Term Paper.pdf

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Termpaper Songbidhan

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  • 1

    msweavb mskvabx (1973 _K 2014) cwZ evsjv`k

    Uvg ccvi

    cYqY, gvQvt Zvwbqv Avdwib

    Rv.we ivj t 9545722 Rv.we. iwR t 1566686

    Kvm ivj t 434

    Md t we

    RvZxq wekwe`vjq KZK cbxZ 2009-2010 wkv eli bZzb ckci aviv Abyhvqx AvewkK welq wnmve Uvg ccviwU Dcvcbi Rb cYxZ|

    Dc vcbvq t gvQv t Zvwbqv Avdwib wefvM t Abvm PZz_ el (ivwevb) miKvwi eMg ivKqv KjR, iscyi

    ZveavqK t Rbve gvt wgRvbyi ingvb mnhvMx AavcK miKvwi eMg ivKqv KjR, iscyi

  • 2

    gyLe

    Uvg ccvi cYqb Avgv`i cvVg GKwU AvewkK welq| GKwU Melbv agx wbe|

    GKwU ^vaxb ivi Rb msweavb Acwinvh| evsjv`k me c_g 1972 mvji 4

    bfi^ MYcwil`i gvag msweavb cYqb Kiv nq Ges cieZxZ wewfb mgq Zv

    mskvab Kiv nq| G mskvabi dj msweavbi wewfb avivq e cwieZb mvwaZ nq|

    GB cwZ ev e cqvRb gUvbvi j GB MelYvagx ccvi iPbvq Dz nqwQ|

    GwU GKwU weklY agx MelYvg~jK KvR hv cieZxZ mswk welq MelYvg~jK

    KvRi Rb eeZ nZ cvi| msweavb mskvab AvBbi cwZ Avgiv AbZ_

    RvbZ cvwi|

  • 3

    KZZv ^xKvi

    ce c iPbv Kiv GKwU KwVb KvR| G aibi KvR mv`b KiZZ wMq AbKi

    mvnvh I mnhvwMZvi cqvRb nq| G evcvi Avgvi ZveavqK Rbve gvt wgRvbyi

    inngvb wewfb mgq civgk I mnhvwMZv w`q mvnvh KiQb| wewfb mnvqK M

    cqvRbxq Z_ _K h evcK mvnvh MnnY KiwQ Ges m Rb Avwg m mKj

    jLK`i KvQ Avgvi AvwiK KZZv cKvk KiwQ| ZvQvov MelYvg~jK KvR KiZ

    wMq Avwg Avgvi mncvVx I evex`i AbK civgk I mnhvwMZv cqwQ Zv`i

    RvbvB AvwiK abev`|

    mekl GB MelYvagx Uvg ccvi Zwi KiwQ Ges G _K Avwg msweavb

    mskvabx t cwZ evsjv`k G welq KvR Kivi myhvM w`q Avgvi vbi

    cwiwaK cmvwiZ KiQ eY| m Rb Avwg Zveavbi wbKU KZZv cKvk

    KiwQ|

  • 4

    m~Pxc

    c_g Aavq t

    1.1| f~wgKv

    1.2| msweavbi msv

    1.3| evsjv`ki msweavb KZUv Dg

    wZxq Aavq t

    2.1| evsjv`ki msweavb iPbvi msw BwZnvm

    2.2| evsjv`k msweavbi mskvab cwZ|

    ZZxq Aavq t

    3.1| evsjv`ki cwZ msweavbi wewfb mskvabxmg~n|

    3.2| c_g mskvabx AvBb 1973

    3.3| wZxq mskvabx AvBb 1973

    3.4| ZZxq mskvabx AvBb 1974

    3.5| PZz_ mskvabx AvBb 1979

    3.6| cg mskvabx AvBb 1979 (evwZj)

    3.7| l mskvabx AvBb 1981

    3.8| mg mskvabx AvBb 1986 (evwZj)

    3.9| Ag mskvabx AvBb 1988

    3.10| beg mskvabx AvBb 1989

    3.11| `kg mskvabx AvBb 1990

    3.12| GKv`k mskvabx AvBb 1991

    3.13| v`k mskvabx AvBb 1991

    3.14| qv`k mskvabx AvBb 1996 (evwZj)

