Taking it to Writing. January 10, 2014 Weber School District. Housekeeping. Be sure to sign roll Cell phones turned off and put away Sitting with team from school Write down ideas to share during discussion times 20 minute break at 9:50. National Commission on Writing (2003). - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
Core Standards Training
Taking it to WritingJanuary 10, 2014Weber School DistrictBe sure to sign roll Cell phones turned off and put awaySitting with team from schoolWrite down ideas to share during discussion times20 minute break at 9:50
HousekeepingWriting today is not a frill for the few, but an essential skill for the many. National Commission on Writing (2003) Turn and Talk what does this mean to you? To your students?
3Writing is the most difficult of all language skills.It is acquired the latest, mastered by the fewest, and learned with the most effort over the longest period of time.
(D. Johnson & H. Myklebust, 1967)Writing is DifficultTeaching Elementary School Students to be Effective Writers
Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Dept. of Ed, 2012http://ies.ed.gov/ncee and http://ies.ed.gov/ncee/ wwc/publications_reviews.aspx#pubsearch. Write Traits in a Process Model
Both cycles are important. Cycle 1 must be the first focus and be separate from Cycle 2 being the focus. Recursive and moves back and forth between the components of the writing process as the text takes shape. In Writers Workshop---Writing instruction is not haphazard and needs to be systematic and sequential and connected to the writing process.
6Writing well involves more than simply documenting ideas as they come to mind. It is a process that requires that the writer think carefully about the purpose for writing, plan what to say, plan how to say it, and understand what the reader needs to know. Teachers can help students become effective writers by teaching a variety of strategies for carrying out each component of the writing process and by supporting students in applying the strategies until they are able to do so independently. Writing ProcessGenerating Ideas what do I have to say?Setting goals for what purpose am I writing?Organizing ideas in what form will I express my thoughts?
Louisa Moats (2013)Planning InvolvesDevelop goals and generate ideasGather information from reading, prior knowledge, and discussions with othersOrganize ideas for writing based on the purpose of the textWrite these goals and ideas down in order to refer and modify them throughout the writing process
6 Traits Connection: IdeasStrategies:POW (Pick ideas, Organize their notes, Write and say more)Ordering Ideas/OutliningGenerating IdeasCreate a preliminary version of a textSelect words and construct sentences to accurately convey ideasSkills such as spelling, handwriting, and capitalization and punctuation are important when drafting but should not be the focus of students effort at this stage
6 Traits Connection: all traits except conventions and presentationStrategies:Imitation (models of exemplary text)Sentence GenerationDraftingMake content changes to clarify or enhance meaningReorganizeAdd or remove sections Refine word choice and sentence structureWord processing can make this easier for many students
6 Traits Connection: Organization, voice, sentence fluencyStrategies:Peer revising (?, ^)
Revision- Did I say what I wanted to say?Reading from the readers perspective: Is the message complete, logical, written with conventional symbols and grammar?Revising, editing: Did I say what I wanted to say? Did I reach my audience? Are the conventions respected? What will add interest?Review and Revision Involve:Make changes to conventions of written EnglishMake the text readable for audience and intended meaning clearerSpellingGrammar
6 Traits Connection: Word Choice, ConventionsStrategies:COPS (Capitalize, Overall appearance, Punctuation, Spelling)EditingOccurs at the end of the writing processPurpose is to share publicly in written form or oral form, or bothNot all student writing needs to be published but students should be given opportunities to publish their writing and celebrate their accomplishments
6 Trait Connection: PresentationStrategies:Peer Sharing (in pairs, listen and read along as the author reads aloud)Authentic audience(s) PublishingCritical skills for our grade level
Foundational SkillsBefore a student can be expected to write formally, they must be able to speak formally.Ways to support this:Require students to use formal language to answer questions asked in lessonsRequire students to restate part of question in responding Use sentence framing to support writing formallyOral Language Writing places multiple simultaneous demands on the writer. Mastering the foundational skills of good writing, including handwriting, spelling, sentence construction, and typing, allows students to devote more of their attention to composing written texts by utilizing the strategies and techniques associated with the writing process.
Foundational SkillsWhat are the foundational skills of writing? Language Standards include: handwriting (cursive and manuscript, spelling, sentence construction, and typing)
17Utah Core Standards (added components)Manuscript Handwriting (K-2)Cursive Writing (3-5)Reading cursive writing (3-5)
Utah Core Standards
Why do we need to teach handwriting?
Isnt keyboarding the skill needed in the 21st century classroom..?
1912/17/2013Handwriting 101: FUNdamentals of Written Language ProductionSelf-generated action, in the form of handwriting, is a crucial component in setting up brain systems for reading acquisition.
Karin Harman James, 2011Indiana University
Children want to write like adults. Writing is a powerful tool for communication!
2012/17/2013Handwriting 101: FUNdamentals of Written Language ProductionHandwriting Instruction IS ImportantStudents still need to know how to write by hand.Good handwriting makes a good impression. Handwriting is a foundational skill for literacy.Teaching handwriting boosts writing and reading proficiency.Students with good handwriting score better on tests.
