SNU 한국어 2 문법 한국어-영어 Korean-English grammar

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Korean grammar notes

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1

N / N /.

N becomes N

V- *V-

To come/happen to V has come to V ? . *V- will come to V .

N / or N .

To introduce N

N 2 .

(to V) beginning with N

N() .

to be called N

V- [].

to be happy [glad] to V

N N /

to teach N to N . N of oneself

N.

N 2 .

for N long

N / .

to know N

2

N .

because of N

*A/V . . BUT is weird/unnatural because this grammar should be used for more complex logic/reason. INSTEAD use /, (), .

A-/.

to become A to sit [stand] N to be sorry for V to be careful of/watch out for N (like -ly)Adverb () modifier , turns adjective into an adverb

N / V-/ N / -

vs. . /// are already adverbs 3

V-() N

Verb noun modifier N (past tense)

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.Irregulars: 1., , 2. 3.

A-()

A/V predicative sentence end (more info coming, spoken only)

V-

A/V predicative sentence end (more info coming, spoken only) Irregulars: 1. 2. N() N predicative sentence ending (more info coming, spoken only) (answering phone), (implies waiting for further info) NOTE: Three uses for this grammar: 1. background info, 2. (), 3.

N()?

by means of N to take N long to mail [send] N to N to mail [send] by N 4

N / N N / [] N() []

N .

to seem to be N

N / N / ? .

not to know N I dont think I know/understand N to know [not know] how to V

V-() [] .

N N / .

to sell N to N N is good [bad] for N . 5

N / N(//) [].

V.

V the wrong (N)

[] V.

to V [not V] well

V-.

not V (imperative sentence ending dont)

V- V-()

not V and do V (imperative dont and do) . to call place/person to hang up/answer the phone/have someone answer phone is ringing 6

N(/) .

[] [].

A / V.

cannot V because it is too A

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A() .

to seem to be A/V to seem to be A/V It looks like N will be A/V

V .

V/A-() .

A-().

an A-one

S-().

it would be nice if S

N N /.

to lend N to N to [for] N from N

N [] [].

N [] [].

N / N [].

N is easy [difficult] for N

*NOTE: lent book lending book (now) to be lent book (tomorrow) 7

N / A

the most A in N . . N () / A the most A among N ?

S- S

S because S . . *NOTE: /& cant be used with (), (), , , , so use (), instead. All can be used with .

V- []

to like [not to like] to V . . V- [] to like [not to like] to V . *But cant say this of another person, bc implies your own feeling. *NOTE:

V- [] ?

How about V? ? ? to go to N first So [Neither] do I 8

N [ ]

N / N N [] V []

not N but N to know [not know] [when, where, what, who] N be to know [not know] [how, when, where, what, who] V

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V-/ V N /

Lets V V for the first time to finish N 9

V() V V / [] V() [] N / N N /

V in order to V V and bring [take] it It is all right [not all right] if V contrastive particle (replacing /) to register/sign up for N to not need N 10

S() V() [] V/A / N /() [] N /() [] A-() ? V ?

V if/when S should V/A to go [to come] to N, to go [come] down to N to go [come] to N, to go [come] up to N Is it ok if A Is it ok (even) if V 11

A- N V/A V/A () V/A () V/A / , , , ,

A adverbial suffix A/V like N will be A/V if A/V must/should have been A/V like that, like that, like this here, there (farthest), there 12

V() S V() N V() []

S if N intend to V N is there if V cannot V to go [come] out

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13

V-() A N() V / [] V/A N / (N ) V V N V

to be A to V because it is N It is alright to V not V very much/ not to be so A to put N at/in/on N just V V first V before N 14

V() N / V/A V/A / V __

to be N since V I suppose N will be A /will V must have been A/V to start to V _times a _ 15

V [] N / A/V() A()? N

to like [to dislike] V to lack/not have enough N will be A/will V, so A+ a slightly polite interrogative ending (often used by women) only N 16

N / N / V V N / [, ] V / N /

because it is N to ask N V, then V/while V, V to cross N to try V to see N 17

A/V /

A/V exclamatory sentence ending (past tense)

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N / A /() N N / [] N() N N() N / N

can have N or to be N extremely A to bring/take and give N to N N or N will have N to order N the same N 18

A/V() V ? V N () N [-] [] () () () [] [] N N

will be A/will V (formal sentence ending) V interrogative (formal sentence ending) to be sure to V about N N kinds of (N) if possible to get [to give] a grade of (number) points to have [not have] a question to ask [take] a question in detail [simply/briefly] from N to N 19

N N / N A/V . .

every N to have N N be also A; N also V

V() ? [V() ]Note: Cannot use with only

would you like to V?; will V (sentence ending)

A []V

not A at all cannot [not] V at all

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V ? N ?