    3.15| PZz` k mskvabx AvBb 2004

    3.16| c`k mskvabx AvBb 2011

    3.17| lvok mskvabx AvBb 2014

    Mcw

  • 5

    c_g Aavq

    1.1 f~wgKv t

    AvaywbK weki mKj cKvi kvmb ee v kvmK I kvwmZi AvBbMZ

    mKi Dci cwZwZ| Avi kvmK I kvwmZi ga G mywbw` mK vwcZ nqQ

    mvsweavwbK wqv cwZwqvi gvag| myZivs `Lv hvQ: msweavbi gvagB ivi

    kvmb ee v cwiPvwjZ I wbqwZ nq| miKvii ic msweavbi vivB wbavwiZ nq|

    ZvB msweavb nQ GKwU ivi PvwjKv kw| msweavb Qvov Kvb ivB myzfve

    cwiPvwjZ nZ cvi bv| ZvB msweavb cwZwU ^vaxb `ki Rb AZvekK|

    1.2 msweavbi msv t

    (K) g~j msv t

    msweavb ejZ m me wjwLZ AwjwLZ gj weavbewjK eySvq hv ivi gZvi

    eenvi I eUb ixwZK cfvweZ Ki Ges wewfb cwZvbi ga m^ wbYq Ki|

    evcK A_ msweavb ejZ `ki kvmbee v wbqYKvix wjwLZ I AwjwLZ me iKg

    wbqgKvbybK eySvq| G wjwLZ wbqgKvbyb A_ AvBb Gi AwjwLZ wbqgKvbyb

    A_ cPwjZ c_v, ixwZbxwZ, AvPvi ee v cfwZ eySvbv nq|

    Prof. Herman Finer Gi gZ, The system of fundamental

    political institutions is the constitution.

    ivwevbx Leacock Gi gZ, Constitution is nothing but the form

    of government.

