Star Galaxy Universe

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Slide 1

:- 1. (ASASTRONOMY)- . . 2. -., 3.- ., :-1., 2.

HISTORY OF ASTRO-PHYSICS

..4241- 12 .

. 3100 , , .

(. 611-547) , .

(. 540-510)- .

(..500-428) . . , . .

(THALES)

..585- 28- , .

, .

.

..636-546

4

(THALES)

. , . 90 ( ) . . . (ISOCELES ) . (CONCURRENT) ..

(ARISTOTLE)

(..384-322) . .

.

.

(PHYSICS ), (CHEMISTRY ), (ANOTOMY ), (ASTROLONOMY ), (GEOGRAPHY ) . .

..384-322

(ARISTOTLE)

(THE TOPIC ), (HYPOTHESIS ), (TESTING HYPOTHESIS ), ? (RESEARCH LITERATURE ), ( DATA REGARDING BASIC QUESTION), INTERPRETATION OF DATA ), (RESULT ).

(NICHOMACIAN ETHICS)..335- .

, (..276-192). 675 . (POLAR AXISPOLAR), (ELIPTICELIPTIC AXIS) 23 , ( ) , 92 .( 93 ). 24,830

(GLADIUS PTOLEMI )

.140- 13 . 1022 . , (PTOLEMAIC THEORY) . , . 1400 ,

.130- (160-125 .) 850 . .

(..375-415), . .

..640-

.600 , 27 .

..450 (LONGITUDES) .

(..588-660) ...1194- .

.1700- .

..2000 .

, .

(HALLEYS COMET ) ..240 . ..100 . , .

(MAYANS)

(MAYANS) (CALENDER) , , .

..485 12- .

26 (LATITUDE) . 26 .

1562 .

(ARYABHATA)

. , . . . . (ARYABHATA SIDDHANTA) ...476-550

(VARAHAMIHIRA) ..505-587

. , . .. .

(LEONARDO DA VINCI)

..13 , , .

, . .

NICOLAUS COPERNICUS

, .

. , ( DE REVOLUTIONIBUS ORBIUM COELSTIUM)

, .

. , REVOLUTION .

1473-1543

(NICOLAUS COPERNICUS)

. . , . , . . ., , , . . (REVOLUTION) 1473-1543

( )

, .

15- (1548-1600) .

. . .

?

.1548-1600

(GALILEO GALILEI)

, 9 , . . . , 176 . 1564-1642

(GALILEO GALILEI)

, ? ? .

30 ,, () 500 ,

1632- 1400 DIALOGO SOPRA I DUE MOSSIMISISTEME DEL MOUDO

.

. 10 ...

(JOHANNES KEPLER)

1. .

2. , .3. , 1571-1630

(ISSAC NEWTON )

- , , - . , PHILOSOPHIAE NATURALIS PRINCIPA MATHEMATICA . . , . .

1642-1727

(FUSION REACTION IN SUN)

(1882-1944) , 1926- .

, (FUSION ) 1939-

(ALBERT EINSTEIN )

12 .

(QUANDAM PHYSICS), & (GENERAL & SPECIAL RELATIVITY THEORY), (BROWNIAN MOTION), - (E=MC) .

.

.

- 1879-1955

(ALBERT EINSTEIN )

(SPACE) (MATTER) . , (SPACE) . (GEOMETRY) .

1921- .

NUCLEUSATOMSOLAR SYSTEMGALAXY &

, (LIGHT YEAR AND ASTRONOMICAL UNIT)

( LIGHT YEAR) 2,99,792.5 . , , 5,87,460,1766400 (9454256280000 . 9.4X 10 . ). , 9 46 . . ( ASTRONOMICAL UNIT), . 14,96,00,000 . . ( ANGSTROM UNIT) ( ANGSTROM UNIT) . ( SPECTROMETER) (WAVE LENTH ) (1814-1874) .

( UNIVERSE)

1. ( OUR SOLAR SYSTEM)2. (PRECESSION ) (MILANKOVIC CYCLES)3. ( GALAXIES)4. (CONSTELLATION )5. ?6. (RED GIANT STAR )7. (WHITE DWARF STAR)8. (NEUTRON STARS)9. ( BLACK HOLE)10. (QUASARS)11. ?12. ( LIFE OF STARS)13. 14. 15. 8 ?

1.

(EARTH ) . (PLANETS ) . (AASTROIDS ) . .

( MMERCURY), ( VENUS), (EARTH ), (MARS ), (JUPITERJUPITER ), (SASATURN ), (URANUS ), (NEPTUNE ), 8 (PLANETS ), .

(PLUTO) , 2006- .

(ASTROIDS BELTS )

(ASTROIDS ) , . .