Will you V? (Often used by women, a little polite similar to )

Is N? *Note: Cannot use anymore but use instead. , , , , , (but only spoken, never written), /+ N

V N(/) N N / ?

before V N ticket to N

What is N? (A little formal, similar to , but to older person) -, -, -, -, -, -

N

particle (choice) what you choose from a variety of options all done (expression) 1 day, 2 days, 3 days, 4 days, 5 days

21

N N V / V/A ? S

just/nothing but N (MLJ note: besides N) (small amounts or it sounds weird) instead of N Imperative ending. Similar to but less polite Why is N so A/V?

It happens/is like that when S *Can only be used as a response to another person saying something

N A/V () A/V () V A/V N / N [N / ]

worth/costing N Big problem has happened Whats in it for me (joking expression among friends) but 22 will be A/will V not to know whether A/V a place where V A/V exclamatory ending to catch N empty/vacant N [N is empty/vacant]

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[, ] V() A/V / N N N /

anyway to go [to come, to leave] in the direction of fortunately, S fortunately, S to turn to N to stop N at N 23

N / N / N /

to look A to look like N (heredity/family, not usually like a chef etc.) to look like N

N / N / N / [, ] N be similar [same different] to N in N N N A/V N [, ] []N-like, N-al (adjectival suffix) A/V like N (same as ) N like this [that] to have [not have] the chance/opportunity 24

V N() V V

after having completed V (like after [] or and then [, ] N or whatever (for when you dont have a preference) V or V as one wishes/pleases to use (in other cases: write, spend, wear glasses, bitter) 25

A/V ? , ,

Isnt it~? Dont you ~? (same as )

less, much, more *Weird to use with , , , , can usually substitute (lack) for . (not yet ready, such as food). Used often with , , , .

N /

to trust/believe N * doesnt shift to in conjugation, just regular

to hurry/ V in a hurry

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A/V() N / N N / N

to take a detour to miss Ill be in big trouble if A/V to escort/take someone somewhere (honorific)

to take someone somewhere . Took his girlfriend to his house (together). . Took girlfriend to her house (and left). . Went (together) with his girlfriend to her house.

N V

by N before V 26

V() []

to have (not have) V before * is strange because is has a more immediate meaning or to try, but the following sentence means to have experienced/happened/tried (before): . *The following sentences are all fine: ? ? ? *Related grammar: V- .

V V V () N(/) N(/) N , N V() ?

to watch (someone) V to make plans to V to promise to V to play N (sports) to play N (sports) N match, N player thats good/great (use endings like , , ) Im sorry to hear that/ thats too bad (use endings like , , ) before/beforehand How about V/why not V? 27

V / (, ) N N

to be V to be blue (yellow, white, black, red) N that is N (positionally)

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, N () N / N / N / N / N ()

to be bright, dark N goes well with N N matches with N N fits N color 28

V / A

predicative sentence ending *** SEE NOTES IN BOOK FOR COMMON ERRORS, also other forms besides these listed predicative sentence ending predicative sentence ending predicative sentence ending predicative sentence ending predicative sentence ending to run/jump in N to bloom (flowers) to fall (leaves) to rain/snow to blow (wind) to sleep [honorific] 29

A/V / A/V() A/V N() N () [] [] []

V / V() A() N A/V () N # N / (N )

the day (when) V A day Ns day A/V and/as well as to have been to N first time, second time, etc. N likes N, N pleases N

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A/V() ()() A/V [ ] N V / () [] A () [] N() N / [] N / N

A/V when A/V (when) something like this [that] happens N time to say [to hear] S to say [to hear] S to say that it be N N pass to become almost N to become accustomed to N 31

A/V / N / N (N ) N / N / (N ) V() [, ] N / A/V /? A/V / A/V /? A/V ? N()? N() A() ? A() V() ? V() V /

to worry because of A/V to satisfy N to discuss/consult [something] with N to build N tells (N) to V condition the following conditions [problem, story] to understand N 32 - A/V sentence ending to peers A/V interrogative sentence ending to peers A/V interrogative sentence ending to peers N sentence ending to peers Will N be A? sentence ending to peers will (probably) be A (declarative sentence ending to peers) Will V sentence ending to peers will V sentence ending to peers V imperative sentence ending to peers

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V V A ! V /! [], [] [] [] [] N() ()

Lets V sentence ending to peers Lets not V sentence ending to peers A exclamatory sentence ending to peers V exclamatory sentence ending to peers you + subject particle you + genitive particle you + object particle to you with you as many (as much/long) as N sure/yes (used with peers) no (used with peers) I think so (used with peers) possibly/maybe/probably (used with peers) I dont think so (used with peers) to treat someone (to something?) 33

V V / V / A N() V / N

V .. to end up V + emphasis marker to lost + emphasis marker to forget + emphasis marker to think that V to think that A to think that N V and set aside (for later use) One and the same N

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() () ()

to hide (oneself) to be angry to show anger N occer (to N)/remember N then