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<ul><li><p>UCC/EAN-128 </p><p>TIU CHUN PHN NH NG DNG </p><p>Thng 1 nm 1993 </p><p>( c xem li v in li thng 7 nm 1995) </p><p>HI NG M THNG NHT CA M (UCC, INC) </p></li><li><p> 2 </p><p>Tng kt trong lnh vc iu hnh </p><p>Tiu chun phn nh ng dng UCC/EAN-128 l mt cng c a nng m bn c th </p><p>dng tr gip s vn chuyn c hiu qu ca hng ha v thng tin. Bn c th p </p><p>dng tiu chun ny trong phm vi mt cng ty, gia cc cng ty, qua nhiu ngnh </p><p>cng nghip v trn khp th gii. </p><p>Chng ti thit k tiu chun ny cho n s c tinh linh hot cao theo mc c th </p><p>v s c kh nng c tnh gi mt cch hiu qu vic x l nhiu tnh hung phm </p><p>phi tm thy trong thng mi ton cu. ng thi, chng ti ht sc c gng ci </p><p>tin kh nng qun l ca h thng. Chng ti lm c iu ny bng vic sp xp </p><p>nhiu dng d liu vo cc cch dng mang tnh chc nng v bng vic gp cc </p><p>dng d liu ging nhau vo cc yu t d liu mang tnh ton cu. Kt qu l, tiu </p><p>chun ny ging nh mt ngn ng ton cu. Chng ti xy dng mt vi t c </p><p>cch nh vn v nh ngha c tiu chun ha. Bn c th dng nhng t ny khi </p><p>cn xy dng nhng h thng lin lc ph hp vi loi hng ha v mi trng </p><p>phn phi ca bn. Bt c ai, bt k ni u cng c th hiu c h thng lin lc </p><p>ny. </p><p>Chng ti xy dng Tiu chun Phn nh ng dng ny b sung, ch khng </p><p>thay th, cc tiu chun UCC/EAN khc. Phn ln cc tiu chun UCC/EAN c xy </p><p>dng phn nh sn phm. Cc ngnh cng nghip th hin nhu cu tiu chun ha </p><p>nhiu hn l vic phn nh sn phm. V th, Tiu chun Phn nh ng dng </p><p>UCC/EAN-128 ny c xy dng. B sung vo s phn nh lc ban u ca sn </p><p>phm, tiu chun ny thm tnh a nng trao i thng tin v ngy m hng ha d </p><p>b hng, v s phn nh ca l/ chuyn, v s phn nh cngten ring bit, v cc </p><p>n v o lng, v m a im, v trao i mt vi thng tin khc gia cc cng ty. </p><p>Tiu chun ny thm tr cn cung cp mt phng php lun phin th hin mt vi m </p><p>UCC/EAN hin ti ang c dng vi cc m vch khc nh m SCC-14. Chng ti </p><p> a c trng ny vo thnh mt phn ca tiu chun n gin m rng c hi </p><p>sn c cho vic xy dng cc trao i c hiu qu v mt chi ph. </p><p>Tiu chun Phn nh ng dng UCC/EAN-128 trnh by nhiu hn mt m vch. N l </p><p>mt cng c trao i hp nht c th kt ni thng tin v hng ha. N b sung cho cc </p><p>qu trnh phn nh sn phm UCC/EAN, n ni cc sn phm v mt vt cht vi </p><p>thng tin EDI, v n c th c s dng to thun li cho vic xy dng li cc </p><p>qu trnh kinh doanh b thng tin chi phi. </p></li><li><p> 3 </p><p>Tnh cht n nh di hn ca Tiu chun Phn nh ng dng UCC/EAN-128 t ra c </p><p>nhiu trin vng trong vic p dng phn mm tr gip chuyn hng ha v thng tin </p><p>gia cc cng ty. Tiu chun ny l hin thn ca mt cch tip cn mang tnh kin </p><p>trc. Chng ti xy dng cn thn tiu chun ny dnh cho s pht trin c lp </p><p>rp vi nhng ph v nh nht. V chng ti t nn mng ca cng vic sao cho </p><p>cc bn c th d dng nhn ra li ch