Teaching the Skill

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iu ny lm th no phn addresses two important issues: hai a ch quan trng vn : (1) how to teach and (2) how to (1) lm th no dy v (2) lm th no teach a skill in particular. dy mt k nng c bit. Lets Hy start with talking about an bt u ni v mt approach to teaching, based on Phng php dy hc, da trn discovery and learning through khm ph v hc tp thng qua experiences. kinh nghim. Teaching Ging dy Teaching is not primarily Ging dy khng phi l ch yu telling. It's helping other people ni. N gip nhng ngi khc learn. hc hi. That means the focus is iu c ngha l trng tm on the learners, not the teacher. vo ngi hc, khng phi l gio vin. Earlier in this handbook, we Trc trong cun cm nang ny, chng ti said that people learn best ni rng nhng ngi hc tt nht through experiencing something thng qua tri qua mt ci g themselves, so when you are mnh, v vy khi bn striving to teach something, you phn u dy ci g, bn are constantly trying to khng ngng c gng Get into the shoes of the Nhn ra nhng i giy ca learners so that you can bet- ngi hc bn c th t ccter understand where they are ter hiu ni h ang c and what they need from you v nhng g h cn t bn to learn the subject under hc cc mn theo study. hc tp. Develop learning experiences Pht trin kinh nghim hc tp in which the learners are try- trong ngi hc c thing to do something with the ing lm iu g vi insights or skills involved. hiu bit hoc k nng lin quan. Help learners realize what Tr gip ngi hc nhn ra nhng g they have learned to increase h hc c tng their comfort and confidence thoi mi v t tin in using an insight or skill in trong vic s dng mt ci nhn su sc hoc k nng trong actual situations. cc tnh hung thc t. Appreciate that learners do nh gi cao m ngi hc lm not have one set, definite way khng c mt thit lp, xc nh cch of demonstrating that they chng t rng h understand or know some- hiu hoc bit mt sthing. iu. Each learner is an Mi ngi hc l mt individual. c nhn. Teaching a Skill Ging dy mt k nng Teaching a skill is more Ging dy mt k nng hn objective and tangible in nature Mc tiu v hu hnh trong t nhin than, for example, trying to hn, v d, c gng teach an insight. dy mt ci nhn su sc. However, the Tuy nhin, focus is still on the learners; you tp trung vn cn trn ngi hc; bn

are trying to help them gain this ang c gng gip h t c iu ny skill and be able to use it with a k nng v c th s dng n vi mt sense of comfort and confi- cm gic thoi mi v confidence. Cng dn. In Exploring, skills often Trong Thm d, k nng thng come into play in an activity sit- i vo chi trong mt hot ng ngi uation, so it's important that uation, do , iu quan trng l you know how to teach a skill. bn bit lm th no dy mt k nng. This is especially important for iu ny c bit quan trng i vi activity chairs and activity com- hot ng gh v hot ng committee participants. mittee tham gia. Teaching a Ging dy mt skill involves five basic steps. k nng lin quan n nm bc c bn. Preparation Chun b The first step in teaching a Bc u tin trong ging dy mt skill is to obtain the necessary k nng hin c c c nhng cn thit equipment and supplies in suffi- thit b v vt t sufficient quantity so that the skill cient s lng cc k nng can be demonstrated, taught, c th c chng minh, ging dy, and practiced. v thc hnh. For demonstrat- i vi demonstrating and teaching, simulated or ing v ging dy, hoc m phng makeshift equipment is never thit b tm thi khng bao gi adequate. y . Preparation also Cng chun b means that you have carefully c ngha l bn c cn thn thought through how to teach t tng thng qua lm th no dy this skill in a way that causes k nng ny trong mt cch m nguyn nhn the learners to understand its cc hc vin hiu ca mnh usefulness and to gain the nec- tnh hu dng v t c phn vo uessary experience to acquire the essary kinh nghim c c cc skill. k nng. Explanation Gii thch The explanation serves two gii thch phc v hai purposes: (1) to introduce the mc ch: (1) gii thiu subject by giving some back- ch bng cch a ra mt s hu ground about its usefulness and mt bng v tnh hu dng ca n v application; and (2) to describe ng dng, v (2) m t the subject in a simple, com- l ch trong mt n gin, complete, and tantalizing way. plete, v cch tru ngi. The Cc explanation should create a gii thch nn to desire to become proficient in mong mun tr thnh thng tho the skill. cc k nng. Unusual facts or illus- S kin khng bnh thng hoc illustrations arouse interest and trations khi dy s quan tm v create an appreciation of the to ra mt s nh gi ca value of learning the skill. gi tr ca vic hc cc k nng. The Cc learners should be able to sense ngi hc s c th cm gic your respect for the skill and the tn trng ca bn cho cc k nng v importance of being able to per- tm quan trng ca vic c th mi

