The History, Scope and Structure of the United States Criminal Justice System

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<ul><li><p>The History, Scope and Structure of theUnited States Criminal Justice System</p></li><li><p>U.S. Criminal Justice SystemHistoryEarly Foundations:Kin Policing SystemCode of HammurabiJustinian Code 700 BCWatch &amp; Ward 1285 ADAmerican Colonies - Decentralization - Puritanism - The Watch Boston 1636Sir Robert Peel - England 1829</p></li><li><p>Criminal Justice in AmericaPresented to theCJ 694 Comparative SystemsByDr. Richard H. WardCriminal Justice CenterSam Houston State University</p></li><li><p>U.S. Criminal Justice SystemEntry into System</p></li><li><p>U.S. Criminal Justice SystemHistoryUnited States:First U.S. PD established in Philadelphia 1833First State Police 1835 Texas Rangers </p></li><li><p>U.S. Criminal Justice SystemHistoryUnited States:First U.S. PD established in Philadelphia 1833First State Police 1835 Texas Rangers LAPD established 1877</p></li><li><p>U.S. Criminal Justice SystemHistoryUnited States:First U.S. PD established in Philadelphia 1833First State Police 1835 Texas Rangers LAPD established 1877ISP established 1922First Police Academy in San Francisco 1636</p></li><li><p>U.S. Criminal Justice SystemHistoryThree Eras in American Policing:Political Era 1840 to 1920</p></li><li><p>U.S. Criminal Justice SystemHistoryThree Eras in American Policing:Political Era 1840 to 1920 Professional Era 1920 to 1970</p></li><li><p>U.S. Criminal Justice SystemHistoryThree Eras in American Policing:Political Era 1840 to 1920 Professional Era 1920 to 1970Community Era 1970 -</p></li><li><p>U.S. Criminal Justice SystemHistory</p><p>American Policing Today:18,760 police agencies796,518 sworn officers200,000 civiliansbudgets total $51 billion10 million arrests per year </p></li><li><p>U.S. Criminal Justice SystemCharacteristics of Law Enforcement Agencies76% of U.S police agencies employ fewer than 100 sworn officers23% employ 100 to 1,000 officersOnly 1% of the nations police departments employ over 1,000 officers1%23%76%</p></li><li><p>U.S. Criminal Justice SystemCharacteristics of Law Enforcement Agencies</p><p>Federal</p><p>State</p><p>County</p><p>Municipal</p><p>Director</p><p>Appointed by President</p><p>Confirmed by Senate</p><p>Appointed by </p><p>State Governor</p><p>Elected by </p><p>County Residents</p><p>Appointed by</p><p>Mayor or by</p><p>City Manager</p><p>Personnel</p><p>Civil Service</p><p>Hiring System</p><p>Civil Service</p><p>Hiring System</p><p>Civil Service</p><p>Hiring System</p><p>Civil Service</p><p>Hiring System</p><p>Education</p><p>College Degree</p><p>High School</p><p>Some College</p><p>High School</p><p>Some College</p><p>High School</p><p>Some College</p><p>Training</p><p>10 to 16 week</p><p>intensive academy</p><p>12 to 20 week</p><p>intensive academy</p><p>12 to 20 week</p><p>intensive academy</p><p>12 to 28 week</p><p>intensive academy</p><p>Jurisdiction</p><p>Enforce federal</p><p>Statutes</p><p>Enforce state law</p><p>&amp; traffic </p><p>enforcement</p><p>Enforce state law</p><p>&amp; county code</p><p>Enforce state law</p><p>county &amp; city code</p></li><li><p>U.S. Criminal Justice SystemSpecialized Law Enforcement AgenciesFederal:Federal Bureau of InvestigationDrug Enforcement AdministrationBureau of Alcohol, Tobacco &amp; FirearmsU.S. Secret ServicePostal InspectionState &amp; Local:Housing PoliceTransit PoliceSchool District PolicePort Authority PoliceFish &amp; WildlifeWater Reclamation</p></li><li><p>U.S. Criminal Justice System Prosecution and Adjudication</p></li><li><p>U.S. Criminal Justice SystemHistorical RootsEnglish Common