t cc ci tin cng ngh m khng phi thay </p><p>i nhiu phn mm ng dng hin ti. </p><p>Tiu chun Phn nh ng dng UCC/EAN 128 l mt cng c linh hot v quan trng </p><p>m bn c th dng ci tin lung hng ha v thng tin. N l mt qu trnh trao i </p><p>kinh doanh ton din v c h thng v n b sung vo phn chng do cc tiu chun </p><p>UCC/EAN li. mt mc gii hn n trng lp mt phn vi cc tiu chun </p><p>UCC/EAN khc, n cng cn cung cp tnh tip din v tnh linh hot. Chng ti xy </p><p>dng n vi s cn nhc v tng lai, ng thi xem xt chnh xc v thn trng </p><p>nhng g c trong hin ti. </p></li><li><p> 4 </p><p>Li ni u </p><p>S suy xt v h thng nh s UPC/EAN ton cu </p><p>Cc h thng ca UCC v EAN quc t (nay l GS1 quc t) to kh nng cho bt k </p><p>sn phm c th hoc cngten vn chuyn no u c cp m s tiu chun </p><p>phn nh chng mt cch r rng mi ni trn th gii. UCC/EAN l mt tiu chun </p><p>m, khng ring bit cho mt cng ty hay mt lnh vc cng nghip. N c UCC </p><p>qun l M v PCCC qun l Canada v EAN quc t qun l nhng nc cn </p><p>li. </p><p>Tt c cc bn trong mt knh phn phi nn s dng mt th tc phn nh chun cho </p><p>c cc sn phm chun v cc sn phm duy nht, v cc m phn nh chun trong </p><p>trao i c dng giy vit v dng in t. S phn nh chun cho php ci tin v </p><p>tnh hiu qu v tnh chnh xc nh sn xut, nh phn phi v cc hot ng ca </p><p>khch hng cui cng. </p><p>H thng nh s UCC/EAN cn c vo hai nguyn tc: </p><p>1. Cc m phi phn nh, ch khng phn loi, vt phm. iu ny a ra tnh linh </p><p>hot to kh nng cho cc tiu chun c dng bt k loi hnh kinh doanh no. </p><p>N to kh nng cho vic phn phi c hiu qu mt sn phm n khch hng </p><p>cui cng trong a ngnh cng nghip. </p><p>2. UCC hoc ngi c thm quyn nh m EAN ph hp s cp m phn nh </p><p>nh cung cp. Nh cung cp, thng l nh sn xut, cp m cho cc sn phm </p><p>c th. Vic kt hp s phn nh nh cung cp do UCC/EAN cp v m vt phm </p><p>do nh cung cp cp m bo mi ni trn th gii khng c hai m b cp trng </p><p>nhau. Nh sn xut c trch nhim cp m cho sn phm ca mnh v thng bo </p><p>cho khch hng nhng m ny. </p><p>Vic nh s UCC/EAN c xy dng lm vic vi my vi tnh ci tin vic </p><p>phn phi c hiu qu v chnh xc. C hai cch kt ni ni b s dng m s sn </p><p>phm chun: </p><p>1. M s sn phm chun c th hin thnh m vch trn chnh vt phm mang </p><p>tnh vt cht. Trn vt phm tiu dng, nhng m vch ny c th l m UPC hoc </p><p>l m EAN. Trn cngten vn chuyn n c th l m ITF hoc l UCC/EAN-128. </p><p>Mt vi cngten vn chuyn c th c gn mt cch c gi tr vi ch m UPC </p><p>hoc EAN khi m cngten vn chuyn cng l vt phm tiu dng. </p></li><li><p> 5 </p><p>2. Trong trao i, cc m s sn phm chun m t vt phm hoc l trn giy, hoc </p><p>l bng trao i d liu in t, hoc l my vi tnh iu khin. </p><p>S phn nh c kt cu chng li s phn nh khng c kt cu </p><p>M s UPC v EAN khng c hm vn c. Chng c chiu di c nh v bao gm </p><p>mt k t kim tra. Bn s dng h thng my vi tnh tm s m t vt phm v </p><p>thng tin khc v sn phm