  • 6

    myZivs h mKj wbqgKvbyb I wewaweavb miKvi wKfve msMwVZ ne, miKvii gZvB

    ev wK _vKe, wKfve G gZv cqvM Kiv ne| miKvii wewfb wefvMi ga wKfve

    gZv eUY ne Ges G`i cvivwiK mKB ev wK neZv wbaviY Ki G`i

    mgwMZ icKB msweavb ejv nq| e Z msweavb Kvb iv ev miKvii h_vh_ ^ic

    ev cKwZ wbaviY Ki|

    1.3 evsjv`ki msweavb KZUv Dg t

    evsjv`ki msweavb KZUv Dg Zv Rvbvi Rb evsjv`ki eZgvb msweavbi

    KwZcq DjLhvM wewk w`Ki AvjvKcvZ GLvb GKv AvekK|

    c_gZ, evsjv`ki ivKvVvgvi ^xKwZ msweavb myfveB c` vb Kiv nqQ|

    evsjv`k hnZz Kvb AivR ev c`k bB| hnZz GLvb miKvii mKj gZv

    K `xq miKvii nvZ b Kiv nqQ |

    evsjv`ki fMvwjK Ae vb I AvqZbi ev eZvK KvhKifveB aviY KiQ

    evsjv`ki msweavb|

    wZxq, msweavbB evsjv`ki mevP AvBb| evsjv`ki f~L me GB msweavbi

    cvavbB ^xKZ|

    ZZxqZ, miKvii wewfb Ai ga fvimvg cwZvi Pv iqQ evsjv`ki

    msweavb| AvBb, kvmb I wePvi wefvM hvZ ^ ^ cwigj AwcZ `vwqZ h_vh_fve

    cvjb KiZ cvi evsjv`k msweavb mw`K wekl bRi w`qQ|

    PZz_Z, weki Abvb MYZvwK ivi msweavbi bvq evsjv`g msweavbi iv

    cwiPvjbvi g~jbxwZ mg~n wjwce Kiv nqQ| mekwgvb Avjvni Ici c~Y Av v I

    wekvm RvZxqZvev`| MYZ, A_bwZK I mvgvwRK, bvqwePvi mgvRZ G 4wU gj

    Av`k evsjv`ki msweavb iv cwiPvjbvi g~jbxwZ wnmve ^xKwZ cqQ |

  • 7

    cgZ, gwjK AwaKvii mwbek evsjv`ki msweavbK wewkZv `vb KiQ|

    RbMYi mvgi AwaKvi, Pjvdjv mfv mwgwZ, wPv I weeKi ^vaxbZv, evK-

    ^vaxbZv, mwi ^vaxbZv, agxq ^vaxbZv, ckv MnYi ^vaxbZv, `j MVbi ^vaxbZv

    cfwZ gwjK AwaKvi mg~n evsjv`ki msweavb wbwZ Kiv nqQ| Riwi Ae v

    eZxZ iv Rb mvaviYi Gme AwaKvi msiY eva|

    lZ, evsjv`k msweavb y`wieZbxq Ges wjwLZ|

    mgZ, MYcRvZx evsjv`ki msweavb GKwU we vwiZ wjwLZ `wjwj| msweavbwU

    11wU fvM wef Ges ZvZ 153wU AbyQ`, GKwU c vebv I ZvZ 4wU Zdwmj

    iqQ| GB msweavb `xN Ze`xNZi bq| wjwLZic evsjv`ki msweavbK wewkZv

    `vb KiQ|

    myZivs ejv hvq h, evsjv`ki msweavbi bgbxq cKwZ evsjv`k msweavbK mKj

    hyMB KiQ myhvchvMx| Avi G K_v Avgiv Mei mv_ ejZ cvwi evsjv`ki

    msweavb weki AbZg k msweavb|

  • 8

    wZxq Aavq

    2.1 evsjv`ki msweavb iPbvi msw BwZnvm t

    ^vaxbZv jvfi ci evsjv`ki MYcwil`i gvag c~Yv msweavb KvhKvix nq 1972

    mvji 16 wWmi^| wK Gi c~e ^vaxbZv NvlYvKvj (1972 mvji 26 gvP) _K

    ^vaxbZv ARb (1971 mvji 16 wWmi^) I 1972 mvji 16 wWmi^ ch Avgiv

    AeZxKvjxb y`wU msweavb cvB:

    1. ^vaxbZvi NvlYv c (10 Gwcj 1971)

    2. A vqx msweavb Av`k (11 Rvbyqvwi 1972)

    AeZx msweavb : evsjv`ki ^vaxbZvi NvlYv mb`K AeZx msweavb ej| 10

    Gwcj 1971 evsjv`ki miKvii MVbi c~e GB ^vaxbZvi NvlYv mb` MnY Kiv

    nq| evsjv`k ^vaxbZv NvlYv mb` iPbv Kib evwivi Avwgij Bmjvg|

    A vqx mvsweavwbK Av`k Rvwi: 11 Rvbyqvwi 1971 Rvwi Kib RvwZi wcZv eez

    kL gywReyi ingvb|

    MYcwila Av`k Rvwi: 23 gvP 1972 Rvwi Kib ivcwZ wePvicwZ Avey mvC` Payix|

    MYcwil` Lmov msweavY:

    Dvcb: 12 Avei, 1972 mvj|

    Lmov msweavb MnxZ: 4 bf^i, 1972 mvj|

    Lmov msweavb ^vi: 14 wWm^i, 1972 mvj|

    msweavb KvhKi: 16 wWm^i, 1972|

    msweavb iPbvi KwgwU:

    m`m t 34 Rb

    AvIqvgx jxM m`m t 33 Rb

    GKgv weivax `jxq m`m t 1 Rb (myiwZ mb )

    KwgwUi cavb t Wvt Kvgvj nvmb

    GKgv gwnjv m`m t eMg ivwRqv evby (eivev)

  • 9

    MYcwil`i m`m msLv t

    1970 mvji wWmi^ _K i Ki 1971 mvji gvP gvm ch wbevPbi RvZxq I

    cv`wkK cwil` wbevwPZ m`m gvU (RvZxq cwil` 169 + cv`wkK cwil` 300)

    469 Rb| G`iK wbqB MYcwil` MwVZ nq| Ze G`i ga wewfb mgq

    gviv hvq t 12 Rb

    cvwK vbi bvMwiK nq t 2 Rb

    `vjvwj AvBb AvUK t 5 Rb

    MYcwil` m`m (m`m c` evwZj):