LawAdversarial System - District Attorney - Public DefenderState SovereigntyAdoption of the U.S. Constitution in 1789 imposed federal on top of local system</p></li><li><p>U.S. Criminal Justice SystemHistorical RootsRights protected by the U.S Constitution:Right to Due ProcessRight to CounselRight Confront WitnessesRight to a Speedy TrialRight Against Self-IncriminationRight Against Unreasonable Search &amp; Seizure</p></li><li><p>U.S. Criminal Justice SystemStructure of the Legal System</p><p>Justice </p><p>Court</p><p>Municipal</p><p>Court </p><p>District</p><p>Court </p><p>of Appeal</p><p>State</p><p>Supreme</p><p>Court</p><p>U.S.</p><p>Supreme</p><p>Court</p><p>Jurisdiction</p><p>City or town with population under</p><p>40,000 residents </p><p>City or town with population over</p><p>40,000 residents </p><p>County</p><p>State</p><p>Nation</p><p>Function</p><p>First Instance:</p><p>Minor civil cases.</p><p>Misdemeanors,</p><p>Preliminary</p><p>Hearings</p><p>First Instance:</p><p>Minor civil cases.</p><p>Misdemeanors,</p><p>Preliminary</p><p>Hearings</p><p>Appellate:</p><p>Justice &amp;</p><p>Municipal</p><p>First Instance:</p><p>Felonies</p><p>Juveniles,</p><p>Child Neglect</p><p>Appellate:</p><p>Statewide</p><p>Plus all automatic</p><p>Death penalty appeals</p><p>Nationwide</p><p>Appellate</p><p>Authority</p></li><li><p>U.S. Criminal Justice SystemCorrections</p></li><li><p>U.S. Criminal Justice SystemHistory of CorrectionsColonial Period:Public HumiliationMutilation &amp; BrandingImprisonment - those awaiting trail - debtors - vagrantsCounty Houses of Correction established - Massachusetts Bay 1673 - Pennsylvania 1682</p></li><li><p>U.S. Criminal Justice SystemHistory of CorrectionsPublic Flogging circa 1776</p></li><li><p>U.S. Criminal Justice SystemHistory of CorrectionsCounty Work House circa 1776</p></li><li><p>U.S. Criminal Justice SystemHistory of CorrectionsColonial Debtors Prison circa 1</p></li><li><p>U.S. Criminal Justice SystemHistory of Corrections18th &amp; 19th Century:Theocracy weakenedLess emphasis on public humiliationPrisons became centerpiece of systemState Penitentiaries established in - Pennsylvania 1776 - Massachusetts 1805</p><p>Walnut Street Jail was the first facilityused as a penitentiary circa 1776 </p></li><li><p>U.S. Criminal Justice SystemHistory of CorrectionsNewgate Prison circa 1776</p></li><li><p>U.S. Criminal Justice SystemScope of Corrections TodayCosts of Incarceration:$25,000 per inmate per year$69,000 per elderly inmatelife term = $1.5 millionnew cell = $100,000</p></li><li><p>U.S. Criminal Justice SystemScope of Corrections Today</p><p>Prison population:2 million people incarcerated4.8 million on parole or probationOver 6.5 million, or 3% of the population under supervision of criminal justice system11 million people are booked each year (admitted to a locked facility)</p></li><li><p>U.S. Criminal Justice SystemStructure of Corrections </p><p>Jails</p><p>Prisons (State)</p><p>Prisons (Federal)</p><p># of Inmates</p><p>665,475</p><p>1,367,856</p><p>146,596</p><p>Jurisdiction</p><p>Cities, Counties</p><p>States</p><p>U.S. Government</p><p>Characteristics of</p><p>Facility</p><p>Usually holds persons</p><p>awaiting trial &amp;</p><p>sentenced under 1 year </p><p>Usually holds persons</p><p>sentenced over 1 year</p><p>Persons convicted of</p><p>Federal offenses</p><p>regardless of sentence</p><p>Characteristics of</p><p>Inmate Population</p><p>2/3 in custody for</p><p>non-violent offenses.</p><p>Half are awaiting trial.</p><p>10 million admissions.</p><p>53% of inmates are</p><p>serving sentences</p><p>for non-violent</p><p>offenses</p><p>89% non-violent.</p><p>2/3 are convicted of</p><p>drug offenses.