Sample Problems Patterns and Processes of Inheritance CCCC llll aaaa ssss ssss iiii cccc aaaa llll G G G G eeee nnnn eeee tttt iiii cccc ssss PPPP eeee

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<ul><li> Slide 1 </li> <li> Sample Problems Patterns and Processes of Inheritance CCCC llll aaaa ssss ssss iiii cccc aaaa llll G G G G eeee nnnn eeee tttt iiii cccc ssss PPPP eeee dddd iiii gggg rrrr eeee eeee A A A A nnnn aaaa llll yyyy ssss iiii ssss TTTT eeee cccc hhhh nnnn oooo llll oooo gggg yyyy </li> <li> Slide 2 </li> <li> Sample Problems Classical Genetics MMMM eeee nnnn dddd eeee llll ssss L L L L aaaa wwww ssss GGGG eeee nnnn eeee tttt iiii cccc C C C C rrrr oooo ssss ssss eeee ssss MMMM oooo dddd eeee ssss o o o o ffff I I I I nnnn hhhh eeee rrrr iiii tttt aaaa nnnn cccc eeee </li> <li> Slide 3 </li> <li> Sample Problems Mendels Laws Gregor Mendel experimented with garden peas in an attempt to explain the mechanism of inheritance of traitsGregor Mendel His data revealed the following rules of inheritance: 1.Law of Dominance: Every trait is coded for by a pair of factors (alleles) one of which masks the effect of the otherLaw of Dominance </li> <li> Slide 4 </li> <li> Sample Problems Mendels Laws 2.Law of Segregation: During the formation of gametes the alleles for a trait separate so that each gamete has one allele for each traitLaw of Segregation 3.Law of Independent Assortment: the allele possessed by a gamete for one trait has no influence on the allele for any other traitLaw of Independent Assortment </li> <li> Slide 5 </li> <li> Sample Problems Genetic Crosses The phenotype of an individual can be either heterozygous or homozygous for a particular trait Purebred individuals are homozygous for the trait Hybrid individuals are heterozygous for the trait (also called carriers) The mating of two individuals is called a cross </li> <li> Slide 6 </li> <li> Sample Problems Genetic Crosses Monohybrid crosses involve two individuals both heterozygous for the traitMonohybrid crosses Dihybrid crosses involve two individuals both heterozygous for each of two traitsDihybrid crosses A punnet square is a useful way to determine the genotypes and phenotypes from one and two trait crosses A test cross is a method for determining the genotype of an individual by crossing it with a homozygous recessive individual </li> <li> Slide 7 </li> <li> Sample Problems Modes of Inheritance There are 6 common modes of inheritance 1.Autosomal DominantAutosomal Dominant 2.Autosomal RecessiveAutosomal Recessive 3.Incomplete Dominance i.CodominaceCodominace ii.Intermediate InheritanceIntermediate Inheritance 4.Multiple AllelesMultiple Alleles </li> <li> Slide 8 </li> <li> Sample Problems Modes of Inheritance 5.X-Linked DominantX-Linked Dominant 6.X-Linked RecessiveX-Linked Recessive 7.Y-Linked </li> <li> Slide 9 </li> <li> Sample Problems Pedigree Analysis SSSS yyyy mmmm bbbb oooo llll ssss AAAA nnnn aaaa llll yyyy ssss iiii ssss </li> <li> Slide 10 </li> <li> Sample Problems Symbols A pedigree chart is a representation of related individuals from several generationspedigree chart Standard pedigree chart symbols are used in Biology 30symbols </li> <li> Slide 11 </li> <li> Sample Problems Analysis Certain modes of inheritance of some traits can be determined from a pedigree chart 1.Autosomal DominantAutosomal Dominant 2.Autosomal Recessive 3.X-linked Dominant 4.X-linked Recessive </li> <li> Slide 12 </li> <li> Sample Problems Technology SSSS eeee llll eeee cccc tttt iiii vvvv eeee B B B B rrrr eeee eeee dddd iiii nnnn gggg GGGG eeee nnnn eeee tttt iiii cccc C C C C oooo uuuu nnnn ssss eeee llll iiii nnnn gggg GGGG eeee nnnn eeee M M M M aaaa pppp pppp iiii nnnn gggg </li> <li> Slide 13 </li> <li> Sample Problems Selective Breeding Selective breeding is the purposeful mating of individuals with certain traits to alter the population Inbreeding increases the frequency of a trait in a population so that individuals become more alike (also called artificial selection)artificial selection Outbreeding increases the variation within a population so individuals become less similarOutbreeding </li> <li> Slide 14 </li> <li> Sample Problems Genetic Counseling Genetic counseling provides information and support to families who have members with birth defects or genetic disorders and to families who may be at risk for a variety of inherited conditionsGenetic counseling Genetic counsellors would use pedigree charts and genetic testing to determine the probabilities of certain traitsgenetic testing </li> <li> Slide 15 </li> <li> Sample Problems Gene Mapping Gene mapping is the determination of the location of genes on a chromosome To construct a gene map several linked traits must be identifiedgene map Linked traits are traits that are due to genes on the same chromosomeLinked traits </li> <li> Slide 16 </li> <li> Sample Problems Gene Mapping Linked traits can be unlinked if crossing over occurs Crossing over results in unexpected phenotypes resulting from genetic crosses The frequency of crossing over is greater if linked genes are far apart on the same chromosome </li> <li> Slide 17 </li> <li> Sample Problems Gene Mapping By examining the offspring of genetic crosses it is possible to determine the frequencies of crossing over for several traits The crossover frequencies can be used to construct a gene mapconstruct a gene map </li> </ul>

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