khi m s vt phm UPC c qut t m vch hoc c </p><p>nh trn bn phm bng tay. </p><p>Cu trc ca m UPC ch tn ti nh mt s tr gip trong qun l vic cp m s v </p><p>trong m bo tnh duy nht. Bn nn lun lun s dng ton b m s UPC hoc EAN </p><p> phn nh m ng c gn ngha vo bt k b phn ring r no ca m s. Cun </p><p>Tiu chun ng dng cho m cngten vn chuyn a ra s gii thch y cu </p><p>trc d liu. </p><p>Cu trc ca m UPC-A v EAN-13 </p><p>M UPC-A c chiu di gm 12 ch s thp phn. Cu trc ca chng c ch ra </p><p>hnh 1. Bt u t bn tri sang bn phi, m s UPC-A bao gm m s nh sn xut </p><p>gm 6 ch s thp phn do UCC cp. Chng ti xem ch s u tin ca 6 ch s ny </p><p>l k t thuc h thng s (NSC). Sau trng 6 s ny (bao gm NSC) l m s vt </p><p>phm gm 5 ch s thp phn do ngi ch hay ngi kim sot nhn sn phm cp. </p><p>Ch s th 12 bn ngai cng pha tay phi l k t kim tra. </p><p>M EAN-13 c chiu di gm 13 ch s thp phn. Cu trc m c xc nh bi t </p><p>chc c thm quyn cp m qu gia c m phn nh nh sn xut. Cu trc m EAN-</p><p>13 c ch ra hnh 1. Tnh duy nht ca EAN t UPC t c thng qua vic s </p><p>dng cc k t ca h thng s. K t th 13 ca m EAN l k t ca h thng s (pha </p><p>ngai cng bn tri) c th t cao . Gi tr ca ch s ny l t 1 n 9. Gi tr 0 v tr </p><p>ny ch ra y l mt m UPC . Bn phi thm mt con s 0 vo u m UPC khi s </p><p>dng m s EAN v UPC t rong cng h thng c s d liu hoc khi s dng SCC-</p><p>14. </p><p> c c k t th 13 trong m EAN, cu trc EAN cho php trn ln parity chn v </p><p>l na bn tri na m mt khc c th l m vch UPC chun (tt c cc k t </p><p>na bn tri c m ha vi parity l). iu ny c ngha l m vch EAN 13 ch s </p><p>c chiu di ng bng chiu di ca m vch UPC 12 ch s. My qut thng c </p><p>lp trnh tun theo qui nh k thut sao cho nu na bn tri m vch c tt c </p></li><li><p> 6 </p><p>parity l, my qut s phn nh n l m vch UPC v s pht ra 12 ch s. Nu na </p><p>tri ca m vch c ln parity l v chn, my qut s t ng tnh ton gi tr (1 n 9) </p><p>v cng thm ch s thp phn u theo yu cu cho m EAN-13. </p><p>c tnh ny l mt s cn nhc quan trng khi, v d, cn so snh m c in ra trn </p><p>sn phm vi m hin ra trn my vi tnh hoc c in ra t my vi tnh. M UPC-A </p><p>lun c in ra vi 12 ch s thp phn v m EAN-13 c in ra vi 13 ch s thp </p><p>phn. </p><p>Hnh 1 </p><p>Cu trc ca m UPC-E v EAN-8 </p><p>Hai dng b sung ca m UPC v EAN l m EAN-8, m gm 8 ch s thp phn, v </p><p>UPC-E (8 ch s thp phn). M UPC-E l phin bn b trit ca m UPC-A 12 ch s </p><p>thp phn vi k t thuc h thng s bng 0. m UPC-E lun c duy tr dng 12 </p><p>ch s thp phn ca n trong phm vi h thng my vi tnh chnh s trng lp vi </p><p>m EAN-8 l m sn phm gm 8 ch s thp phn. M EAN-8 khng m rng thnh </p><p>m EAN-13. </p><p>SCC-14 </p><p>SCC-14, thng c bit n nh l m cng ten vn chuyn, l m c 14 ch s </p><p>thp phn dng phn nh nhiu ti c sc cha c nh, cc cng ten vn chuyn, </p><p>cc palet v cc lng hng n v. N c dng phn nh cc cng ten vn </p><p>chuyn v cc gi