCup-97 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123 Milind Tambe, Jafar Adibi, Yaser Al-Onaizan, Ali Erdem, Gal A. Kaminka, Stacy C. Marsella, Ion Muslea, and Mareelo Tallis </p><p>Decision Making by the Characterist...</p></li></ul>


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