The Economics of Gender

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The Economics of Gender. Gender vs Sex. Sex: perbedaan secara biologis Laki-laki vs perempuan Gender: Characteristics as attributed that are socially associated with being female and male Feminine Masculine. What is economics of gender ?. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  • The Economics of Gender

  • Gender vs SexSex: perbedaan secara biologisLaki-laki vs perempuanGender: Characteristics as attributed that are socially associated with being female and maleFeminineMasculine

  • What is economics of gender ?Interaksi agen ekonomi dalam keluarga, perusahaan dan pasar, sebagai laki-laki dan perempuan berbeda.Hal ini dipelajari dalam economics of gender

  • Seringkali KeliruContoh: Angka Partisipasi Angkatan Kerja Menurut Gender seharusnya menurut sex (jenis kelamin) Upah Pekerja Industri Manufaktur Menurut Gender ? Padahal kita hanya menyajikan statistik lakilaki dan perempuan.

  • Kajian Gender yang BenarKajian mengapa Angka Partisipasi Angkatan Kerja Perempuan selalu lebih rendah dari lakilaki?Jawab: karena budaya patriarki bahwa lakilaki bekerja di luar rumah, perempuan di dapur dan mengurus anak

  • What is Gender Economics ?Menerangkan bagaimana perbedaan gender (gender differences) sbg pelaku ekonomi menghasilkan perbedaan keluaran ekonomi (economic outcomes) terhadap masingmasing jenis kelaminUkurannya ?

  • Ukuran yang DigunakanUkurannya: Pendapatan, penghasilan, tingkat kemiskinan, jumlah jam kerja dsb. Dan ukuran lain yang dipakai para ekonom untuk menentukan kesejahteraan ekonomi lakilaki dan perempuan (alokasi waktu lk vs pr).

  • Is Economcs Gender Blind ?Is macroeconomic policy gender blind?They persue aggregate goals, blind to differential impacts on all individualsGender SectorLocation

  • Isu Gender dalam Economi1. Pelaku ekonomi di masyarakat dapat lakilaki atau perempuan2. Mereka berinteraksi dalam keluarga, perusahaan maupun pasar.3. Dua hal ini harus dipelajari dalam ekonomi gender untuk dapat dikatakan valid

  • Gender BlindThe omission of gender concerns:Generates policy with inefficienct macro level outcomesGive unpredicted micro level consequences for women, children and families.So what ?

  • Isu GenderKesetaraan Gender yaitu kesetaraan dalam akses, partisispasi, kontrol dan manfaat.Sehingga: terjadi kesetaraan hak di dalam segala sendi kehidupan

  • Di masyarakat kita selalu bertanya mengapa lakilaki dan perempuan selalu berbeda dalam kegiatan ekonomi? Pdhl lk maupun pr adalah pelaku ekonomiMengapa pendapatan perempuan selalu lebih rendah dari lakilaki?

  • Mengapa banyak terjadi sex segregation dalam pekerjaan,dan apa akibatnya terhadap perbedaan pendapatan?Apakah peningkatan jumlah perempuan dalam pasar kerja menyebabkan peningkatan tabungan rumah tangga, meningkatkan household autonomy, atau perceraian atau jumlah anak sedikit?

  • Perspektif Ekonomi GenderPendekatan ekonomi yang menerangkan perbedaanperbedaan gender.Prinsip ekonomi:Pengambilan keputusan dalam kelangkaan sumber daya (Decision making under constraints scarcity)Bhw manusia itu selalu bertindak rasional, yi: Konsisten: bertindak sama dlm situasi yg samaVisioner: mempertimbangkan efek ke depan,jangka panjang dan dampak tak langsung dari tingkah laku mrk.

  • Tetap Gunakan Prinsip Ekonomi Scarcity, sumber daya terbatas vs keinginan tidak terbatasOpportunity cost, biaya kesempatan yang hilangMarginal benefit vs marginal costMarginal utilityMarket :konsep penawaran (supply) dan permintaan(demand) dalam pasar (termasuk pasar kerja)

  • Gender Bias in the Economic TheorySen (1990), suggested perception of roles and relative value may influence allocation resources within the household.Discrimination suggested that perception of both women and employers affect wage determination in the market (Bruce, 1989)Blinkers occure! What is these blinkers?