hng trung gian thc t khng c dng lm cng ten vn chuyn. </p><p>Cc cng ten vn chuyn c th c qut trong mi trng bn hn, c th c m </p><p>vch in trn vt liu th rp (nh b nhn), v thng c c t xa, nh t my </p><p>nng. V th chng c dn nhn nt cch c trng bng vic s dng m vch 2.5 </p></li><li><p> 7 </p><p>(ITF), m ny p ng c cc iu kin trn. Cu trc ca m SCC-14 c ch ra </p><p>hnh 1. </p><p>K t th 14 ngoi cng bn tri ca SCC-14 l s ch vic ng gi (PI). Cc s cn </p><p>li ca m s dng cng cu trc s phn nh vt phm v nh sn xut nh c </p><p>dng trong m vt phm UPC v EAN. S PI khng phn nh s lng, ng nh bn </p><p>thn s UPC khng nh ngha sn phm. Thay vo vic cc s ny khng mang tnh </p><p>hm , chng c dng truy cp vo c s d liu ca my vi tnh. C s d liu </p><p>ca my vi tnh nh ngha sn phm k c s lng. i vi mt sn phm c s </p><p>lng i cng vi PI=3 c th l 112, trong khi i vi mt sn phm khc, s lng i </p><p>cng vi PI=3 c th l 10. Nh vy l, s lng ph thuc vo c PI v s UPC c s. </p><p>Bn c th dng PI=0 trong 2 trng hp. Trng hp th nht ch ra rng s phn </p><p>nh vt phm UPC phn nh cng ten l khc vi s phn nh vt phm trn cc </p><p>n v bn trong cng ten . Trng hp th hai l khi cng ten vn chuyn ging vi </p><p>n v tiu dng (s lng l 1). M UPC 12 ch s thp phn hoc m EAN 13 ch s </p><p>thp phn c c vo trng s 14 ch s thp phn trong phm vi 1 c s d liu </p><p>s ging m SCC-14 vi PI=0. S lng mt s la chn c dng m bo rng </p><p>s trn cng ten vn chuyn l ging vi s trn sn phm t nhin. Bn s truy cp </p><p>c vo cng trng c s d liu m khng cn quan tm n liu m vch UPC, </p><p>EAN hoc SCC-14 c c c hay khng. </p><p>Vic lp k hoch cho phn mm v h thng </p><p>Bn nn dng cc trng phn nh 14 ch s thp phn khi xy dng cc h thng </p><p>my vi tnh v ng dng. iu ny s ti a ha tnh hu dng ca h thng s dng </p><p>s phn nh UCC/EAN. iu ny s chnh c cc vn vi sn phm nhp khu, </p><p>h tr nhng thay i v cu hnh ca vic ng gi, v cho php s dng ton b trao </p><p>i ln nhau d liu in t. iu rt quan trng l bn a ton b m SCC-14 mi </p><p>bn ch s thp phn vo trong tp ca my vi tnh, ch khng ch phn phn nh vt </p><p>phm ca m. iu ny s chnh c cc sai li v s lng khi bn xy dng cc </p><p>h thng t hng s dng cp ng gi cao hn n v tiu dng </p><p>Di y l cc im quan trng hn cn nhc khi xy dng h thng s dng vic </p><p>nh s UCC/EAN </p><p> Cc k t ca h thng s khng ch ra nc c sn phm gc. Cc k t ca h </p><p>thng s ch ra nh c thm quyn nh m s cp m . </p></li><li><p> 8 </p><p> Cc qui nh k thut EAN cp n cc k t ca h thng s nh tin t EAN. </p><p>mt vi trng hp, tin t c th c chiu di gm 3 k t nhng m EAN vn </p><p>gm 13 k t. Hn th na, mi nh c thm quyn nh m s s chn kt cu m </p><p>vt phm v m nh sn xut m nh s dng qun l vic cp m ca mnh. </p><p>V th, bn khng th gn ngha cho cc phn ca m cp h thng. </p><p> Vic phn nh sn phm l duy nht cho sn phm . Khng cn thay i m </p><p>UPC hay xin m phn nh nh sn xut EAN v v tr sn xut hoc nc m sn </p><p>phm s c tiu th. </p><p> Bn nn duy tr y kt cu dng 12 ch s thp phn cho tt c m UPC-E 8 </p><p>ch s thp phn. Vic chuyn ngc v dng trit s 0 ch nn lm khi th hin </p><p>hay in m gi li tnh tip din vi m in ln sn phm. </p><p> Bn nn khng bao gi dng PI=0 khi s phn nh vt phm ca sn phm trong </p><p>a ti l ging vi m trn cng ten. Trong trng hp ny, PI ch l s thp phn </p><p>phn bit cc s lng trong bao gi tiu dng vi cc s lng bao gi tiu dng </p><p>ca ca cng ten vn chuyn. </p><p>CH THCH: UCC c bit khuyn ngh rng cc h thng ca M chp nhn m EAN-</p><p>13. Ngy nay, rt nhiu my qut lp t ti cc ca hng bn l M c trang b </p><p> c m EAN. Vn rc ri i vi nhiu nh bn l l phn mm c c s s liu </p><p>v phn ng dng c vit cho trng m s vt phm c 12 ch s thp phn. </p><p>ng nh vic ngy cng c nhiu sn phm vi m EAN s xut hin ca hng bn </p><p>l ti M, ngy cng c nhiu phn mm ng dng yu cu c m rng, yu cu c </p><p>cc tp v sn phm linh ng hn. Bn nn dng cc trng phn nh 14 ch s </p><p>thp phn khi xy dng cc h thng my vi tnh v phn mm ng dng. iu ny s </p><p>ti a ha tnh hu dng ca h thng s dng s phn nh UCC/EAN. </p><p>M t chung cc s phn nh ng dng UCC/EAN-128 </p><p>Tiu chun v cc s phn nh ng dng (AI Application Identifiers) UCC/EAN 128 </p><p>m rng ra n cc tiu chun hin c v m vch vt phm UCC, EAN v cng ten </p><p>vn chuyn bao gm c thng tin b sung v sn phm v hng ha chuyn ch. </p><p>M UPC 12 ch s thp phn s c dng phn nh cc sn phm bn l. M </p><p>SCC-14 s vn c dng phn nh chnh cc cng ten vn chuyn chun (mc </p><p>d chng ti s trnh by vi trng hp ngoi l trong cun s tay ny). </p><p>Mt h thng m vch c lp ra gm hai phn c bn: m (hay k t) ngi c th </p><p>c c c m ha thnh vch v m vch (cc mu vch v khong trng duy </p></li><li><p> 9 </p><p>nht). Chng 1 m t kt cu m AI v phn gii thch km theo ca cc AI xc nh </p><p>hin thi. Kt cu ca m UCC/EAN 128 c m t trong chng 2, v cc hng </p><p>dn ca h thng trong chng 3. </p><p>Cc AI l cc tin t dng phn nh cc trng d liu ca m vch. Mi tin t </p><p>phn nh duy nht ngha v dng trng d liu i theo n. V d, ta cp AI u tin </p><p>cho SSCC-18, mt s ng dng cp giao dch. AI ny c hai mc ch: </p><p> N phn nh phn cha ca cc cng ten vn chuyn c nhiu sn phm hn </p><p>hp. N lm c vic ny bng cch kt ni cng ten vi b giao dch EDI (trao </p><p>i d liu in t) phn nh phn cha chi tit ca cngten. </p><p> N c th c dng nh mt s duy nht (bin s xe) phn nh hng chuyn ch </p><p>hoc cng ten c th. </p><p> Chng ti xc nh cc AI cho nhng ng dng khc, v d: ngy sn xut v </p><p>ngy ht hn; l hng v cc s s ri; s lng, trng lng v cc kch thc hay </p><p>thay i; s n mua hng v thng tin khc c nh sn xut yu cu. Chng ti </p><p> c gng ht sc ti thiu ha </p><p> c gng ht sc ti thiu ho cc s AI bng cch kt hp cc yu cu ca ngnh </p><p>cng nghip ring bit vo mt gii php ton cu s dng </p><p>Vic la chn AIs da trn yu cu ca ngnh cng nghip trnh by vi UCC v </p><p>EAN. Thm vo , 56 cng ty v cc t chc thng mi c phng vn xc </p><p>nh nhng yu cu v d liu thuc ngnh cng nghip ca h. Chng ti xc nh </p><p>AIs p ng cc yu cu v m vch ca cc nh sn xut hng ho hon chnh v </p><p>vt liu th; cc nh chuyn ch hng ho, nh bn bun v bn l. Chng ti chp </p><p>nhn cc nh ngha v m ca lnh vc tiu chun thuc ngnh cng nghip hin c </p><p>mi ni c th. </p><p>Kt cu ca m AI cho php cc nh cng nghip xc nh AIs khi c yu cu mi xut </p><p>hin. Nhng ng dng m bn trin khai c s dng AIs hin c s khng cn b </p><p>mifai cc h thng ny s dng cc trng d liu AI mi khi chng c xc </p><p>nh hoc ri b h thng khng c mifai. Nu h thng qut AI khng thay i, </p><p>cc trng d liu AI mi s c phn mm hin c b qua mt cch an ton. Hy </p><p>lin lc vi UCC, nu ngnh cng nghip ca bn c nhu cu cn AI mi. </p><p>Kt cu ca vic m ho v m vch dng cho tiu chun ny l c tnh hiu qu v </p><p>khong trng v cho php bn kt hp nhiu AIs v d liu ca chng vo trong mt </p></li><li><p> 10 </p><p>m vch n (v mt k thut c gi l s trng hp). iu ny s cho php cng ty </p><p>dn nhn cng ten n nh du t ngun, trong m vch n, thng tin lin quan n </p><p>cng ten n . Bn c th qut thng tin ny trong sut chu k phn phi. Ch c </p><p>thng tin m bn yu cu ti hot ng ca bn, hoc trong ngnh cng nghip ca </p><p>bn, s c ly ra bt c khi no bn qut m vch. </p><p>Nu bn ang gi sn phm n nhiu ngnh cng nghip khc nhau, bn c th c </p><p>kh nng to ra mt nhn m vch n tho mn mi yu cu ca cc khch hng ca </p><p>bn. Cc nh ngha ca cc trng d liu s dng m v n v chun quc t s to </p><p>kh nng cho bn dng cc nhn m vch ging nhau trn phm vi quc t. </p><p>AIs v cc trng d liu ca chng c m ho thnh UCC / EAN 128, mt tp </p><p>hp ph ca m vch 128. UCC / EAN 128 cha mt k t khng phi l d liu </p><p>c d tr , M chc nng 1 (FNC1), nh l k t m vch u tin sau k t bt </p><p>u. Tp hp ph ny c d tr UCC v EAN dng cho tiu chun ny. S kt </p><p>hp ny gia ni dung d liu chun v thut kin trc ca m vch n cho ra tnh </p><p>tng hp ca vic m ho gia cc cng ty khc nhau. N to kh nng cho cc cng </p><p>ty khng cn n cc trng d liu c th lp trnh thit b ca h b qua chng. </p><p>Cc qui nh k thut chi tit cho m vch c nu trong "Qui nh k thut ca m </p><p>vch ng b AIM USA, m 128" sn c AIM USA, 634 ng Alpha... </p><p>Cc v d v chun AI dng trong cc ngnh cng nghip c th c nu trong ph </p><p>lc A v trong cun s tay "Tiu chun ng dng cho cng ten n vn chuyn" lun sn </p><p>c UCC. </p></li><li><p> 11 </p><p>CHNG 1 </p><p>NH NGHA CA CC S PHN NH NG DNG AIS </p><p>1.1 Li gii thiu </p><p>Khi cc cng ty bt u qut m vch trn cc bao gi, ch c mt m vch vi mt yu </p><p>t d liu l c qut i vi mi bao gi. M vch c tha nhn l lun ging </p><p>nhau, v thng tin qut c thng l m s UPC hoc SCC 14. </p><p>Thi gian qua i, cc cng ty nhn thy li ch ca vic m ho bng m vch v bt </p><p>u m ho bng m vch cc bao gi vi thng tin khc. Khi nhng ng dng ny </p><p>pht trin, s...</p></li></ul>