The Importance of the Construction Sector Low Carbon Technologies

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C Red. Carbon Reduction. Norfolk Association of Architects CPD Seminar 23 rd October 2008 Low Carbon Architecture. The Importance of the Construction Sector Low Carbon Technologies. Recipient of James Watt Gold Medal 5 th October 2007. N.K. Tovey ( ) M.A, PhD, CEng, MICE, CEnv - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  • ***The Importance of the Construction SectorLow Carbon TechnologiesNorfolk Association of ArchitectsCPD Seminar 23rd October 2008Low Carbon Architecture

    N.K. Tovey () M.A, PhD, CEng, MICE, CEnv .. .., - Energy Science Director CRed ProjectHSBC Director of Low Carbon InnovationRecipient of James Watt Gold Medal5th October 2007

  • **Solar ThermalPhoto VoltaicGround source heat pumpsBio fuelsImpacts of strategies on Code for Sustainable HomesWind/ Micro Hydro/ CHP generation

    Thermal MassEmbodied Energy/Life Time Energy Issues

    The Importance of the Construction SectorLow Carbon Technologies

  • *Responding to the Challenge: Technical SolutionsSolar Thermal EnergyBasic System relying solely on solar energyOptimum orientation is NOT due South!The more hot water used the more solar energy is gained.*

  • **Responding to the Challenge: Technical SolutionsSolar Thermal Energyindirect solar cylinderSolar tank with combi boiler

  • **Responding to the Challenge: Technical SolutionsSolar Thermal EnergyDual circuit solar cylinder

  • **Annual Solar Gain 910 kWhSolar Collectors installed 27th January 2004Responding to the Challenge: Technical SolutionsSolar Thermal Energy

  • **House in Lerwick, Shetland Isles with Solar Panels - less than 15,000 people live north of this in UK! It is all very well for South East, but what about the North?House on Westray, Orkney exploiting passive solar energy from end of February

  • * Responding to the Challenge: Technical SolutionsSolar Thermal Energy20072008Output from a 2 panel Solar Thermal Collector

  • **Responding to the Challenge: Technical SolutionsSolar Thermal EnergyOptimum size for a collector will be 2 3 panels depending on household size.In winter, limited solar gain Although few days without any benefit at all.Increased size of collector area increases gain in winterBut 2 panels already give too much hot water in summer.An optimum size in financial terms needs to be considered.

    Most cost effective solution and most carbon reduction in a Housing Association context:Have neighbouring houses hot water connected say 3 houses with ~ 5 panelsWinter: system supplies most (if not all) requirements for one house. Other two use conventional means for hot waterSummer: all houses have hot water solely from Solar

  • *How has the performance of a typical house changed over the years?Bungalow in South West Norwich built in mid 1950s

  • **Changing Energy Requirements of HouseIn all years dimensions of house remain same just insulation standards changeAs houses have long replacement times, legacy of former regulations will affect ability to reduce carbon emissions in future

  • **Changing Energy Requirements of HouseImprovements to existing properties are limited because of in built structural issues e.g. No floor insulation in example shown.House designed to conform the Target Emission Rate (TER) as specified in Building Regulations 2006 and SAP 2005.

  • **Changing Carbon Dioxide EmissionsNotice significant difference between using gas and oil boiler.House designed to conform the Target Emission Rate (TER) as specified in Building Regulations 2006 and SAP 2005.

  • **Improved Fabric / standard appliance PerformanceSAP 2005 standard reference

    Responding to the Challenge:

    ItemSAP referenceImproved Value 1Improved Value 2WindowsU-value = 2U-value = 1.4WallsU-value = 0.35U-value = 0.25U-value = 0.1FloorU-value = 0.25RoofU-value = 0.16Boiler efficiency78%83% default90% SEDBUK

  • **The Future: Code for Sustainable HomesImprovements in Insulation and boiler performanceCode 1Code 2H nearly makes code 3

    CO2 Emissions (kg)ReductionASAP Reference25040BBoiler = 83% (default)23775%CBoiler = 90% (SEDBUK)222911%D = 90%: Walls: U = 0.25215014%E = 90%: Walls: U = 0.10203419%F = 90%: Windows: U = 1.4211216%GC + D + F203319%HC + E + f191923%