(Name of Planets) (DIAMETER)(.) (MASS) (.) (Time Taken for one Revolution) (Distance from Sun) (Escaping Velocity)./13,91,4001.99X10 -----------061748783.30X1089 DAYS0.387 AU4.212,1044.87x10225 DAYS0.723 AU10.412,7565.98X10365 DAYS1.00 AU11.267876.44X10687 DAYS1.52 AU51,42,8001.90X1011.9 YEARS5.20 AU601,20,6605.69X1029.5 YEARS9.54 AU3650,8008.76x1084.0 YEARS19.18 AU2148,6001.03X10164.8 YEARS30.07 AU242300247.7 YEARS39.44 AU1.3

AU (Astronomical Unit) , 1AU = 14,96,00,000 . 33

2. (PRECESSION ) (MILANKOVIC CYCLES)

(PRECESSION)

, , , , , (WOBBLING ) . (PRECESSION ) . 25,765 . . 12,0000 .

(PRECESSION)

, . . ..3000 ( 5000 ) (TUBAN ) . 8000 ( DENEB) . 12000 (VEGA ) .21,0000 (TUBAN ) . . 12,000 .

(MILANKOVIC CYCLES)

. . . . , . , . (SUMMER), (WINTER) .

3. ( GALAXIES)

(GALAXIES )

( GALILEO 1564-1642) .

.

.

(MILKY WAY GALAXY)

() (OUR MILKY WAY )

. ( SPIRAL ARM ) . (DIAMETER ) 1,00,000 . 28,000 . .

1,00,000 TOP VIEW OF OUR GALAXY

() (OUR MILKY WAY )

12,000 14,000 .

50,000 . 225 . (COSMIC YEAR ) .

(LARGE MAGELAN CLOUD ) ( SMALL MAGELAN CLOUD) .

SIDE VIEW OF OUR GALAXY

(SUN POSITION IN OUR GALAXY )

28,000 .

230 .

, .

Mapping the Galaxy: Not There Yet

(NEAREST GALAXIES) .

(ANDROMEDA) .

20,00,000 . , 20,00,000 . 20,00,000 , . 20,00,000 .

( SCULPTORY ) . .

4. (CONSTELLATION

(CONSTELLATION )

. , , , .

, . (ORION ) (), (GREAT BEAR,URSA MAJOR ), ( LITTLE BEAR, URSA MINOR), ( CASSIOPEIA), (SOUTHERN CROSSS ), ( TAURUS), (GEMINI ), (LEO ), (SCORPIO ), .

(CONSTELLATION ) .

88 .

(CONSTELLATION )

.

.

. .

(HYDRA ) . (SOUTHERN CROSS ) .

(CONSTELLATION )

.

(ARIES ), (TAURUS ), (GEMINI ), (CANCER ), (LEO ), (VIRGO ), (LIBRA ), (SCORPIO), (SAGITTARIUS ), ( CAPRICORN), (AQUQRIUS ), (PISCES ), 12 (ZODIAC ) .

. . .

, 27 , 27 .

27 . . (STAR ) , .

(The Local Group)

5. ?

? (BETELGUESE ) 700 . 14,000 . 50 . 427 (4.04 x 10 .) . 427 .

(ANTARES ) 700 .10,000 . 600 .

( CANOPUS)310 . 15,000 .

1. 427 ,2. 600 3. 310 . .

. 427, 600, 310 .

8 . , .

(Variety of STARS)

6. (RED GIANT STAR )

, . , . . (RED GIANT ) .

. , , (BOOTES ) .

7. (WHITE DWARF STAR)

, , 10 . . , . . . , .

8. (NEUTRON STARS)

, 60 . .

(BETELGEUSE ) , .

, , . , .

8. (NEUTRON STARS)

500 . .

600 . , .

, .

. 40 . ( NEUTRON STAR) .

9. ( BLACK HOLE)

.

, . 100 .

,

10. (QUASARS)

.

.

.

1,00,000- .

, 100 200 .

.

11. ?

.

. .

. .

.

.

This image shows the highest energy neutrino ever observed (1.14 petaelectronvolts), which scientists named 'Ernie,' as seen by the IceCube Neutrino Observatory

60

12. ( LIFE OF STARS)

, , .

.

, .

, , .

.

, . , .

10,000 . .

POINT A

. . . . A . .62

13. 160 . . .

, ( CISLUNAR SPACE) .

, 16,00,000 . . ( TRANSLUNAR SPACE) .

( INTER PLANETARY DISTANCE ) .

(INTER STELLER SPACE ),

( INTER GALACTIC SPACE)

14.

1600 , . . , . . . , . , , . (GALAXY ) . , . (HUBBLES LAW ) .

(BIG BANG)

, (BIG BANG).

500 800 , . .

.

? (ANALEMMA) , , .

, 8 . (ANALEMMA) .

SOLAR ECLIPS

LUNAR ECLIPS