2. BackgroundA cultural theorist and sociologistBorn February 3rd 1932 in Kingston, JamaicaMoved to the UK in 1951 where he became one of the founding figures of The Birmingham Schoolof Cultural StudiesHe was also President of the British Sociological Association 1995-1997Hall published many influential books;The Hard Road to Renewal (1988)Formations of Modernity (1992)Questions of Cultural Identity (1996)Cultural Representations and Signifying Practices (1997)In 1997, he retired from the Open University and in 2008, he received the European CulturalFoundation’s Prince Margaret Award.
3. Ideas Hall’s view represents people as the producers and the consumers of cultureat the same time. He once said that culture is not something to simply study or toappreciate but a ‘critical site of social action and intervention, where powerrelations are both established and potentially unsettled.’ Hall became a very important figure in the development of the ReceptionTheory; generally known as the audience reception in the analysis ofcommunication models. Particularly, he developed the encoding and decodingmodel which focuses on the opposition and negotiation on the part of the audience.This means that an audience does not passively accept a text. He also stated thatmoral panics are often manipulated in order to create public support for the need to‘police the crisis’ and therefore, the media play a crucial role in the ‘socialproduction of the news’.
4. Dominant Hegemonic PositionIs where the audience interpretsthe message as it was supposed to be interpreted. By doing this, they are operating in the dominant code.
5. Negotiated PositionOccurs when not all audiences understand the dominant position orexperience dissonance with those views
6. Globally Contrary Position When media consumers understand thecontextual and literary inflections of a text yetdecode the message by a completely oppositionalmeans, this is the globally contrary position. Thede-totalisation of that text enables them to reworkit to their preferred meaning. This requiresoperating with an oppositional code which canunderstand dominant hegemonic positions whilefinding frameworks to refute them. Hall feels thatthis position is necessary to begin a struggle indiscourse, or the "politics of signification”.Wikipedia.com