  • Blinkers and Problems in Economic TheoryBoundary BlinkersInvalid assumption about the nature and importance of boundary between the household and market is boundary blinkers (gender blind)Boundary blinkers, failure to correctly specified the base populartion for the measurement of economic activity.

  • Blinkers and Problems in the Economic TheoryConsequences:Movements of productive activities from household to market are intepreted as an increase in production because the basis for comparison is not the total universe of economic activity (only monitise)Taking account this problem:New household economics (NHE): time allocation

  • Blinkers and Problems in Economic TheoryClearly seen in:National accounting systemMeasurement of economic growthTransfer from household production is invisibleResult of boundary blinkers:Disinvestments in human resources, as efficient: transfer burden from public sector (out of monetise economy)Burden falls to household where real but nonmonetise cst becomes convieniently invisibleThis: false impression of net efficiency gain for both public sector and economy as a whole

  • Blinkers and Problems in Economic Theory2. Measurement BlinkersIs to take account accurate recognition of womens contribution to economic preoduction due to under enumeration of their participation in the labor force.

    Simple Microec theory asume work or not decision is only about allocation of time between work or leisure

  • Blinkers and Problems in the Economic TheoryMen and women have different activities, women also bear primarily responsibility for biological and social reproduction.Men: devide time between mutually exclusive activitiesWomen: engage multiple an concurrent activities (biological reproduction and child care: continual and large demand demands of time)

  • Blinkers and Problems in the Economic TheoryGDP, doent measure women and mens contribution, the lower the FFP for women, the lower the contribution and no particular importance.Womens contribution are overlooked and underenumerated (contribution to wealth and welfare of their family and community)

  • Blinkers and Problems in the Economic Theory3. The Specification ProblemProblem arise from the failure of conventional economics to identify and take to account the opportunity cost of womens time.Opprtunity cost of working includes:child care, domestic work, community activities.Nonmarket activities: treated as costless and ignored, it is unpriced resource.

  • Blinkers and Problems in the Economic TheoryThe key is to use opportunity cost of nonmonetise activities.Womens domestic activities, create human capital (health and education and quality of future generation) therefore contribute to economic production

  • Blinkers and Problems in the Economic Theory4. The efficiency ProblemFocus in microec: allocative efficiency, defined by pareto criterion.Pareto optimum: situation which not posibble to change allocation of resources without making someone worse off.At macro level: short term static allocative efficeincy is achieved when it is imposible to rearrange resources to increase total output

  • Blinkers and Problems in the Economic TheoryDynamic allocative efficiency: Long term resource allocationEffect gender bias:Acts as subsidy, unpaid household inputs are unpaid the true valueWomens unpaid family labor subsidised economic preoduction generallyUnequal acsess on control of resources.Inability to move between jobs, and to search higher returns, lack the incentives for HH to provide complementary physical capital or technology to raise womens labor productivity

  • Blinkers and Problems in the Economic TheoryValue of womens reproductive role undervaluedLower lifetime earnings, lead to no incentive to undertake human capital investment among women5. Contextual BlinkersIs blinked to the economic significance of social and institutional context in which economic activity takes place.Neglect the role: families, households, social and cultural norms, conventions and institutions. (important for women)

  • Blinkers and Problems in the Economic TheoryFamily and household considered as moral economy: individual decision to max utilityNHE, individuals operate using shadow priceValues, attitudes, social conventions, behavioral norms and cultural mores are overlookedNeoclassical economic theory assume: agents behave in fundamentally similar ways. Do they? They differ by norm, cultural and society values

  • Blinkers and Problems in the Economic TheoryThis blinker: made owmen to be ignored by social and institutions.Contextual blinkers: blind fact that social conventions are another source of allocative inefficiency, restricting free movement of female resources to their most productive use.By increasing social and psychological cost and reducing the benefit of market work for women.