</p></li><li><p>U.S. Criminal Justice SystemPrison Population</p></li><li><p>U.S. Criminal Justice SystemSize &amp; ScopeAmerican adults touched by criminal justice system on any given day1 in 142 incarcerated1 in 38 under correctional supervision1 in 28 admitted to jail in course of a yearPolice maintain 50 million criminal records</p></li><li><p>U.S. Criminal Justice SystemAlternatives to IncarcerationProbationIntensive ProbationDay Reporting CentersHalfway HousesBoot CampsFines &amp; RestitutionCommunity ServiceHome Detention</p></li><li><p>U.S. Criminal Justice SystemCrime Trends: Offenses</p><p>Felony:</p><p>Offense punishable by more than one year in custody</p><p>Misdemeanor:</p><p>Offense punishable by less than one year in custody</p></li><li><p>U.S. Criminal Justice SystemCrime Trends: Two Reporting Structures</p><p>Uniform Crime Reports</p><p>Tabulated by FBI based on annual arrest figures from each jurisdiction</p><p>National Crime Victims Survey</p><p>Tabulated by the Census Bureau based on random sample survey</p></li><li><p>U.S. Criminal Justice SystemCrime Trends: Number of Offenses in millionsTotal Crime is down 12 % from its peak in 1991</p></li><li><p>U.S. Criminal Justice SystemCrime Trends: Number of Offenses in millionsAssault 8%Burglary 19.4%Motor VehicleTheft 11%</p></li><li><p>U.S. Criminal Justice SystemCrime Trends: Number of Homicides per YearHomicides down 27% from peak of 24,700 murders in 1991</p></li><li><p>U.S. Criminal Justice SystemCrime Rate versus Other CountriesExcept for murder, victimization rates in theU.S. are in line with other developed countries</p></li><li><p>U.S. Criminal Justice SystemCrime Trends: Number of Offenses in millionsJuvenile Crime is increasing at an alarming rate...</p></li><li><p>U.S. Criminal Justice SystemCrime Trends: Number of Offenses in millionsJuvenile Crime is increasing at an alarming rate...</p></li><li><p>U.S. Criminal Justice SystemJuvenile Arrests as % of Total, by Crime</p></li><li><p>U.S. Criminal Justice SystemScope of System TodayCosts of Crime:$50 billion per year in lost revenue$5 billion in health care costs $65 billion spent on private security</p></li><li><p>U.S. Criminal Justice SystemCrime TrendsFor the last several years we have seen a dramatic decrease in crime throughout the CountrySome Reasons Why:community policing strategies- more cops on the street- problem solving approachincrease in prison population (3 strikes)demographic shift (less juveniles)</p></li><li><p>U.S. Criminal Justice SystemCommunity PolicingAn Alternative Policing Strategy...Addresses underlying conditions that create crimeRequires officers to draw on wide range of resourcesPushes decision making down through the ranksEmphasizes problem solving approachRecognizes expertise of line officersGreater public involvement</p></li><li><p>U.S. Criminal Justice SystemCommunity PolicingCase Study - Joliet, IL:</p><p>After Year I...Homicide down 25%Part I crimes down 10%All other crime down 5%</p><p>community involvementled directly to major drugand gang related arrests</p></li><li><p>U.S. Criminal Justice SystemPrivatizationGrowing fear of crime and dissatisfaction with municipal enforcement prompted upsurge in private security</p><p>Consumers and businesses spend $65 billion per year on private securityBy the year 2000 there will be 3 private security officers for every 1 sworn police officer</p></li><li><p>U.S. Criminal Justice SystemTechnologyHigh-Tech Crime Fighting:DNA TypingAFISCrime AnalysisSurveillanceLoJack SystemsGPS TechnologyVideo-equipped Cars Electronic Monitoring</p></li><li><p>U.S. Criminal Justice SystemInternational Cooperation</p></li></ul>