Smart Grid CD

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<ul><li><p> Smart Grid </p><p> . </p><p> : . .. </p><p>, 2012 </p></li><li><p> Smart Grid </p><p>2 </p></li><li><p> . 3 </p><p> Smart Grid </p><p> . </p><p> : . .. </p><p> 19 2012. </p><p>................................ ........................... ........................... . ... ... ... </p><p>, 2012 </p></li><li><p> Smart Grid </p><p>4 </p><p>.................................... </p><p> . </p><p> ... </p><p> Copyright , 2012. . All rights reserved. </p><p> , , , . , , , . . </p><p> . </p></li><li><p> . 5 </p><p> . . . . , ..., . . , ..., , . . </p><p> . </p><p>, 18 2012 </p></li><li><p> Smart Grid </p><p>6 </p></li><li><p> . 7 </p><p> . , , . , . , , , . , , , , . , . , , . , ElecPrivacy. , , . , , , . , OMNET++. , (DoS) , (Http, VideoStream) (VideoStream). </p><p> , , , , , , , . </p></li><li><p> Smart Grid </p><p>8 </p></li><li><p> . 9 </p><p>ABSTRACT </p><p> The smart grid is attempting to modernize the existing antiquated electricity grid </p><p>system. The beneficial features of the smart grid, whose main representative is the </p><p>smart meter, contribute to the optimal use of electricity in both the production side </p><p>and consumption side. Introducing the new communications and information </p><p>technologies at key points in the network achieved the integration of renewable </p><p>energy and the energy consumer in the scenario of operation of the smart grid. </p><p> However, integration of new technologies, especially those related to the Internet, </p><p>may introduce new security threats to the smart grid. Some malicious attackers can </p><p>exploit the vulnerabilities of network communications and seize electronic devices, </p><p>steal confidential personal information or to prohibit the availability of essential </p><p>services, causing a widespread power outage, resulting in adverse economic costs. </p><p> For this reason, addressing safety issues in smart grid plays a key role. The </p><p>confidentiality, integrity and availability of mobile information need to be protected </p><p>so as to increase system reliability. Data encryption is an effective measurement </p><p>solution, and the protection of personal consumer information with the innovative </p><p>load management system "ElecPrivacy". </p><p> In addition, cooperative wireless communications in smart grid has the potential to </p><p>contribute to more efficient utilization of the available energy of cooperating nodes, </p><p>increasing thereby the quality of transmission services. By leveraging the advantages </p><p>of cooperation, the smart metering network, which consists of spatially dispersed </p><p>smart meters, encrypts personal data measurement and effectively transmit them to </p><p>the control center to avoid conflicts and routing problems. </p><p> Finally, the operation of the smart grid is simulated using the simulation </p><p>environment OMNET++. The baseline operation involves the use of a common </p><p>communications network for exchanging information between smart meters and </p><p>responsive control center, launching denial of service attack (DoS) from attackers to </p><p>unsuspecting smart meters, serving mobile users by remote Internet servers (Http, </p><p>VideoStream) and other collaborative users (VideoStream). </p><p>Key Words </p><p> Smart grid, smart meters, risks, attacks, security, privacy, cryptography, wireless </p><p>cooperative communications. </p></li><li><p> Smart Grid </p><p>10 </p><p>1. (smart grid) (services).........................23 </p><p> 1.1. (electric power grid) .........................................................................................23 </p><p> 1.2. ..................23 </p><p> 1.3. SCAD .........................................................................................24 </p><p> 1.4. (smart grid).....................................25 </p><p> 1.4.1. (self-healing)............................................26 </p><p> 1.4.2. (distributed power generation)..................................................................................27 </p><p> 1.4.3. (centralized to distributed communications)...........................................28 </p><p> 1.4.4. Plug-in .......................................................28 </p><p> 1.4.5. (smart meters).............................................................28 </p><p> 1.5. ............................................29 </p><p> 1.5.1. (wireless technology standards).........29 </p><p> 1.5.2. (network architecture)........................................29 </p><p> 1.5.3. (standards) ...............30 </p><p> 1.6. 2.......................................................................31 </p><p> 1.7. WSN (Wireless Sensor Networks)..................31 </p><p>2. .............................................................35 </p><p> 2.1. ...........................................................................35 </p><p> 2.2. (attacks)...........................................................36 </p><p> 2.2.1. ..........................................................................36 </p><p> 2.2.1.1. Replay attack: Eavesdropping DoS...................................37 </p><p> 2.2.2. , ........................38 </p></li><li><p> . 11 </p><p> 2.2.3. ..............................39 </p><p> 2.2.4. ....................................................................................39 </p><p> 2.2.5. ..............................................................................................40 </p><p> 2.2.6. .........................................40 </p><p> 2.3. ..............................................................................41 </p><p> 2.4. (state estimation), (load redistribution attack) ..........................................42 </p><p> 2.4.1. ........................................42 </p><p> 2.5. (cyber-attacks) ..........................................................................44 </p><p> 2.6. ............................................................................45 </p><p> 2.7. ..................................................46 </p><p> 2.8. MAC (medium access control) WSN....................47 </p><p> 2.9. (vulnerabilities)....................................54 </p><p>3. (security).....................................................................55 </p><p> 3.1. ...........................................................................................55 </p><p> 3.2. .....................................................................................55 </p><p> 3.3. .................................................................56 </p><p> 3.4. ..........................................................................................57 </p><p> 3.4.1. ............................................................58 </p><p> 3.5. ....................................................................58 </p><p> 3.6. (emergency demand response program)..............................................................................59 </p><p> 3.7. (intrusion detection system).........................59 </p></li><li><p> Smart Grid </p><p>12 </p><p> 3.8. (anomaly detection mechanism)............60 </p><p> 3.9. (identity), (key management) (encryption)...........................................................................61 </p><p> 3.10. (privacy protection)........................................................................................62 </p><p> 3.11. (traffic analysis)..................62 </p><p>4. (privacy) ..........65 </p><p> 4.1. ........................................................................65 </p><p> 4.2. ........................................65 </p><p> 4.3. ...................66 </p><p> 4.4. ElecPrivacy.........................67 </p><p> 4.5. ............................................68 </p><p>5. (Cryptography)............................................................................71 </p><p> 5.1. ...................................................................71 </p><p> 5.1.1. (identification)....................................................................71 </p><p> 5.1.2. (authentication)...........................................................71 </p><p> 5.1.2.1. ...................................................................71 </p><p> 5.2. ...................................................................................72 </p><p> 5.2.1. ( ).............72 </p><p> 5.2.2. ( )..............73 </p><p> 5.2.2.1. .......................................74 </p><p> 5.3. (Digital Signatures).......................................................75 </p><p> 5.4. (Digital Certificates).................................................76 </p><p> 5.5. ...........................................................76 </p><p>6. (Wireless Cooperative Communications)..................................................................................................79 </p><p> 6.1. ...........................................................................................................79 </p></li><li><p> . 13 </p><p> 6.2. .......................................................81 </p><p> 6.3. - (cognitive radio networks).......................................82 </p><p> 6.3.1. .........................................83 </p><p> 6.3.2. .....................................................84 </p><p> 6.4. - ....................................................86 </p><p> 6.4.1. .........................................................87 </p><p> 6.4.2. .........................................................88 </p><p> 6.4.3. W.........................................................88 </p><p> 6.5. ...............................................................................89 </p><p> 6.6. ......................................................................92 </p><p>7. (advanced metering infrastructure of smart grid).........................................................................................................95 </p><p> 7.1. ...............................................................................................95 </p><p> 7.2. ......................................96 </p><p> 7.3. .........................................................................97 </p><p> 7.3.1. (initialization process).................................97 </p><p> 7.3.1.1. (smart meter) (firewall) ..........................99 </p><p> 7.3.1.2. ...........................................................................100 </p><p> 7.3.1.3. ....................................................101 </p><p> 7.3.2. - (meter-reading collection process).................................................................................102 </p><p> 7.3.3. (management message distribution process)...............................................................103 </p><p> 7.3.4. ..................104 </p><p> 7.3.5. ............................................105 </p></li><li><p> Smart Grid </p><p>14 </p><p>8. Smart Grid (Simulation of Smart Grid Network)..........................................................................................107 </p><p> 8.1. .......................................................................107 </p><p> 8.2. omnetpp.ini.....................................................................................133 </p><p> 8.3. ......................................................................145 </p><p> 8.4. SmartGrid.......................................147 </p><p> 8.4.1. / ................147 </p><p> 8.4.2. (utilization) .............158 </p><p> 8.4.3. / ................................................................................164 </p><p> 8.4.4. / HTTP ............................................................................176 </p><p> 8.4.5. / VideoStream ............................................................................187 </p><p> 8.4.6. VideoStream ...........................................................................198 </p><p>9. ......................................................................................................205 </p><p>......................................................................................................207 </p><p>..........................................................................................................211 </p><p>SCADA-Sim .....................................................................211 </p></li><li><p> . 15 </p><p> 1-1 ..........................................................................24 </p><p> 1-2 SCADA.......................................................................................25 </p><p> 1-3 ..............................................................................................26 </p><p> 1-4 ................................................................29 </p><p> 1-5 WSN........................................................................................32 </p><p> 1-6 .......................................................32 </p><p> 2-1 ................................................................................36 </p><p> 2-2 ....................................................36 </p><p> 2-3 replay ............37 </p><p> 2-4 replay - ............38 </p><p> 2-5 ....................................................................................39 </p><p> 2-6 ............................................................40 </p><p> 2-7 ...................................................41 </p><p> 2-8 2 ..............................................................................43 </p><p> 2-9 2 .............................43 </p><p> 2-10 .............</p></li></ul>