  • Gender Differentiated Impact of Macroeconomic PolicyAffect household through income, prices of goods consumed, access to public goods amd household participation in production and work.SR: effects depend on role in householdLR: effects human capital formation, will change incentives or capacity to undertake longrun investments

  • Konsep dasar perbedaan lakilaki danperempuan dlm ekonomiMemakai ukuranukuran tentang pendapatan, penghasilan, partisipasi angkatankerja, tingkat kemiskinan, pembagian waktu rumah vs pasar kerja dllKajian tentang tren perubahan antar waktu memberikan ilustrasi pemberdayaan peremp.Dan mencari latar belakang terjadinya mengapa terjadi perubahan: mis. perubahan setting organisasi kemasyarakatan yg menyebabkan terjadinya perbedaan gender dlm semua aspek ekonomi

  • Berapa Banyak Laki-laki dan Perempuan BekerjaDiukur dengan Angka Partisipasi Angkatan Kerja (Labor Force Participation Rate).Bekerja = melakukan kegiatan untuk upah, gaji atau keuntungan (uang atau nonuang)Menganggur= tidak bekerja tetapi sedang mencari pekerjaan

  • Trend TPAKData tren TPAK memperlihatkan perubahan setting dan pemberdayaan perempuan.TPAK perempuan meningkat tajam, tetapi tetap lebih rendah dibanding TPAK lakilakiTPAK lakilaki relatif stabil, tetapi tetap tinggiMengapa TPAK perempuan meningkat tajam? (kini lebih banyak perempuan masuk pasar kerja, ini pemberdayaan perempuan atau kemiskinan?

  • Pertanyaan perbedaan gender(data USA, 19501990)Mengapa TPAK perempuan selalu lebih rendah dari pada lakilaki?Mengapa peningkatan TPAK Perempuan sangat tajam? Tetapi lebih rendah dari TPAK lakilaki?TPAK lakilaki stabil tetap tinggiMengapa tingkat pengangguran perempuan selalu lebih tinggi dari lakilaki?

  • Mengapa terjadi peningkatan TPAK perempuan kawin?Terutama TPAK perempuan kawin yang mempunyai anak balita meningkat tajam?Perempuan lebih banyak bekerja sebagai clerical work dan sektor jasaLakilaki lebih banyak bekerja di menjadi manager dan professionalLakilaki bekerja di pertambangan, konstruksi, transport dan utilities (listrik, telpon dll).

  • Keikutsertaan dalam Serikat KerjaKeikut sertaan perempuan pekerja dlm serikat pekerja lebih rendah dr lakilaki dan stabil, tidak berubahKasus perempuan yg ditangani serikat pekerja juga rendah (peremp 15% laki 20%)Tetapi ada tendensi keanggotaan perempuan dlm SP meningkat dari 18% thn 1950 ke 38%tahun 1990 (jumlh perempuan/jumlh SP).Apakah kita punya data tentang ini?

  • Gender Gap PenghasilanDiukur dari rasio penghasilan pr thd lkAda tendensi rasio meningkat, artinya ada peningkatan penghasilan perempuanPeningkatan kualitas kerja pr vs lk?Penurunan diskriminsasi thd perempuan di pasar kerjaShift struktur pekerjaan ke arah modern sector manufacture, finance, foreign tradeConvergence of occupational distribution of men and women? (pekerjaan bisa dilakukan leh pr maupun lk.)

  • Bagaimana Kesejahteraan PerempuanPenghasilan Pr selalu lebihrendah dari LKAkses PR terhadap sumber daya keuangan lebih rendah dr LK, tdk punya kontrol, tdk menikmati manfaat, tdk mendapat hak, ketimpangan gender, tdk ada kesetaraanLk dgn pendapatan tinggi cenderung menikah dgn Pr pendapatan lebih rendah. Msh berlaku?Dilihat dlm keluarga: gabungan pendapatan. Less variation of income at family level

  • Household as an Economic Unit

  • Kompisisi Rumah Tangga (livingarrangement)Difinisi rumah tangga (BPS)Komposisi: jumlah dan siapa anggota RTKeluarga batih (Ortu + anak)Keuarga luas (Ortu+anak+orang lain)Lain2: three generations under one roofBagaimana pembagian kerjanya?Siapa yang lebih berkuasa dlm pengambilan keputusan ? Kepala RT, KRT bersama isteri?, Isteri saja?

  • Keuntungan tinggal bersama vssendiri1. Economies of production belanja bersama, masak bersama dll (cost sharing)2. Internalisasi dr externalisasi3. Meringankan biaya transaksi4. Meringankan variasi utilitas karena resource pooling

  • Power distribution in householdMoney (yg bawa uang ke rumah lebih powerful)Patriarchy (helping husband maintaining harmony)ChildrenRenegotiation of power within a household (kalau suami isteri sama sama bekerja?)

