Social Inequality and Mobility in Hong Kong: Findings from A Benchmark Survey, 2007

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Social Inequality and Mobility in Hong Kong: Findings from A Benchmark Survey, 2007. Xiaogang WU ( ) Associate Professor Social Science Division Hong Kong University of Science & Technology Nov 6, 2009. 1. Background of Research on Inequality. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  • Social Inequality and Mobility in Hong Kong: Findings from A Benchmark Survey, 2007Xiaogang WU()Associate Professor Social Science DivisionHong Kong University of Science & Technology

    Nov 6, 2009

  • 1. Background of Research on InequalityRising inequality has been a pressing issue faced by many countries in recent decades. It is economic, social, and political issue that deserves research from all major social science disciplines. Sociological research on inequality considers hierarchical social structures that rank people with respect to access to certain resources, and how such structure/pattern varies in different context.Research on class inequality and mobility: WHO GETS WHAT, AND WHY? Occupation is an important basis of social stratification, through which majority of us earn income.

  • Social Science and The Public Policy Theory-based and empirically-tested models of inequality that can assist not only in understanding ongoing changes in inequality but also in evaluating public policy and social interventions.Basis: the collection and empirical analysis of population-based sample data . The case of Hong Kong: two contrasting images.

  • Historical Trends 1981-2006: Government Statistics

    Chart1

    333690.451

    577840.453

    1200150.476

    1910470.518

    1935000.525

    2151580.535

    GDP Per Capita

    Gini Coefficient

    Year

    GDP Per Capita

    Gini Coefficient

    Change of GDP per Capita & Gini Coefficient from 1981 to 2006 in Hong Kong

    data

    YearGDP Per CapitaGini Coefficient

    1981333690.451

    1986577840.453

    19911200150.476

    19961910470.518

    20011935000.525

    20062151580.535

    198119861991199620012006

    Industry

    Manufacture42.2837.4528.1719.7312.8510.03

    Construction8.656.386.978.237.66.94

    Wholesale/retail/trade18.8122.5522.3524.3826.1927.23

    Transport/communication8.097.859.9111.2211.2311.61

    Finance/real estate5.086.1310.5813.5816.0716.87

    Community/social service14.7418.0320.0922.3225.6927.1

    198119861991199620012006

    Occupation

    Managers2.433.659.0712.3810.8510.45

    Professional5.698.934.144.95.666.16

    Associate professional--10.7212.4815.7216.41

    Clerk12.815.3416.4717.5416.5917.24

    Service/sales10.5912.9113.5313.815.2516.6

    Craft worker21.7117.7214.812.81108.63

    Machine operator/assembler30.5924.4913.78.697.26.15

    Elementary occupation16.2116.9617.5717.4118.7318.36

    Occupation

    ManagersProfessionalAssociate professionalClerkService/salesCraft workerMachine operator/assemblerElementary occupation

    19812.435.69-12.810.5921.7130.5916.21

    19863.658.93-15.3412.9117.7224.4916.96

    19919.074.1410.7216.4713.5314.813.717.57

    199612.384.912.4817.5413.812.818.6917.41

    200110.855.6615.7216.5915.25107.218.73

    200610.456.1616.4117.2416.68.636.1518.36

    Industry

    ManufactureConstructionWholesale/retail/tradeTransport/communicationFinance/real estateCommunity/social service

