Environmental Protest and Policy Change in KoreaSunhyuk KimDept of Public Administration, Korea UnivSeongeun ChoInstitute of Governmental Studies, Korea Univ
Contents Introduction Theoretical Overview & Methodology Analysis: Environmental Protest and Policy ChangeC Conclusion Introduction Environmental Governance
Growth of environmental movement
Rethinking of the developmental paradigm
Considerable impact on policy, such as cancelling planned constructionSince 1990 Democratic Transition
Relative attention to environmental issues.1987 Rapid Economic Development
Policy of growth-first, environmental degradation later
Absence of attention to the environment1960s-80sDemocratic Transition (1987)Environmental Governance (1990-) Historical trajectory toward a environmental governance in South Korea IntroductionTo explain the relationship between environmental protests and policy changesWhat effects did environmental protest have on the environmental policy?Which aspects of environmental protest led to environmental policy change?
Research questionsAim of this researchTheoretical Overview & Methodology 1. Policy Change: A Theoretical Overview1) Determinants of policy change
Previous works have focused on institutional variables and policy entrepreneurs.
however political and policy changes in Korea have been initiated and propelled by civic mobilization.This research focuses on general public and civic groups.Theoretical Overview & Methodology 1. Policy Change: A Theoretical Overview2) Social protest as a determinant of policy changePrevious works have been interested in the relationship between socialprotest and policy change
however they have not yet reached a consensus onthe specific contents of which variables affect policy change This researchfocuses on different aspects of protest-scope, strategies and methods, the contents and number of demands/grievances, and analyzetheir effects on policy change.
Theoretical Overview & Methodology 2. The Dataset and Methodology1) Dataset: PEDAK(Protest Event Data Archive Korea) PEDAK is a database based on protest events that took place and were reported in newspapers between 1988 and 2007 in Korea.
PEDAK collects the following data by analyzing and coding newspaper reports on post-transitional popular protests. -Number of protests per year -General measures of protest activities -Sociovocational category of protest participants -Repertoires of contention -Types and contents of protest goals, demands, grievances -Reactions to protest actions
Theoretical Overview & Methodology 2. The Dataset and Methodology2) Variables & MeasurementVariablesMeasurementDependentvariablePolicy changeNo policy change, Policy modified, Policy changedIndependentvariablesScope-Duration of protest-Number of protest participationStrategyTypeViolent, Nonviolent but disruptive, NondisruptiveConsistency/ContinuityNo change, Original methods combined with new ones, Original methods replaced by new onesLegality/IllegalityLegal(0), Illegal(1)ParticipantsSociovocationBlue-collar working, Unspecified, White-collar workingDemandsContentsEconomic, Political, Ecological , Economic/Political, Political/Ecological, Economic/Ecological, Economic/Political/Ecological NumberAnalysis: Simple Correlational CoefficientsPolicy changeScopeDuration.000Number of Participants.025StrategyViolence-.059Consistency/Continuity.008Illegality-.197**ParticipantsSociovocational Categories.153Demands/GrievancesContentsPolitical.058Economic.007Political/Ecological-.159*Economic/Ecological-.192*Political/Economic/Ecological.100Number.134*p