  • Money as source of powerPartner yg membawa penghasilan lebih besar ke rumah, punya power utk ambil keputusanTentang halhal penting: beli rumah, mobil, perlengkapan rumah, siapa yang tentukan suami?Isteri, pengambil keputusan seputar anak, dapur,mengunjungi keluargaSiapa menentukan isteri untuk ber KB? Dan jumlah anak yg diinginkan?

  • Budaya patriarki dan pembagian kerjaIdealnya pembagian kerja yg rasional adalah seimbang antara lk dan prTapi budaya patriarki cenderung mengunggulkan lk sebagai breadwinner, diskriminasi perempuan di pasar kerja, menurunkan potensi perempuan untuk memperoleh pendapatan,seumur hidup tergantung suami, akses, kontrol dan manfaat terbatas, tidak ada kesetaraan, gender gap.

  • Double burden perempuan bekerjaMeskipun isteri masuk pasar kerja tetapi tetap mengerjakan pekerjaan rumah tangga, mengasuh anak, masak, nyuci dll.Suami? Mana egalitarianisme?Isteri bekerja : market and non market workIsteri melepaskan hak leisure timeLeisure time = non market good?, maka isteri mendapat share lebih kecil dlm HH total production

  • GENDER AND DEMOGRAPHIC CHANGE

  • Gender system: socially constructed expectations for male and female behaviour that are found in the societyDivision of labor and responsibility (granted different rights and obligation)Side effect: inequality power between sexes, autonomy, and well beingdisdavantage of females

  • Demographic change: change over time in a populationFertilityMortalityMigration (not a focus in researches)What specific variabel must be altered to influence fertility and mortality

  • FertilityBongaarts proximate detrminant:Age of women becoming sexually activePrevalence, duration and intersity of breastfeedingContraceptive useUse of abortion

  • MortalityMosly and Chen: 5 major proximate determianat s of infant and child mortality:Maternal factors (mothers age, number of previous births, intervalEnvironmental contaminationNutrient deficiencyInjuryPersonal illness control

  • Individual have important role in affectting fertility and mortalityDifficulties in studying gender and demographic change: no means unique to this topic, mkin strong causal inerence about gender systems and demographic change, complexity of gender system, varying role that of gender system apear to play under different circumstances

  • What DO We KnowFertility: female education and employement to fertility is consistant and robust than employement fertility (positive, nol)The relationship is greater among educated women.Female empowerment, reduces fertility and increase contraceptive use

  • What Do We KnowChilhood MortalityMaternal education: increase childhood survival by women becoming more self confident, communicative relationship with spouseWomens education:strongly related to chilhood survival: health care, hygieneWomens employment: increase resources to improve childrens nutrition or health carePartriachal gender system: elevated deaths among female children.

  • The Impact of Demographic Change on Gender SystemsHistorically, demographic change has also affected gender system changeHow?Lower Fertility: women have more fee time-enter LF, have higher education, have own income, more bargaining powerThe demographic regime: fertility below the replacement level and high life expectancy as precondition to gender change.

  • The Impact of Demographic Change on Gender SystemsScarcity of women: increase their value in marriage marketTiming of motherhood and marriage: strong effects on womens subsequent achievements and well being. (autonomy and power within family)Achievement of a modern demographic regime may be one pre-condition for changes in womens and mens lives that eventually lead to a less stratified gender system

  • HOW MUCH DO MEN AND WOMEN WORK ?

  • How much Do Men and Women Work? By age group, marital status, presence of children (USA, 1948-1992)Men:Participation decrease among youngger and older agePostpone entering labor market: schoolingRetire at early agesWomen:LFP increase, greater among married women, tripling among women with preschool childrenWhy ?Increase demand this increases their wage, draws them into LF

  • Part time Workers as % of Total Employment by Sex, 1970, 1980 and 1992

    WomenMenTotal197027,59,516,4198026,89,616,9199225,410,817,5

  • Percentage Distribution of Family Income, Median, Mean Family Income by Sex, 1988

    MenWomen< $ 50002,63,9 $ 5000 - 99996,59,2$ 10.000- 19.99916,919,2$20.000 - 29.99919,518,9$30.000 - 39.99917,316,1$40.000 - 49.99913,312,3$50.000 - 74.99915,313,0$75.000 - 99.9995,44,7 $ 100.0003,22,7Median Income$32.039$ 29.087Mean Income$38.732$ 35.542