    Av`k AvIqvgx jxM _K ewntZ t 46 Rb

    e`wkK mvwfm hvM`vb Ki t 1 Rb gvUt 66 Rb evwK 403 Rb m`m wbq MYcwil` KgZrciZv Pj| G`i g` 400 Rb wQjb

    AvIqvgx jxM Ges 3 Rb wQjv weivax`jxq|

    MYcwil`i 1g Awaekb t

    1972 mvji 10 Gwcj MYcwil`i 1g Awaekb em| GB Awaekbi 34 Rb

    m`mwewk GKwU Lmov kvmbZ cYqb KwgwU MVb Kiv nq| evsjv`ki AvBb gx

    Wv: Kvgvj nvmb GB Lmov msweavb cYqb KwgwUi Pqvigvb wbhy nb| GB

    KwgwUZ gv GKRb weivax `jxq m`m wQjb (myiwZ mb)| 1972 mvji 17

    Gwcj G Lmov kvmb Z cYqb KwgwUi c_g Awaekb em| G evcvi gvU 98wU

    mycvwik GmwQj| Zvi ga gv GKwU mycvwik MnY Kiv nqwQj|

    Lmov msweavb cYqb KwgwU megvU 74wU eVK wgwjZ nq kvmbZi Lmov ic

    cYqbi 300 NUv mgq eq Kib| wbRi avb-aviYv I mycvwiki AvjvK evcK

    AvjvPbvi ci KwgwU 10 Ryb kvmbZi GKwU cv_wgK Lmov Abygv`b Kib|

    Gici KwgwUi mfvcwZ Wv: Kvgvj nvmb Abvb `ki msm`xq ee v

  • 10

    AejvKbc~eK Lmov kvmbZi wU wbicYi Rb weUb, fviZmn KqKwU `k

    mdi Kib|

    AZtci wZwb `k wdi Avmj 1972 mvji 12 Avei KwgwUi mekl eVK

    AbywZ nq Ges KwgwU KZK GB w`b kvmbZi c~bv Lmov P~ovfve MnxZ nq|

    MYcwil`i 2q Awaekb t

    1972 mvji 12 Avei MYcwil`i Avei MYcwilai wZxq Awaekb em| G

    Awaekb Lmov kvmbZ cYqb KwgwU mfvcwZ Wv: Kvgvj nvmb Lmov kvmbZ

    wej AvKvi Dc vcb Kib|

    1972 mvji 19 Avei G Lmov kvmbZ c_g cvV G mvaviY AvjvPbv i nq|

    30 Avei ch Gi Dci mvaviY AvjvPbv PjZ _vK| 19 Avei _K 30

    Avei ch 10wU eVK gvU 32 NUv ai G AvjvPbv Pj| G mgq weji Dci

    gvU 163wU mskvabx c ve Avbv nq| wK gv 84wU mskvabx c ve MnxZ nq| G

    mskvabx c vejvi AwaKvskB wQj msweavbi f~jwU mwKZ|

    1972 mvji 4 bf^i Lmov msweavb weji Dci ZZxq I mekl Awaekb em|

    GB Awaekb MYcwil`i m`mMY n wjwLZ kvmbZi g~j AbywjwcZ ^vi`vb

    Kib Ges Aekl 1972 mvji 16 wWm^i MYcRvZx evsjv`ki msweavb KvhKi

    nq|

    2.2 evsjv`k msweavbi mskvab cwZ t

    msweavb mskvabx:

    h cwqv Aejb^c~eK Kvbv iv KZK MnxZ msweavbi wewfb welq MwZkxj I

    wqvkxj Ki Zvjvi Rb cwigvRb, cwieab, mskvab wKsev myhvchvMx Ki Zvjv

    nq ZvK msweavb mskvab ejv nq|

    msweavb mskvabx:

  • 11

    evsjv`k msweavb y`wieZbxq GK mvaviY AvBb cYqb cwZZ mskvab Kiv hvq

    bv| msweavb weavb cwZZ mskvab Kiv hvq bv| msweavb weavb iqQ h, RvZxq

    msm` msweavbi h Kvb weavbK mskvab KiZ cvi Ze GRb wbwjwLZ `ywU kZ

    cvjb KiZ ne|

    c_gZ, msweavb mskvabi Kvbv wejB msm`i weePbvi Rb MnY Kiv hve bv|

    hw` bv D