  • **Responding to the Challenge: Solar ThermalImprovements using solar thermal energyCode 1Code 2Note: little extra benefit after 3 panels, but does depend on size of house

    CO2 (kg)ReductionASAP Reference25040BBoiler = 90% (SEDBUK)222911%C = 90%: Solar Thermal 2 panels dual cylinder206118%D = 90%: Solar Thermal 2 panels separate cylinder202719%E = 90%: Solar Thermal 3 panels separate cylinder199120%F = 90%: Solar Thermal 4 panels separate cylinder196921%G = 90%: Solar Thermal 5 panels separate cylinder195322%

  • **SResponding to the Challenge: Technical SolutionsSolar PhotoVoltaic Heating Energy consumption as new in 2003 was reduced by further 50% by careful record keeping, management techniques and an adaptive approach to control. Incorporates 34 kW of Solar Panels on top floorLow Energy Building of the Year Award 2005 awarded by the Carbon Trust.

  • ***ZICER BuildingPhoto shows only part of top FloorTop floor is an exhibition area also to promote PVWindows are semi transparentMono-crystalline PV on roof ~ 27 kW in 10 arraysPoly- crystalline on faade ~ 6.7 kW in 3 arrays

  • ***Load factorsOutput per unit areaLittle difference between orientations in winter monthsPerformance of PV cells on ZICEROn roof ~100 kWh/ m2 per annum In Norwich, domestic consumption is ~ 3700 kWh per annum >>> Need ~ 37 sq m

    Faade (kWh)Roof (kWh)Total (kWh)200426501940122051200528401980922649

    WinterSummerFaade2%~8%Roof2%15%

    Chart1

    0.020976970.02139854640.0213147315

    0.03351990050.03994295440.0386659675

    0.05233429630.07484060140.0703660541

    0.06279394690.11841615230.1073577316

    0.05665944470.14202334730.1250518889

    0.05318490880.15158389920.1320208952

    0.05060423690.12741367980.1121429597

    0.05079886860.10193094380.0917652197

    0.07182197350.10505364710.0984467565

    0.04277571820.04962398940.0482624637

    0.02402259540.02518167180.0249512323

    0.02108509870.02386969830.0233160836

    0.03460118760.03638839110.0360330717

    0.03304104480.04130935850.0396655097

    0.03611498960.05827573680.0538698909

    0.0674867330.12700272630.1151701698

    0.05813673570.13585225010.1204013911

    0.04641569670.13223121420.1151699689

    0.0417809340.11206538230.0980919163

    0.06416706980.12912480970.1162103629

    0.0759373770.10789441530.1015409388

    0.05645161290.05902528870.0585136084

    0.04863184080.04224794240.0435171447

    0.0178542770.02188371170.0210826074

    faade

    roof

    average

    2004 2005

    Load Factor

    PV_output

    Faade cell area51.9roof cell area189.0

    monthyearFAADE electricity outputActual faade per m2 of PV cellROOF electricity outputActual roof per m2 of PV cell

    January2004104.62.0429.92.3Jan

    February2004156.33.0750.64.0Feb

    March2004260.95.01503.48.0Mar

    April2004302.95.82302.012.2Apr

    May2004282.45.42853.015.1May

    June2004256.64.92946.815.6Jun

    July2004252.34.92559.513.5Jul

    August2004253.24.92047.610.8Aug

    September2004346.56.72042.210.8Sep

    October2004213.24.1996.85.3Oct

    November2004115.92.2489.52.6Nov

    December2004105.12.0479.52.5Dec

    January2005172.53.3731.03.9Jan

    February2005148.82.9749.54.0Feb

    March2005180.03.51170.66.2Mar

    April2005325.66.32468.913.1Apr

    May2005289.85.62729.014.4May

    June2005223.94.32570.613.6Jun

    July2005208.34.02251.211.9Jul

    August2005319.96.22593.913.7Aug

    September2005366.37.12097.511.1Sep

    October2005281.45.41185.76.3Oct

    November2005234.64.5821.34.333.76.727Nov

    December200589.01.7439.62.3Dec

    FaadeRoofFaadeRooftotalfaaderoofaveragefaaderoofaverage

    Jan104.6429.9Jan2.02.3Jan104.6429.9534.43125072.82.1%4984.82.1%200882.1%Jan2.1%2.1%2.1%2.1%