  • Allocation of Time: % Distribution of Weekly Time Devoted to Various Activities by Sex, 1985

    WomenMenPersonal Care4444Leisure2324Paid Work1323Housework125Shopping43Childcare41

  • Explanation of Womens LFPDemand side:General rise in laborRise in education of womenSupply factors:Rising wages for womenChanging technology of nonmarket productionChange in family compositionFalling male wages

  • Explanation in the Fall of Mens LFPDemand sideSectoral decline in labor demand in sectors where men predominantly employed (manufacturing)Increase in substitution of female for male laborSupply side factors:Rising real wagesRises in nonearned income

  • Womens formal labor force participation lowest among all regions

  • Characteristics of women in the labor market

  • Characteristics of women in the labor market

  • Female labor force participation and higher overall employmentEmpirical evidence does not support the claim that womens increased labor force participation increases unemployment

  • HOUSEHOLD AS AN ECONOMIC UNIT

  • Percentage Distribution of Married Couple Families by Labor Force Status of Spouse, 1991

    PercentageHusband and Wife in LF54,0Husband in LF, Wife not in LF24,3Both not in LF17,0Wife in LF, Husband not in LF4,7

  • How Power is Distributed inHouseholdMoney as PowerPatriarchy on household sharingWomen care more in childrenRenegoriation of sharing rules

    **Left figure: For all countries in MENA, the observed rates of female participation are loweroften by a substantial margin than would be expected from the other characteristics of the female working-age population. This observation indicates that the potential to integrate women into the regional economy, determined by the past investment in female education and recent fertility trends, has not been realized. In countries for which comparisons overtime can be made, the ration improved between 1980 and 2000 in all except Tunisia, but they always remain lower than one. This improvement shows that many MENA countries are including their women in the labor force faster than they are improving womens education al attainment and reducing fertility. As education increases and fertility decreases, the expected rate of female labor force participation increases. If the ratio of the observed to the expected rates of female labor forced participation improves overt time, it means that the observed rate is growth faster than the rate that would be expected (on the basis of higher education and lower fertility. This progress is still relatively slow when compared to other regions, but it can be increased. (p. 62)

    Right figure: This figure uses female secondary enrollments as a proxy for average years of schooling. It shows that the massive investment in female education will not be achieved so long as female participation in the labor force continues to lag. In contrast, in regions where female participation is high, investments in female education are more fully used. In East Asia an Pacific region, for example, most women work, which implies that most girls receiving an education will use that education in their productive potential (as well as the other benefits of education.). (P. 68)*Left figure: For all countries in MENA, the observed rates of female participation are loweroften by a substantial margin than would be expected from the other characteristics of the female working-age population. This observation indicates that the potential to integrate women into the regional economy, determined by the past investment in female education and recent fertility trends, has not been realized. In countries for which comparisons overtime can be made, the ration improved between 1980 and 2000 in all except Tunisia, but they always remain lower than one. This improvement shows that many MENA countries are including their women in the labor force faster than they are improving womens education al attainment and reducing fertility. As education increases and fertility decreases, the expected rate of female labor force participation increases. If the ratio of the observed to the expected rates of female labor forced participation improves overt time, it means that the observed rate is growth faster than the rate that would be expected (on the basis of higher education and lower fertility. This progress is still relatively slow when compared to other regions, but it can be increased. (p. 62)

    Right figure: This figure uses female secondary enrollments as a proxy for average years of schooling. It shows that the massive investment in female education will not be achieved so long as female participation in the labor force continues to lag. In contrast, in regions where female participation is high, investments in female education are more fully used. In East Asia an Pacific region, for example, most women work, which implies that most girls receiving an education will use that education in their productive potential (as well as the other benefits of education.). (P. 68)*This figure is trying to debunk the myth that women take away jobs from men.

    First, higher unemployment rates for women than for men indicate that the employment of women does not displace the employment for men, and that there is not a simple correlation between the supply of female labor and the relate of male or overall unemployment. Empirical evidence shows that the direction of causality, in the relationship between unemployment and the increases in labor supply, is not straightforward. (For more discussion see page 77 of the report)

    The figure above shows that those countries that have a higher female labor force participation have also a lower rate of overall unemployment. And some countries with low female labor force participation are also those with relatively high overall unemployment rates.

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