    198142.288.6518.818.095.0814.74

    198637.456.3822.557.856.1318.03

    199128.176.9722.359.9110.5820.09

    199619.738.2324.3811.2213.5822.32

    200112.857.626.1911.2316.0725.69

    200610.036.9427.2311.6116.8727.1

    198119861991199620012006

    All

    Primary or below46.2936.6229.5922.7119.0516.33

    Lower secondary20.1220.1121.4121.0720.7322.14

    Upper secondary26.5832.663638.8937.7540.22

    Non-degree3.535.796.585.367.916.7

    Degree or above3.494.826.4311.9714.5714.61

    Men

    Primary or below41.3632.2826.1919.9616.3413.81

    Lower secondary23.5223.6224.9724.3123.9924.24

    Upper secondary26.7832.1634.0236.6135.6839.03

    Non-degree3.885.97.085.658.26.95

    Degree or above4.466.047.7513.4615.7915.96

    Women

    Primary or below51.8241.3733.1825.4521.5718.56

    Lower secondary16.3116.2717.6617.8317.6920.27

    Upper secondary26.3533.2138.0841.1639.6641.27

    Non-degree3.135.676.055.077.646.48

    Degree or above2.43.485.0410.4913.4313.42

    year1946-19551956-19651966-19751976-1989

    intra-generation0.720.730.780.83

    inter-generation0.450.420.40.28

    chart

    chart

    333690.451

    577840.453

    1200150.476

    1910470.518

    1935000.525

    2151580.535

    GDP Per Capita

    Gini Coefficient

    Year

    GDP Per Capita

    Gini Coefficient

    Change of GDP per Capita & Gini Coefficient from 1981 to 2006 in Hong Kong

    2.435.69012.810.5921.7130.5916.21

    3.658.93015.3412.9117.7224.4916.96

    9.074.1410.7216.4713.5314.813.717.57

    12.384.912.4817.5413.812.818.6917.41

    10.855.6615.7216.5915.25107.218.73

    10.456.1616.4117.2416.68.636.1518.36

    Managers

    Professional

    Associate professional

    Clerk

    Service/sales

    Craft worker

    Machine operator/assembler

    Elementary occupation

    Year

    Occupation Change from 1981 to 2006 in Hong Kong

    42.288.6518.818.095.0814.74

    37.456.3822.557.856.1318.03

    28.176.9722.359.9110.5820.09

    19.738.2324.3811.2213.5822.32

    12.857.626.1911.2316.0725.69

    10.036.9427.2311.6116.8727.1

    Manufacture

    Construction

    Wholesale/retail/trade

    Transport/communication

    Finance/real estate

    Community/social service

    Year

    Industry composition change from 1981 to 2006 in Hong Kong

    46.2920.1226.583.533.49

    36.6220.1132.665.794.82

    29.5921.41366.586.43

    22.7121.0738.895.3611.97

    19.0520.7337.757.9114.57

    16.3322.1440.226.714.61

    Primary or below

    Lower secondary

    Upper secondary

    Non-degree

    Degree or above

    Year

    Overall Education Change in Hong Kong

    41.3623.5226.783.884.46

    32.2823.6232.165.96.04

    26.1924.9734.027.087.75

    19.9624.3136.615.6513.46

    16.3423.9935.688.215.79

    13.8124.2439.036.9515.96

    Primary or below

    Lower secondary

    Upper secondary

    Non-degree

    Degree or above

    Year

    Education Change of Male in Hong Kong

    51.8216.3126.353.132.4

    41.3716.2733.215.673.48

    33.1817.6638.086.055.04

    25.4517.8341.165.0710.49

    21.5717.6939.667.6413.43

    18.5620.2741.276.4813.42

    Primary or below

    Lower secondary

    Upper secondary

    Non-degree

    Degree or above

    Year

    Education Change of Female in Hong Kong

    0.720.45

    0.730.42

    0.780.4

    0.830.28

    intra-generation

    inter-generation

    Year

    mobility rate

    mobility rate change of intra-generation & inter-generation

    333690.451

    577840.453

    1200150.476

    1910470.518

    1935000.525

    2151580.535

    GDP Per Capita

    Gini Coefficient

    Year

    GDP Per Capita

    Gini Coefficient

    Change of GDP per Capita & Gini Coefficient from 1981 to 2006 in Hong Kong

  • Economic Development and Income Inequality in Hong Kong, 1981-2006

    Year

    GDP Per Capita (at current market price HK $)*

    Gini Coefficient

    1981

    33369

    0.451

    1986

    57784

    0.453

    1991

    120015

    0.476

    1996

    191047

    0.518

    2001

    193500

    0.525

    2006

    215158

    0.535

  • Comparative Income Inequality: the Case of Hong Kong

  • 2. Hong Kongs Inequality in Policy DebateInequality has become a political issue (high Gini coefficient is often cited as evidence). The government set up a new Commission on Poverty in 2005 to tackle the problems related to poverty, among which inter-generational transfer of poverty was listed on the top of the Commissions policy. Stagnant social mobility and the emergence of M-shape society.

  • Social MobilitySome argued that in the context of economic recession and industrial restructuring, Hong Kong is increasingly polarized, fitting the scenario of the M-shaped societies. Others contended that little statistical evidence suggests such an ongoing trend, namely, ordinary peoples living standards are on the decline and social mobility is blocked.

  • The Chief Executives Policy Address 2009

  • Temporal Trends in Social MobilityIntergenerational or intergenerational mobility; How structural change shapes opportunities;

    The role of educational expansion in affecting the pattern of social mobility.

    Evidence from the Census and By-census Data, 1981-2006.

  • Industrial Restructuring

    Chart3

    42.288.6518.818.095.0814.74

    37.456.3822.557.856.1318.03

    28.176.9722.359.9110.5820.09

    19.738.2324.3811.2213.5822.32

    12.857.626.1911.2316.0725.69

    10.036.9427.2311.6116.8727.1

    Manufacture

    Construction

    Wholesale/retail/trade

    Transport/communication

    Finance/real estate

    Community/social service

    Year

    Industry composition change from 1981 to 2006 in Hong Kong

    data

    YearGDP Per CapitaGini Coefficient

    1981333690.451

    1986577840.453

    19911200150.476

    19961910470.518

    20011935000.525

    20062151580.535

    198119861991199620012006

    Industry

    Manufacture42.2837.4528.1719.7312.8510.03

    Construction8.656.386.978.237.66.94

    Wholesale/retail/trade18.8122.5522.3524.3826.1927.23

    Transport/communication8.097.859.9111.2211.2311.61

    Finance/real estate5.086.1310.5813.5816.0716.87

    Community/social service14.7418.0320.0922.3225.6927.1

    198119861991199620012006

    Occupation

    Managers2.433.659.0712.3810.8510.45

    Professional5.698.934.144.95.666.16

    Associate professional--10.7212.4815.7216.41

    Clerk12.815.3416.4717.5416.5917.24

    Service/sales10.5912.9113.5313.815.2516.6

    Craft worker21.7117.7214.812.81108.63

    Machine opera