    Feb156.3750.6Feb3.04.0Feb156.3750.6906.92923455.23.9%4663.23.4%187924.0%Feb3.9%3.4%4.0%3.9%

    Mar260.91503.4Mar5.08.0Mar260.91503.41764.33125072.87.0%4984.85.2%200887.5%Mar7.0%5.2%7.5%7.0%

    Apr302.92302.0Apr5.812.2Apr302.92302.02604.9302426410.7%48246.3%1944011.8%Apr10.7%6.3%11.8%10.7%

    May282.42853.0May5.415.1May282.42853.03135.43125072.812.5%4984.85.7%2008814.2%May12.5%5.7%14.2%12.5%

    Jun256.62946.8Jun4.915.6Jun256.62946.83203.4302426413.2%48245.3%1944015.2%Jun20.0%5.3%15.2%13.2%

    MonthJul252.32559.5Jul4.913.5Jul252.32559.52811.73125072.811.2%4984.85.1%2008812.7%Jul11.2%5.1%12.7%11.2%

    37987Aug253.22047.6Aug4.910.8Aug253.22047.62300.83125072.89.2%4984.85.1%2008810.2%Aug9.2%5.1%10.2%9.2%

    38018Sep346.52042.2Sep6.710.8Sep346.52042.22388.730242649.8%48247.2%1944010.5%Sep9.8%7.2%10.5%9.8%

    38047Oct213.2996.8Oct4.15.3Oct213.2996.81210.13125072.84.8%4984.84.3%200885.0%Oct4.8%4.3%5.0%4.8%

    38078Nov115.9489.5Nov2.22.6Nov115.9489.5605.430242642.5%48242.4%194402.5%Nov2.5%2.4%2.5%2.5%

    38108Dec105.1479.5Dec2.02.5Dec105.1479.5584.63125072.82.3%4984.82.1%200882.4%Dec2.3%2.1%2.4%2.3%

    38139Jan172.5731.0Jan3.33.9Jan172.5731.0903.53125072.83.6%4984.83.5%200883.6%Jan3.6%3.5%3.6%3.6%

    38169Feb148.8749.5Feb2.94.0Feb148.8749.5898.32822646.44.0%4502.43.3%181444.1%Feb4.0%3.3%4.1%4.0%

    38200Mar180.01170.6Mar3.56.2Mar180.01170.61350.73125072.85.4%4984.83.6%200885.8%Mar5.4%3.6%5.8%5.4%

    38231Apr325.62468.9Apr6.313.1Apr325.62468.92794.5302426411.5%48246.7%1944012.7%Apr11.5%6.7%12.7%11.5%

    38261May289.82729.0May5.614.4May289.82729.03018.83125072.812.0%4984.85.8%2008813.6%May12.0%5.8%13.6%12.0%

    38292Jun223.92570.6Jun4.313.6Jun223.92570.62794.5302426411.5%48244.6%1944013.2%Jun11.5%4.6%13.2%11.5%

    38322Jul208.32251.2Jul4.011.9Jul208.32251.22459.43125072.89.8%4984.84.2%2008811.2%Jul9.8%4.2%11.2%9.8%

    38353Aug319.92593.9Aug6.213.7Aug319.92593.92913.73125072.811.6%4984.86.4%2008812.9%Aug11.6%6.4%12.9%11.6%

    38384Sep366.32097.5Sep7.111.1Sep366.32097.52463.8302426410.2%48247.6%1944010.8%Sep10.2%7.6%10.8%10.2%

    38412Oct281.41185.7Oct5.46.3Oct281.41185.71467.13125072.85.9%4984.85.6%200885.9%Oct5.9%5.6%5.9%5.9%

    38443Nov234.6821.3Nov4.54.3Nov234.6821.31055.930242644.4%48244.9%194404.2%Nov4.4%4.9%4.2%4.4%