(Handwriting Research: Impact On the Brain and Literacy Development, Zaner-Bloser, 2012)
21Handwriting IS LiteracyHandwriting instruction
Supports early reading and writing development through print awareness and improved letter recognition
Strengthens students ability to self-regulate all of their written work
Reduces the need for handwriting-related intervention
Leads to more effective, fluent, and confident communication
22Handwriting: A Basic Building Block of Literacy
Dr. Steve GrahamHow legibly and quickly students write letters influences their success in school.Most school work is still done by hand.
23HANDWRITING Boosts Writing Proficiency
More ideas were expressed and more complete sentences were produced in students utilizing handwriting as compared to keyboarding.
(Berninger, Abbott, Augsburger, & Garcia, 2009)Research Says
When kindergarten students are learning to write letters, teachers should have them begin on a vertical surface.
26We encourage sky writing. Because it is auditory, visual and kinesthetic .
Considering sky writing and modeling. Begin big and gradually work your way down to lined paper size letters. You might start in the air, become gradually smaller through markers or chalk board. Go down to the board letter cards. (Show making the letter the size of card) continually reducing size. 12/17/2013Handwriting 101: FUNdamentals of Written Language ProductionUsing Interactive Whiteboard TechnologyCan Enhance Gross-to-Fine Motor Skill Development
When kindergarten students are learning to write letters it is best for them to be standing at the board. So if you have students that are still unclear about where to start the letter, put them on a vertical surface. That way gravity will work for you and the children will start at the top and pull down.
2712/17/2013Handwriting 101: FUNdamentals of Written Language ProductionWhat IMPACTs Legible Handwriting? Posture
28The central concepts for handwriting are the same though out the program from k-6th. They are what I call the 3ps and the keys. 12/17/2013Handwriting 101: FUNdamentals of Written Language Production
How Do You Sit?
3012/17/2013Handwriting 101: FUNdamentals of Written Language Production
Schwellnus, et al., 2012 American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 2012
short (golf) pencils, Pip Squeaks
ball in hand
DO Model and Teach correct grip, hand preference and helping hand.Very young students cant be expected to write well-formed letters or to accurately size or space them.
Tip, Flip, Grip
Hold pencil in helper hand, tip up.Pinch tip with first 2 fingers of your dominant hand.Flip the pencil into your dominant hand using your helper hand.Grip by letting the other fingers fall in place.
Carols OT Notes--- Vertical surface! Anything can be placed in the hand a counting bear, quarter, cotton ball, etc. Wrist extension allows for a good pencil grasp. Therapists look at the underlying motor function as to why the hand is not grasping properly. There are easy things to develop an efficient pencil grasp. The Fine Motor Development book really has great ideas. This book is written by Mary Benbow OTR is a well known OT! Time is limited. Most pencil grasps are set by 2nd or third grade. It takes a lot of work and commitment on a childs part to change a grasp at or after this age! Children need to work on this in preschool, kindergarten and 1st grade. Helping teachers with the pencil grasp will decrease OT referrals. This is an easy FIX! Changing a pencil grasp takes timesometimes 18 weeks. 3212/17/2013Handwriting 101: FUNdamentals of Written Language ProductionAlternate Pencil Grip
3312/17/2013Handwriting 101: FUNdamentals of Written Language ProductionTake Time to TeachHow to Hold the PencilEarly on, children may successfully change a poor pencil grip.
Poor pencil position can cause fatigue and discomfort.
Model and reinforce a good pencil grip.
Letter Reversals are CommonFrequently reversed letters are b, d, f, q, j, p, and s.
Reversals are a developmental issue and will improve.Reversing some letters is a normal stage and is not a sign of dyslexia or another learning disability.
35Letters that are frequently reversed by young children include b, d, f, g, q, j, p, and s. It is important to remember that understanding directionality is a developmental issue, and will improve over time as left-to-right habits (and their exceptions) are formed. Reversing some letters is a normal stage and is not a sign of dyslexia or another learning disability. Teachers should not suspect a learning disability unless children consistently form a number of letters incorrectly, even after careful instruction and plenty of practice. Using continuous strokes in letter formation frequently reduces reversals. With a lift method, the natural choice is to make a circle, lift, and then make a line with the line following the circle. 12/17/2013Handwriting 101: FUNdamentals of Written Language ProductionAvoid programs and interventions that make handwriting more complicated.
Another programStroke Descriptionsvs.Simple is better.
`Handwriting 101: FUNdamentals of Written Language Production12/17/201336 There Are 4 Zaner-Bloser HW iTunes Apps
Spanish CursiveEnglish Manuscript
English CursiveUse Apps for Guided Independent Practice
Zaner-Bloser Handwriting - iOS Apps
3712/17/2013Handwriting 101: FUNdamentals of Written Language ProductionHandwriting Paper
Using appropriate handwriting paper enables supportive scaffolding and gradual release of responsibility
Handwriting 101: FUNdamentals of Written Language Production12/17/201338Prior to Learning Cursive Students Should Demonstrate:Near grade (2nd/3rd) level reading proficiency
The ability to write legibly in manuscript
The ability to recognize cursive letters
3912/17/2013Handwriting 101: FUNdamentals of Written Language Production
Three steps to an effective handwriting lesson:
TellShowStop and CheckWriteRemindEncourage and Monitor Self-Evaluation
NO MOREThan15 Minutes of InstructionPER DAY
5 Minutes of Direct Instruction10 minutes of
Guided and/or Independent Practice
Automaticity and Fluency
Unpacking Writing Standard 1
Unpacking Writing Standard 2
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