form this skill. hnh thc k nng ny. How to Teach a Skill Lm th no dy mt k nng Page 2 Trang 2 HOW TO TEACH A SKILL Cch dy mt k nng 22 Demonstration Minh ha This is where you actually y l ni bn thc s show how to do the skill. cho thy lm th no lm cc k nng. You Ban need to demonstrate each step cn phi th hin tng bc slowly and clearly so that the chm ri v r rng cc learners can easily follow you ngi hc c th d dng theo bn and gain confidence in their own v c s t tin mnh ability to acquire this skill. kh nng tip thu k nng ny. Practice Thc hnh This is the heart of teaching y l trung tm ging dy a skill to others. mt k nng cho ngi khc. In this step, the Trong bc ny, cc learners try out the skill under ngi hc th k nng theo your guidance and careful hng dn ca bn v cn thn coaching. hun luyn. Learners should have Hc vin cn phi c enough opportunity to try the c hi th skill so that they feel comfort- k nng h cm thy thoi mi able and confident. c kh nng v t tin. You should Bn nn be especially sensitive to the dif- th c bit nhy cm vi cc differences in how people learn. ferences trong cch mi ngi hc hi. Some participants in this prac- Mt s ngi tham gia trong thc tintice might be ready to go very tice c th c sn sng i rt quickly, while others will need nhanh chng, trong khi nhng ngi khc s cn to practice the skill more delib- thc hnh cc k nng hn deliberately. erately. Application ng dng This final step gives learners Bc cui cng ny mang li cho ngi hc the chance to demonstrate this c hi chng minh iu ny skill to someone else. k nng cho ngi khc. They H become the teacher. tr thnh gio vin. You are still Bn vn cn there in the role of a coach to c trong vai tr ca mt hun luyn vin provide help when necessary. cung cp tr gip khi cn thit. This last step should give Bc cui cng ny s cho learners the awareness that hc vin nhn thc rng they are ready to use this skill h sn sng s dng k nng ny in actual situations. trong cc tnh hung thc t. Time Balance in Thi gian d trong Teaching a Skill Ging dy mt k nng The most important part of Phn quan trng nht ca teaching a skill is having the ging dy mt k nng l c participants practice it. tham gia thc hnh n. There- Cfore, most of the time involved mi, hu ht thi gian tham gia

in teaching a skill should be trong ging dy mt k nng cn c devoted to practice. dnh cho thc hnh. The proper time balance is: S cn bng thi gian thch hp l: Explanation (hearing): 10 per- Gii thch (nghe): 10 mi cent of the time phn trm ca thi gian Demonstration (seeing): 25 Thuyt minh (nhn thy): 25 percent of the time phn trm ca thi gian Practice (doing): 65 percent of Thc hnh (lm): 65 phn trm the time thi gian Tips on Coaching a Skill Li khuyn v hun luyn mt k nng The following tips will help Nhng li khuyn sau y s gip you teach a skill effectively. bn dy mt k nng c hiu qu. As Nh you read each item in this list, bn c tng hng mc trong danh sch ny, try to visualize yourself using c gng hnh dung mnh bng cch s dng this tip when you are actually tip ny khi bn ang thc s teaching a skill. ging dy mt k nng. Be able to perform the skill C kh nng thc hin cc k nng well yourself. cng chnh mnh. Review your own experience Xem xt kinh nghim ca ring bn in learning it, and work out a trong vic hc n, v ra mt series of steps for teaching it. lot cc bc dy n. Keep the instruction personal Gi cc hng dn c nhn by working with an individual bng cch lm vic vi mt c nhn or small group and letting hoc nhm nh v cho php them teach others in this h dy cho nhng ngi khc trong ny small group. nhm nh. Size up your audience's abili- Kch thc ln khn gi ca bn abilities and personality traits and quan h v c im tnh cch v consider how the abilities and xem xt cc kh nng v lm th no personalities affect your nh hng n tnh cch ca bn teaching of the skill. ging dy k nng. If the learner is not familiar Nu ngi hc khng phi l quen thuc with the skill, go slowly. vi cc k nng, i chm. Insist Nhn mnh on accuracy first, then speed v tnh chnh xc u tin, sau tc (if speed is a factor). (Nu tc l mt yu t). Don't interfere when learners Khng can thip khi ngi hc try to do it on their own. c gng lm iu mt mnh. Don't Khng interrupt their efforts unless tr khi cc n lc ca h b gin on they bog down or go off on the h bog xung hoc i ra vo wrong track. sai theo di. Let the learners make mis- Hy cho ngi hc lm cho mistakes if this will help them mt nu iu ny s gip h learn. hc hi. Simply point out mis- n gin ch cn ch ra sai takes tactfully. c kho lo tn tnh. Never make corrections sar- Khng bao gi sa cha sarcastically or for the benefit of castically hoc v li ch ca

onlookers. ngi xem. Encourage the learners by Khuyn khch cc hc vin ca making remarks on their lm cho nhn xt v mnh progress, pointing out the tin b, ch ra completion of each step, and hon thnh mi bc, v remarking on the steps they phc kho v cc bc m h have done well. lm rt tt. Urge them to practice and to n c h thc hnh v teach someone else. dy cho ngi khc

unior bc s cn phi c nhng k nng thnh tho thc hin mt lot cc th tc, v khng c kh nng lm nh vy l mt cng thng quan trng i vi mt bc s mi. 1 K nng c th bao gm t vic thc hin nhim v thc t (tim tnh mch cannulation), kim tra bnh nhn (s khm thn kinh), giao tip tt (vi phm tin tc xu). Teachers rated practical skills teaching 11th in a list of educational