    38473Dec89.0439.6Dec1.72.3Dec89.0439.6528.63125072.82.1%4984.81.8%200882.2%Dec2.1%1.8%2.2%2.1%

    52.9103.75489.839209.644699.4591232.87.6%117544.84.7%473688.08.3%

    PV_output

    104.566429.854

    156.31750.608

    260.8761503.398

    302.9182302.01

    282.4362852.965

    256.5642946.791

    252.2522559.486

    253.22222047.5888

    346.46922042.2429

    213.2284996.8467

    115.885489.5317

    105.105479.4945

    172.48730.97

    148.764749.517

    180.0261170.643

    325.5562468.933

    289.82729

    223.909321022570.57480399

    208.26962251.1694

    319.86000972593.85917692

    366.321906722097.46743257

    281.41185.7

    234.6821.3

    89439.6

    Faade

    Roof

    2004 2005

    kWh

    output_graph (2)

    2.01475915222.2743597884

    3.01175337193.9714708995

    5.02651252417.9544867725

    5.836570327612.1799470899

    5.441926782315.0950529101

    4.943429672415.5914867725

    4.860346820813.5422539683

    4.879040462410.8338031746

    6.675707129110.8055179894

    4.10844701355.274321164

    2.23285163782.5901148148

    2.02514450872.5370079365

    3.32331406553.8675661376

    2.86635838153.9656984127

    3.46870905596.1938783069

    6.272755298713.0631375661

    5.583815028914.4391534392

    4.314245106413.6009248888

    4.012901734111.9109492063

    6.163005967213.7241226292

    7.05822556311.0977112834

    5.42196531796.2735449735

    4.52023121394.3455026455

    1.71483622352.3259259259

    Faade

    Roof

    output_graph

    000

    000

    000

    000

    000

    000

    000

    000

    000

    000

    000

    000

    000

    000

    000

    000

    000

    000

    000

    000

    000

    000

    000

    000

    faade

    roof

    average

    2004 2005

    Load Factor

    429.854104.566

    750.608156.31

    1503.398260.876

    2302.01302.918

    2852.965282.436

    2946.791256.564

    2559.486252.252

    2047.5888253.2222

    2042.2429346.4692

    996.8467213.2284

    489.5317115.885

    479.4945105.105

    730.97172.48

    749.517148.764

    1170.643180.026

    2468.933325.556

    2729289.8

    2570.57480399223.90932102

    2251.1694208.2696

    2593.85917692319.8600097

    2097.46743257366.32190672

    1185.7281.4

    821.3234.6

    439.689

    Roof

    Facade

    Time (month)

    Monthly PV electricity generation (kWh)

    429.854104.566

    750.608156.31

    1503.398260.876

    2302.01302.918

    2852.965282.436

    2946.791256.564

    2559.486252.252

    2047.5888253.2222

    2042.2429346.4692

    996.8467213.2284

    489.5317115.885

    479.4945105.105

    730.97172.48

    749.517148.764

    1170.643180.026

    2468.933325.556

    2729289.8

    2570.57480399223.90932102

    2251.1694208.2696

    2593.85917692319.8600097

    2097.46743257366.32190672

    1185.7281.4

    821.3234.6

    439.689

    Roof

    Facade

    Time (month)

    Monthly PV electricity generation (kWh)

    Chart1

    2.01475915222.2743597884

    3.01175337193.9714708995

    5.02651252417.9544867725

    5.836570327612.1799470899

    5.441926782315.0950529101

    4.943429672415.5914867725

    4.860346820813.5422539683

    4.879040462410.8338031746

    6.675707129110.8055179894

    4.10844701355.274321164

    2.23285163782.5901148148

    2.02514450872.5370079365

    3.32331406553.8675661376

    2.86635838153.9656984127

    3.46870905596.1938783069

    6.272755298713.0631375661

    5.583815028914.4391534392

    4.314245106413.6009248888

    4.012901734111.9109492063

    6.163005967213.7241226292

    7.05822556311.0977112834

    5.42196531796.2735449735

    4.52023121394.3455026455

    1.71483622352.3259259259

    Faade

    Roof

    2004 2005

    kWh / m2

    PV_output

    Faade cell area51.9roof cell area189.0

    monthyearFAADE electricity outputActual faade per m2 of PV cellROOF electricity outputActual roof per m2 of PV cell

    January2004104.62.0429.92.3Jan

    February2004156.33.0750.64.0Feb

    March2004260.95.01503.48.0Mar

    April2004302.95.82302.012.2Apr

    May2004282.45.42853.015.1May

    June2004256.64.92946.815.6Jun

    July2004252.34.92559.513.5Jul

    August2004253.24.92047.610.8Aug

    September2004346.56.72042.210.8Sep

    October2004213.24.1996.85.3Oct

    November2004115.92.2489.52.6Nov

    December2004105.12.0479.52.5Dec

    January2005172.53.3731.03.9Jan

    February2005148.82.9749.54.0Feb

    March2005180.03.51170.66.2Mar

    April2005325.66.32468.913.1Apr

    May2005289.85.62729.014.4May

    June2005223.94.32570.613.6Jun

    July2005208.34.02251.211.9Jul

    August2005319.96.22593.913.7Aug

    September2005366.37.12097.511.1Sep

    October2005281.45.41185.76.3Oct

    November2005234.64.5821.34.333.76.727Nov

    December200589.01.7439.62.3Dec

    FaadeRooftotalFaadeRooftotalfaaderoofaveragefaaderoofaverage

    Jan104.6429.9534.4Jan2.02.3Jan104.6429.9534.43125072.82.1%4984.82.1%200882.1%Jan2.1%2.1%2.1%2.1%

    Feb156.3750.6906.9Feb3.04.0Feb156.3750.6906.92923455.23.9%4663.23.4%187924.0%Feb3.9%3.4%4.0%3.9%

    Mar260.91503.41764.3Mar5.08.0Mar260.91503.41764.33125072.87.0%4984.85.2%200887.5%Mar7.0%5.2%7.5%7.0%

    Apr302.92302.02604.9Apr5.812.2Apr302.92302.02604.9302426410.7%48246.3%1944011.8%Apr10.7%6.3%11.8%10.7%

    May282.42853.03135.4May5.415.1May282.42853.03135.43125072.812.5%4984.85.7%2008814.2%May12.5%5.7%14.2%12.5%

    Jun256.62946.83203.4Jun4.915.6Jun256.62946.83203.4302426413.2%48245.3%1944015.2%Jun20.0%5.3%15.2%13.2%

    MonthJul252.32559.52811.7Jul4.913.5Jul252.32559.52811.73125072.811.2%4984.85.1%2008812.7%Jul11.2%5.1%12.7%11.2%

    37987Aug253.22047.62300.8Aug4.910.8Aug253.22047.62300.83125072.89.2%4984.85.1%2008810.2%Aug9.2%5.1%10.2%9.2%

    38018Sep346.52042.22388.7Sep6.710.8Sep346.52042.22388.730242649.8%48247.2%1944010.5%Sep9.8%7.2%10.5%9.8%

    38047Oct213.2996.81210.1Oct4.15.3Oct213.2996.81210.13125072.84.8%4984.84.3%200885.0%Oct4.8%4.3%5.0%4.8%

    38078Nov115.9489.5605.4Nov2.22.6Nov115.9489.5605.430242642.5%48242.4%194402.5%Nov2.5%2.4%2.5%2.5%

    38108Dec105.1479.5584.6Dec2.02.5Dec105.1479.5584.63125072.82.3%4984.82.1%200882.4%Dec2.3%2.1%2.4%2.3%

    38139Jan172.5731.0903.5Jan3.33.9Jan172.5731.0903.53125072.83.6%4984.83.5%200883.6%Jan3.6%3.5%3.6%3.6%

    38169Feb148.8749.5898.3Feb2.94.0Feb148.8749.5898.32822646.44.0%4502.43.3%181444.1%Feb4.0%3.3%4.1%4.0%

    38200Mar180.01170.61350.7Mar3.56.2Mar180.01170.61350.731250...